Pacifist Journal 9 Edition

 

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PACIFIST JOURNAL CHIEF-DIRECTOR: DENISE RUMAN EDITION Nº 9 - OCTOBER - 2014 PACIFIST JOURNAL STARTS HIS POLITICAL ALIANCES FOR WORLD PEACE AND HUMANITARY WORK, WITH PARTNERSHIP, LINKINGS AND COALITIONS WITH ORGANISMS AND PEOPLE OF THE HIGHEST HUMANITY SPIRITUAL HIERARCHY ... THOSE ONES WHO ACT ALONGSIDE THE MOST ELEVATED POLITICAL-SOCIAL ORGANISMS, AND TOGETHER WITH THE ONES WHO FIGHT FOR WORLD PEACE AROUND THE WORLD: PEACE AMBASSADORS SPREAD ALL AROUND THE PLANET PACIFIST JOURNAL STARTS ITS FIGHT THOGHETER WITH THE HIGHEST COUNCILS FOR WORLD PEACE: UNITED NATIONS COMMISSIONER AND COUNCILS TO FIGHT FOR A FAIRER HUMANITY PACIFIST JOURNAL STARTS ITS EFFECTIVE AND DEFINITE FIGHT FOR WORLD PEACE, CREATING REVOLUCIONARY THEORIES AND IDEAS, SO THAT ORGANISMS AND SUMMITS OF THE COUNTRIES CAN LISTEN TO THIS AUDIBLE CRIES, AND ACCEPT OUR IDEAS AND REQUESTS, THROUGH LAW PROJETCS, SO THEY BECOME EFFECTIVELY DECREE-LAWS, IN FAVOR OF A HAPPIER HUMANITY, WITHOUT SUFFERING AND VIOLENCES. WE PUBLISH, IN THIS EDITION, ALL THE DELIBERATIVE ORGANISM FUNCIONING, WHO WORKS FOR HUMANITY, UNO´S GENERAL MEETING AND SECURITY COUNCIL , ALONG WITH THE HUMAN RIGHTS DECLARATION, SO THAT WE CAN EFFECT THE ACCEPTANCE, FROM THE COMPETENT AUTHORITIES, OF OUR HIGHEST HUMANITARY REQUESTS FOR WORLD PEACE AND FOR THE HUMANITY´S WELL BEING. JOURNAL PACIFIST JOINS UN – UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION, TO WORK FOR A FAIRER AND HAPPIER HUMANITY, TO BRING IMPROVEMENTS IN JUSTICE, EDUCATION AND HEALTH FIELDS. PACIFIST JOURNAL JOINS IMPORTANT ORGANISMS LINKED TO UNO, WHICH ARE UNESCO (United Nations Organization for Education, Science and Culture), A WHO (World Health Organization), WFP (World Food Program), UNICEF (United Nations Fund for Infancy), TO WORK FOR A HEALTHIER AND HAPPIER HUMANITY. ÍNDEX PACIFIST NEWSPAPER IN PARTNERSHIP WITH MOROCCO COUNTRY: MAKE PEACE EDITORIAL...............................02 ZAKARIA EL HAMEL is PARTNER PARTNER AND NEWSPAPER PACIFIST IN MOROCCO, THE CONTINENT OF AFRICA WHERE THE NEWSPAPER PACIFIST founded A POLÍTIC....................................04 BRANCH IN BRIEF (Pacifist JOURNAL). HE IS PRESIDENT AND FOUNDER OF YOUHEALTH....................................26 TH FOR PEACE (THE YOUTH PEACE) DEFENDER OF PEACE AND HUMAN RIGHTS, ACTING DIRECTLY TO THE COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS IN UN (IMAGE), EDUCATION............................31 HUMAN RIGHTS IN SUMMIT (PHOTO) BEHAVIOR...............................32 SPORTS....................................33 MEMBER Anna Lindh Foundation (PG). INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT MEMBER OF THE (INTERNATIONAL COURT LAISURE AND CULTURE....34 CRMINAL) - PG. RELIGION............................... 35 IN THIS ISSUE CONSTA YOUR INTERVIEW, WHICH IS DIVIDED BY RELATED inserts, POEMS AND POETRY..........41 exposing ALL YOUR WORK FOR TRIBUTE...................................42 WORLD PEACE.

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EXPEDIENT Director-Chief Denise Ruman EDITORIAL PACIFIST JOURNAL, as all institutions, nations, people and persons who propagate and fight for WORLD PEACE, begins its journey of victories and acknowledgments, including international ones, from now on, as well as the most elegant and noble partnerships with PEACE AMBASSADORS, spread all around the planet, belonging to all peoples and nations... AMBASSADORS that will begin their journey United to PACIFIST JOURNAL, from this edition, to fight for a fairer humanity all around EARTH planet! This new and great STEP OF PACIFIST JOURNAL enhances humanity, through its words of light from the most remote and proximate partnerships and socioeconomic and political alliances, to WORLD PEACE. A truly LIGHT BROTHERHOOD joins, from now on, to spread illumination to this humanity, thirsty for light. PACIFIST JOURNAL and its great staff, who enhances the face or the earth. Thanks these partnerships and, endorses, and promises to work more FOR A FAIRER , HEALTHIER AND HAPPIER HUMANITY. Reminding that these PEACE AMBASSADORS, spread all around the planet, are in direct connection with organisms of WORLDLY importance, like UNO and EU, fighting for HUMAN RIGHTS! Great PEACE TO ALL OF YOU ALWAYS Responsible businesswoman Denise Ruman Fhotos Shutterstock º Internet (Google) Grafic Design Anúncios Rogério Yashuo Saito 30210524 | 996370774 Diagramação Jeff Ouro (84) 9692-6342 | 2010-3549 www.solarisfilmes.com.br Writing º Denise Ruman º Ana Cecília S C Rodrigues º Babalawo Ifasen Oyekanmi Oyekale º Jeff Alves º João Pedro Simas º.José Antonio Souza Pinto º José Cardoso Salvador º Lawrence Luis da Silva º Levi Leonel de Souza º Luiz Roberto Mattos º Marcelo Del Debbio º Marcel C. de Siqueira º Maria Glaci Ferreira º Marlene Pizoni Teixeira º Mohammad Monerul Ahasan º Ortiz Belo º PH Alves º Ronaldo Faria (in memoriam) º Sérgio Pacca º Shamim Ahmed º Suely Firmino Firmino º Wesley D’Amico º Zakaria El Hamel º Zelinda Orlandi Hypolito To Advertise Telefone +55 (11) 3021-5130 E-mails jornalpacifista@hotmail.com pacifistajornal@gmail.com Site www.jornalpacifista.com.br www.pacifistjournal.com Denise Ruman NOW WE ARE IN FULL COMMUNION AND PARTNERSHIP, WITH PACIFIST JOURNAL, THE UNIVERSAL CIRCLE OF PEACE AMBASSADORS, ENTITY LINKED TO UNESCO, EUROPEAN UNION AND UNO, WITH PACIFIST JOURNAL, WHOSE OBJECTIVE, AS WELL AS THE ONE OF OUR PACIFIST JOURNAL, IS TO PROMOTE PEACE ON THE WHOLE PLANET PEACE FOR PEACE TO PEACE... IS ONE OF OUR SLOGANS PACIFIST DESOLATED TEENAGER...MAYBE, WAITING FOR A BETTER, FAIRER AND HAPPIER WORLD! JOURNAL STAFF PACIFIST JOURNAL

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Pacifist Journal - Edition nº 9 | 3 WE ARE 100% AGAINST ANY WEAPON! FOR DISARMING OF NATIONS OF NOT MANUFACTURING ANY MORE ARMAMENT AND OF GATHERING AND INCINERATING ALL THE EXISTENT WEAPONS! FROM THIS POINT TOTAL PEACE FOR SURE WHILE THERE IS ‘ONE’ WEAPON VIOLENCE WILL PERPETUATE... THAT ISSUING LAW-PROJECT AND LAW-DECREE IN THIS WAY CAN HAPPEN IN A DIALECTIC PROCESS...” DENISE RUMAN CHIEF-DIRECTOR PACIFIST JOURNAL

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Pacifist Journal - Edition nº 9 | 4 MESSENGERS FOR PEACE Wikipédia Acknowledged by humanity heart as a net of honored eminent men and women for good Works and virtue they are called goodwill ambassadors. Ambassadors were employees (or not officially), part of governments and cultures as for diplomacy; changing presents, relieving human being, or helping development, using well known celebrities, scientists, authors, activists, and other society figures. MESSENGERS FOR PEACE CIRCLE – SWEDEN/ FRANCE President GABRIELLE SIMOND Messengers for Peace Universal Circle aims to: “ Create A UNIVERSAL RELATION OF PEACE” among Authors, Artisans and Peace Organizations And International Peace Families, simply! Messengers of Peace are By the Founder President: Jean Paul Nouchi After a meeting of our Universal Circle of Messangers for Peace, we propose you make part of our Embassy, which major aim is: Work for PEACE and to PEACE! Following our actions for Peace, we will be happy to count on you among us. To consecrate. Universal Circle of Peace Messengers and 1st Peace Universal Embassy JP Nouchi CP 417 1211 GENEVE 19 Suísse Il n’y a pas de mots qui peuvent exprimer la taille de ma joie,d’enthousiasme et de gratitude! Utilisez le nom de l’Association Respeitada toujoursleader de la paix et l’amour universel! Je ne peux que répéter que je suis heureux! Félicitations pour le travail merveilleux qui inspire le respect et l’admiration! . À nouveau, je vous remercie pour l’invitation. Toujours un plaisir, un baiser Dear Mrs. Gabrielle Simond There are no words with wich express my happiness, emotion and Gratitude! I will use the name of the Respectful Association Always taking Peace and Universal Love! I Congratulate you for your brillant work And make available my Websites and my work at your disposition. I can only reafirm I am completely Grateful and Honored! Thank you very much Respectfully *Elizabeth Misciasci Cercle Universel Des Ambassadeurs De La Paix - Suisse/France Font: >www.eunanet.net/beth/ index.php PACIFIST JOURNAL JOINS UNO, THROUGH THE PEACE AMBASSADORS, BELONGING TO THE PEACE AMBASSADORS CIRCLE OF THE WHOLE PLANET, TO WORK FOR A FAIRER AND HAPPIER HUMANITY Goodwill countries missions are normally performed or checked by State Chief, and not necessarily implies diplomatic credentials besides a presentation letter (or credit letter). However some States really issue credentials that include diplomatic immunity of nominated by their acts, its goodwill ambassa- Spirit, Words, and They become alive examples dors. of Peace, Fraternity, huMany governmental or- manism, in daily life. They are alive exemples ganizations, multilateral of PEACE, wherever non-governmental ones, thery are, into familiar and the ones without cotidien. profit goal use goodwill ambassadors to promote As welll as professional, their programs and give associative – where they a hand to other programs are, into regional field, which are based on good as ell as National one and relations that are nor- worldwide. They are alive torches of mally mundane a nonUniversal and eternal Pepolitical. Among the ace spirit! organizations which use goodwill ambassadors “All the ones that work to deliver their agendas, for Peace form one same are United Nations, Uni- Spirit, one same Soul, ted Nations organiza- one same Body, one same tions, African Union and heart, One same Universal others. Family.’Uma mesma Família Universal.” United Nations office, in Genève, is the UNO European headquarters – the other headquarter is established in New York. The building complex, called Palais des Nations, hosts UNO´s Human Rights Council, as well as the High Commissioners of Human Rights office, among other organisms. The MOROCCO COUNTRY IN PARTNERSHIP WITH THE NEWSPAPER PACIFIST: MAKE PEACE !!! Universal Circle of Messangers for Peace came up on August 03, 2004 at Ambilly France, official journal, August 28, 2004, number 1019. Universal Embassy for Peace was funded on October 14, 2005 at Ambilly, France, official journal of November 05, 2005, number 1085, being the coordination point of Messangers for Peace of our organization. Independent Association in 102 countries. *Gabrielle Simond Zakaria El Hamel / MARROCOS SPECIAL EDITION OF THIS NEWSPAPER >www.jornalista.eunanet. PACIFIST SPACE OPENS TO A LARGE, NOUnniversal Circle of Mes- net BLE AND IMPORTANT INFLUENCE WORLD sangers for Peace and & PEACE: ZAKARIA EL HAMEL, MOROCCO, Universal Peace Embassy >www.reticencias.blogAND THE COMPANY AND ITS PARTNERSHIP se.com.br/ WITH THE NEWSPAPER PACIFIST, AND THE ‘Gabrielle Simond illustre IMPORTANCE OF THEIR ACTIVITIES WI>www.revistazap.org Madame’, THIN THE UN AS DEFENDER OF HUMAN Monsieur, RIGHTS ...

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Pacifist Journal - Edition nº 9 | 5 Zakaria El Hamel is a backgrounds can come promote the continuous Human Rights in celebrayoung Moroccan human rights activist and peace advocate. He is president and founder of Youth for Peace and Dialogue between Cultures [Youth for Peace and Dialogue among Cultures], a nonprofit organization whose mission is to build a world where young people of different religions and together to generate kno- and daily cooperation wledge about and serving between beliefs to end their communities. violence motivated by religion and build cultures In 2010, he was appointed of peace, justice and heAmbassador to the United aling for the Earth and all Religions Initiative [Uni- living beings. ted Religions Initiative] in the Middle East and As an Ambassador of PeNorth Africa region. The ace and Human Rights, purpose of the United Zakaria El Hamel hosted Religions Initiative is to an International Walk for tion of Human Rights Day UN. Zakaria El Hamel is a journalist, blogger, director of the World Peace Festival in Morocco and operates in over 50 countries. INTERVIEW WITH ZAKARIA EL HAMEL MARROCOS – PART 1 1) WHAT IS EXACTLY BEING A “PEACE’S AMBASSADOR” ? WHAT DOES THE PEACE’S AMBASSADORS MAKE FOR THE WORLD’S PEACE ?! TELL US HOW DO YOU GET THE TITLE OF PEACE’S AMBASSADOR PLEASE ... HOW ARE THE REACHES OF PEACE’S AMBASSADOR’S TO THE WORLD’S PEACE? HOW IS THE WORK IN COMMUNION OF ALL PEACE’S AMBASSADORS ALL AROUND THE WORLD? WHAT ALL YOU TOGETHER CAN REACH FOR A BETTER WORLD ?! WHO GIVES YOU ALL THAT TITLE?! WHAT IS THE LINK OF AMBASSADORS AND UN? AND HOW CAN THAT LINK MAKE A BETTER WORLD ... I MEAN A PEACEFUL WORLD? As a Moroccan human rights activist and peace advocate I was appointed Ambassador for Peace by the Universal Peace Federation (UPF) and the Inter religious and International Federation for World Peace (IIFWP). The Ambassadors for Peace is a global network and nationality. Practice “living for the sake of others” as the guiding principle for building world peace and a global UPF and IIFWP chose community. as Ambassador for Peace those individuals whose 1-a) In many counlives exemplify the ideal tries the YOUTH of living for the sake of FOR PEACE is this? others, and who dedicate themselves to universal We are present in more moral values, strong fa- than 50 countries. mily life, inter religious cooperation, international 1-b) How many yeharmony, renewal of the ars has your organiUnited Nations, a responzation been establisible public media, and the establishment of a cul- shed in your country? ture of peace. Since 2007. Launched in 2001, Ambassadors for Peace is the 1-c) largest and most diverse Youngsters are a good country ... So what is network of peace leaders. They come from the goal for these quesall walks of life repre- tions? senting many races, religions, nationalities, and More than ever people are cultures, and commit to: doing more to change the world. They are creating Stand on the common jobs, building the ecoground of universal moral nomy and making the run in new ways which we can principles, promoting relearn wealth. Here are two conciliation, overcoming examples: barriers, and building pe- The stories of people chanace. ging the world can last for days and as we all know, Form a global network this has always happened. representing the religious, However, more than ever, racial, and ethnic diver- young people are among sity of the human family us who are actually doing and all disciplines of hu- the best and have done for over 100 years - and throuman endeavor. gh history: Promote reconciliation Joan of Arc, Mozart and and cooperation beyond thousands of under 18, 21, traditional boundaries of 25 and 35 years that chanreligion, race, ethnicity, ged the world unknown. of leaders from religion, politics and civil society working cooperatively for the sake of world peace. Zakaria El Hamel Named logue between Cultures (Juventude pela Paz e Ambassador of Peace Diálogo entre CultuMorocco- Posted by: Pia ras), uma organização Figueroa Published: Ja- sem fins lucrativos cuja nuary 25, 2010 In: Afri- missão é construir um can Culture and Media mundo onde jovens de diferentes religiões e The Moroccan human contextos podem unirrights activist and peace se para criar entendiadvocate, Zakaria El Ha- mento e respeito servinmel was appointed Am- do suas comunidades. bassador for Peace “by Como parte desse esforthe Universal Peace Fe- ço, a Juventude pela Paz e Diálogo entre Culturas deration (UPF)” and the organizou um fórum de “Federation Interreligious paz (competições esporand International World tivas para crianças, exPeace (IIFWP)”. The posições de arte, poemas “Ambassadors of Peace” sobre a Paz, um projeto is a global network of ci- com postes decorados vilians working together à mão sobre a paz, o on behalf of world peace, símbolo da paz desereligious leaders, and po- nhado com velas e, por liticians. fim, um show pela Paz onde jovens músicos The UFP and IIFWP tocam por mudança). choose as Peace Ambas- A Juventude pela Paz e sadors individuals whose Diálogo entre Culturas actions exemplify the ide- foi a primeira organizaal of living for the well- ção de jovens a apoiar being of others, and who a Marcha Mundial pela dedicate themselves to Paz e Não-Violência. universal moral values​​ , commitment to family, in- Zakaria El Hamel, Amterreligious cooperation, bassador of Peace and international harmony, re- president of Youth for newal the United Nations, Peace and Dialogue a responsible public me- among Cultures hosted dia, and the establishment the team based on their country, where diverse of a culture of peace. faiths and cultures liZakaria El Hamel é o ving in peace for thoupresidente e fundador do sands of years. Youth for Peace and Dia- Young people are changing the world in ways that we all follow all the time, whether consciously or not. Although not recognize them for it, the fact is that society progresses arrested the heels of young people, yesterday and today. There is much to learn from them. “If we do not change the world, the world will not change us too.” 1-d) This type of organization, when activated, need government help. What is your opinion about it? Totally true, but did not receive funds from the Moroccan government. 1-e) Why do you consider that the YOUTH FOR PEACE brings peace to the world? Let’s ask ourselves, why interfaith work important? Why should we try to understand the religious and spiritual points of view of others? Worth fighting to find common ground when everyone seems to cling to the idea that they have the only truth about the nature of the Divine? I believe it is important not only in local flavor, but also internationally vital if we plan one day get a state of peace that offers the promise of our very survival on this planet.

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Pacifist Journal - Edition nº 9 | 6 The United Nations (UN) is an international organization founded in 1945 after the 2nd. World War by 51 countries. The UNITED NATIONS is committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing amizgáveis relations ​​ among nations and promoting social progress, better padrãos of life and human rights. cil (for deciding certain Mandates UN UNITED NATIONS resolutions for peace and security); Economic History and Social Council (for assisting in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development); the Human Rights Council (to promote and enforce the protection of human rights and propose international treaties on this topic); the Secretariat (for providing studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN), the International Court of Justice (the principal judicial organ). In addition to complementary bodies of all the other agencies of the UN system, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the United Nations Fund for Children (UNICEF). The most visible public figure is the UN Secretary-General, position held since 2007 by Ban Ki-moon of South Korea The organization is funded by voluntary contributions from Member States, and has six official languages​​ :. Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish History of the United Nations. UN Declaration Harry Truman in the UN Charter Conference in San Francisco, United States, in 1945. After the failure of the League of Nations (1919-1946) (of which the United States never became a member), the United Nations was created in 1945 to maintain international peace and promote international cooperation in solving economic problems, social and humanitarian. The first concrete plans for a new world organization was begun under United Nations Organization (UNO) or simply United Nations (UN), United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights and the realization of world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, with the aim to deter war between countries and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out their missions. There are currently 193 member states, including nearly every sovereign state in the world. From its offices around the world, the UN and its specialized agencies decide on administrative issues in regular meetings throughout the year. The organization is divided into administrative bodies, primarily: the General Assembly (the main deliberative assembly); the Security Coun- of the Security Council (France, Republic of China, Soviet Union, United Kingdom and the United States) and by most other 46 signatories . The first meetings of the General Assembly, with 51 nations represented, and the Security Council, took place in Westminster Central Hall in London in January 1946 Since itscreation, there has been controversy and criticism of the work of the United Nations. In the United States, a major opponent of the UN was the John Birch Society, which began to “get us out of the UN” campaign in 1959, claiming that the UN’s goal was to establish a “One World Govern- eship Council suspended operations in 1994); the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the Secretariat and the International Court of Justice. Four of the five principal organs are located at the main United Nations Headquarters in international territory in New York, in the United States. The International Court of Justice is located in The Hague, in the Netherlands, while other major agencies are based in the UN offices in Geneva, Vienna and Nairobi. Other UN institutions are located throughout the world. Nations. Composed of all member states of the United Nations, the Assembly meets in an annual regular session, under an elected between the Member States president. Over a period of two weeks at the beginning of each session, all members have the opportunity to address the assembly. Traditionally, the Secretary-General makes the first statement, followed by the meeting chairman. The first session was convened on January 10, 1946 in Westminster Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations. “For the approval of the General Assembly on important questions, it is necessary two-thirds majority of those present and voting. Examples of important questions include: recommendations on peace and security, the election of members to organs, admission, suspension and expulsion of members and budgetary matters. All other questions are decided by majority vote. Each member country has one vote. Apart from approval of budgetary matters, resolutions are not binding on the members. The Assembly may make recozmendações on any matters within the UN, except matters of peace and security that are under Security Council consideration. UN organization General Assembly, Security Council, Secretariat - Secretary-General, International Court of Justice, Economic and Social Council, Human Rights Council, Specialised Institutions Functions Maintenance of peace and security, humanitarian assistance and human rights, social and economic development, the aegis of the United States Department of State in 1939 The term “United Nations” was first used on January 1, 1942 by Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt in Washington, when 26 governments signed the Atlantic Charter, pledging to continue the war effort. On April 25, 1945, theUnited Nations Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco, United States, bringing together 51 governments and a number of non-governmental organizations involved in drafting the United Nations Charter. The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 upon ratification of the Charter by the five permanent members The UN uses six official languages​​ : Arabic, Chinese, Spanish, French, Russian and almost all official meetings are simultaneously translated into these languages​​ . Almost all official documents, in paper and “online”, these are translated into six languages​​ . In some facilities, conferences and working papers are only in French and English, and the ment”. After the Second publications are held in World War, the French these two languages​​ . Committee of National Liberation was not General Assembly recognized by the UniGeneral Assembly of ted States as the French United Nations government and so the the country was initially excluded from the con- General Assembly of ferences that aimed at the United Nations, the creating the new organi- organization’s headquarzation. Charles de Gaul- ters in New York. le criticized the UN and was not convinced that The General Assembly a global security allian- is the main deliberative ce would help maintain assembly of the United world peace, preferring direct defense treaties between countries. Organization Structure of the United Nations The structure of the United Nations is based on five principal organs (there were six - the Truste-

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Pacifist Journal - Edition nº 9 | Security Council 7 States, with five permanent members - China, Security Council of the France, Russia, United United Nations Kingdom and United States - and 10 tempoRoom Security Council in rary members, currenNew York. tly Austria, Bosnia and Secretariat United Nations Secretariat Secretariat building in New York, United States. The United Nations Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General, assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide. It provides studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN agencies to make their meetings. Also performs tasks like driving Security Council of the United Nations, the UN General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations and other UN agencies. The UN Charter provides that the Secretariat staff be chosen by application of the highest The Security Council is responsible for maintaining peace and security among countries. While other organs of the United Nations can only make ‘recommendations’ to member governments, the Security Council has the power to make binding decisions that member governments have agreed to carry out, in accordance with Article 25 of the Charter. Council decisions are known as resolutions of the Security Council of the United Nations. The Security Council is composed of 15 Member Herzegovina, Brazil, Gabon, Japan, Lebanon, Mexico, Nigeria, Turkey and Uganda. The five permanent members have veto power over the Council’s resolutions, but procedural, allowing a permanent member prevents adoption but not to block the debate of a resolution unacceptable to him. The ten temporary members are kept in two-year terms as voting in the General Assembly on a regional basis. The Presidency of the Security Council is rotated alphabetically each month and was held by Austria in 2011. who took over from Kofi Annan in 2007, and will be replaced when his second term expires in 2016. Provided by Franklin D. Roosevelt as the “world moderator”, the position is defined in the UN Charter as “chief administrative officer” of the organization, but the Charter also states that the SecretaryGeneral may bring to the attention of the Security Council on “any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security”, giving the position greater scope for action on the world stage. The situation evolved into a dual standards “of efficiency, competence and integrity,” with due regard to the importance of recruiting on a wide geographical basis. The position is defined in the UN Charter as the organization’s “chief administrative officer”. Article 99 of the charter states that the SecretaryGeneral can bring to the Security Council’s attention “any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security”, a phrase that Secretaries-General since Trygve Lie have interpreted as giving the position broad scope for action on the world stage.The office has evolved into a dual role of an administrator of the UN organization and a diplomat and me- diator addressing disputes between member states and finding consensus to global issues. The Secretary-General is appointed by the General Assembly, after being recommended by the Security Council, where the permanent members have veto power. There are no specific criteria for the post, but over the years it has become accepted that the post shall be held for one or two terms of five years, that the post shall be appointed on the basis of geographical rotation, and that the Secretary-General shall not originate from one of the five permanent Security Council member states. The current SecretaryGeneral is Ban Ki-moon, who replaced Kofi Annan in 2007 and was elected for a second term to conclude at the end of 2016. role of an administrator Secretaries-General of the United of the UN organization, Nations and a diplomat and mediator to resolve disputes between Member States Trygve Lie and to reach consensus Norway 2 February 1946 - 10 de November 1952 on global issues. The Secretary-General is appointed by the General Assembly, after being recommended by the Security Council. The selection can be vetoed by any member of the Security Council and the General Assembly can theoretically override the Security Council’s recommendation if a majority vote is not achieved, although this has not happened so far. There is no specific criteria for the post, but over the years, it was assumed that the position will be held by one or two terms of five years, that the office should be appointed on the basis of geographical rotation, and that the Secretary general shall not originate from one of five permanent members of the Security Council. Dag Hammarskjöld Sueden 10 April 1953 - 18 de September 1961 U Thant Myanmar 30 November 1961 - 1 January 1972 Kurt Waldheim Áustria 1 January 1972 - 1 January 1982 Javier Pérez de Cuéllar Peru 1 January 1982 - 1 January 1992 Boutros Boutros-Ghali Egypt 1 January 1992 - 1 January 1997 Kofi Annan Ghana 1 January 1997 - 1 January 2007 Ban Ki-moon South Korea 1 January 2007 International Court of Justice International Justice Court of Secretary General Secretary-General of the United Nations The current SecretaryGeneral Ban Ki-moon of South Korea. The Secretariat is headed by the SecretaryGeneral, who acts as spokesman and de facto leader of the UN. The current Secretary-General is Ban Ki-moon, Peace Palace, seat of the International Court of Justice in The Hague, Netherlands. The International Court of Justice (ICJ), located in The Hague, Netherlands, is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. Founded in 1945 by the United Nations, the Court began work in 1946 as successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice. The Statute of the International Court of Justice, similar to its predecessor, is the main constitutional document constituting and regulating the Court. It is based in the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands, sharing the building with the Academy of International Law in The Hague, a private center for the study of

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Pacifist Journal - Edition nº 9 | international law. Several of the justices of the Court are students or former faculty members of the Academy. Its purpose is to settle disputes between states. The court hears cases related to war crimes, illegal state interference, cases of ethnic cleansing, 8 trying those who commit the most serious crimes of international law, including war crimes and genocide. The ICC is functionally independent of the UN in terms of personnel and financing, but some meetings of the ICC governing body, the As- and is part of the body to support the General Assembly of the United Nations. Based in Geneva, its main purpose is to advise the General Assembly on situations in which human rights are violated. The General Assembly, in turn, should make their recommendations to the Security Council. On March 15, 2006, the UN approved the creation of this new human rights organization, despite opposition from the United States. It consists of 47 countries, while the Human Rights Commission had 53 members. The creation of the new council was approved by 170 members of the Assembly - composed of 190 four nations voted against (the United States, the Marshall Islands, Palau, and Israel). Not voting: Belarus, Iran and Venezuela. The United States, the Marshall Islands, Palau and justify their votes against Israel, claiming that there would be little power involved and could not avoid the human rights abuses that take place around the world. The 47 seats of the new council are distributed among regional groups: 13 for Africa, 13 for Asia, six for Eastern Europe, eight for Latin America and the Caribbean, and 7 for “Western Europe and Bank and the World OrOthers,” which includes ganization Health. America North, Oceania and Turkey. It is through these agencies that the UN perforThe first election of ms most of its humanimembers was held on tarian work. Examples May 9, 2006. include mass vaccination program (through Institutions Specialized the WHO), prevention of famine and malnutrition There are many organi- (through the work of the zations and UN agencies WFP) and the protection that function to work on of vulnerable and displaspecific issues. Some of ced people (for example, the best known agen- UNHCR). cies are the International Atomic Energy Agency, The United Nations the United Nations Food Charter stipulates that and Agriculture Organi- each primary organ of sation, UNESCO (Uni- the UN can establish vated Nations Educational, rious specialized agenScientific and Cultural cies to fulfill its duties. Organization), the World UNIDO - United Nations Industrial Development Organization Headquarters: Viena, Áustria Head: Kandeh Yumkella Established: 1967 UPU - Universal Postal Union Headquarters: Berna, Switzerland Head: Edouard Dayan Established: 1947 WBG - World Bank Group Headquarters: Washington, EUA Head: Robert B. Zoellick Established: 1945 among others. A related court, the International Criminal Court (ICC), began operating in 2002 through international discussions initiated by the General Assembly. It is the first permanent international court charged with sembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute, are held at the UN. There is a “relationship agreement” between the ICC and the UN that governs how the two institutions relate to each other legally. meeting in April, with key Ministers of Finance of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Created to separate specialized organizations that coordinates, ECOSOC’s functions include information gathering and counseling and recommendations to member countries. In addition, ECOSOC is well-positioned to provide policy coherence and coordinate the overlapping functions of subsidiary bodies of the UN and it is in this role that is more active. FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization Headquarters: Roma, Itály Head: José Graziano da Silva Established: 1945 IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency Headquarters: Viena, Áustria Head: Mohamed ElBaradei Established: 1957 ICAO - International Civil Aviation Organization Headquarters: Montreal, Canadá Head: Raymond Benjamin Established: 1947 Council Economic and Social Economic and Social Council of the United Nations The (ECOSOC) Economic and Social Council assists the General Assembly in promoting economic and social cooperation and international development. ECOSOC has 54 members, who are elected by the General Assembly for a term of three years. The president is elected for a term of one year and is chosen from the middle or small powers represented on ECOSOC. ECOSOC meets once a year in July for a period of four weeks. Since 1998, he held another IFAD - International Fund forAgricultural Development Headquarters: Roma, Itály WFP - World Food Programme Head: Kanayo F. Nwanze Established: 1977 Headquarters: Roma, Italy Head: Josette Sheeran Established: 1963 ILO - International Labour Organization Headquarters: Genebra, Switzerland WHO - World Health Organization Head: Juan Somavía Established: 1946 Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland Head: Margaret Chan Established: 1948 IMO - International Maritime Organization Headquarters: Londres, UK OMPI - Organização Mundial da Propriedade Intelectual Head: Efthimios E. Mitropoulos Established: 1948 Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland Head: Francis Gurry Established: 1974 IMF - International Monetary Fund Headquarters: Washington DC, EUA WIPO - World Intellectual Property OrganizationHeHead: Christine Lagarde22 Established: 1944 adquarters: Geneva, Switzerland Chefe:Alexander Bedritsky Established: 1950 ITU - International Telecommunication Union Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland WMO - World Meteorological Organization Head: Hamadoun Touré Established: 1947 Sede: Madrid, Spain Head: Taleb Rifai Established: 1974 UNESCO - United Nations Educational, Scientific Human Rights Council and Cultural Organization The most visible public figure is the UN Secretaryof the United Nations General, position held since 2007 by Ban Ki-Moon, Headquarters: Paris, France Head: Irina Bokova The Human Rights of South Korea. Organization is funded by voluntary Established: 1946 contributions from member countries. Council of the United Nations is the successor to the UN Commission for Human Rights

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Pacifist Journal - Edition nº 9 | 9 Members Member States UN UN members. Note that Antarctica has no government, political control of Western Sahara is in dispute and the territory of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Kosovo are considered by the UN as provinces of the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia, respectively. With the addition of South Sudan on July 14, 2011, came into existence 193 UN member countries, including all fully recognized independent states apart from Vatican City and Palestine, which has observer status .. The United Nations Charter outlines the rules for membership: 1 Membership in the United Nations is open to all other peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the opinion of the organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations. ted Nations. There were 77 founding members of the organization, but the organization currently has 130 member countries. The group was founded on June 15, 1964 by the “Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries” issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, when the Charter of Algiers and the basis UN. The forces, also called “blue helmets” of the UN to fulfill agreements are entered into with the United Nations Medals, which are considered international decorations instead of military decorations. The peacekeeping force as a whole received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988. The founders of the UN had envisaged that the organization would take steps to prevent conflicts States. Also in 2005, the Human Security Report documented a decline in the number of wars, genocides and human rights abuses since the end of the Cold War, and presented evidence, albeit circumstantial, that most of the international activism led by the UN, has been the main cause of the decline in armed conflict since the end of the Cold War. Situations where the UN has not intervention are seen as having failed to prevent the genocide in Rwanda in 1994, unable to provide humanitarian aid and intervene in the Second Congo War, not to intervene in the massacre at Srebrenica in 1995 protect refugees in peace, which authorizes the use of force, not to deliver food to starving people in Somalia in failing to apply the provisions of Security Council resolutions related to the IsraeliPalestinian Conflict and still failing to prevent genocide or provide assistance in Darfur. UN peacekeepers have also been accused of for permanent institutional structures was begun was approved. functions. Peacekeeping and security. Peacekeeping forces of the United Nations Peacekeeping forces of the UN. The regions in dark blue indicate cur2 The admission of any rent missions, while resuch state, to apply for gions in light blue indimembership to the Uni- cate previous missions. ted Nations will be effected by a decision of the The UN, after approval General Assembly upon by the Security Counrecommendation of the cil, sends peacekeepers Security Council | UN to regions where armed Charter, Chapter 2, Ar- conflict has recently ceticle 4 | http:. // Www. ased or paused forces to enforce the terms of un.org/aboutun/charter/ The Group of 77 at the peace agreements and UN is a coalition of deve- to prevent the fighters loping nations, designed to resume hostilities. As to promote its members, the UN does not mainthe collective economic tain its own military, interests and create an peacekeeping forces are enhanced joint negotia- voluntarily provided by ting capacity in the Uni- the Member States of the between nations and make future wars impossible, however the outbreak of the Cold War made peace agreements extremely difficult because of the division of the world into opposing camps. After the Cold War, the appeal to the UN to become the agency for achieving world peace had been restored, as there are several dozen ongoing conflicts that continue to wreak havoc around the globe.A study by the RAND Corp. in 2005 showed that the UN is successful in two out of three peace efforts. The study compared the UN’s efforts with the United States, and found that seven out of eight issues that the UN deals are at peace, as compared with four of eight questions in the case of the United only acted to keep the peace but also occasionally intervened include the Korean War (19501953), and the authorization of intervention in Iraq after the Persian Gulf War in 1990. A British autometralhadora painted for a UN peacekeeping mission. The UN has also been criticized by notable failures. In many cases, Member States have shown reluctance to achieve or fulfill the resolutions of the Security Council, an issue that stems from the intergovernmental nature of the UN, seen by some as simply an association of 192 Member States must reach a consensus not as an independent organization. Disagreements in the Security Council about military action and rape, sexual abuse or soliciting prostitutes during various peacekeeping missions, starting in 2003, in the Congo, Haiti, Liberia, Sudan, Burundi and Côte d’Ivoire. In 2004, former Israeli ambassador to the UN Dore Gold criticized what it called the rganization’s moral relativism in the face of (and occasional support) genocide and terrorism that occurred between the moral clarity of its founding period until today. Gold specifically mentions the invitation to Yasser Arafat in 1988 to address the General Assembly as a low point in UN history. Besides peace, the UN is also active in encouraging disarmament. The regulation of armaments was included in the drafting of the UN Charter in 1945 and was envisioned as a way to limit the use of human and economic resources for the creation of them. However, the advent of nuclear weapons came only weeks after the signing of the charter and immediately halted concepts of arms limitation and disarmament, resulting in the first resolution of the first General Assembly meeting calling for specific proposals for “the elimination from national armaments of guns atomic and all other major weapons adaptable to mass destruction “. The principal forums for disarmament issues are the General Assembly First Committee, the Disarmament Commission of the United Nations and the Conference on Disarmament, and considerations have been made on the merits of a ban on testing nuclear weapons, arms control in space the prohibition of chemical weapons and land mines, nuclear and conventional disarmament, nuclear-weaponfree zones, reduction of military budgets, and measures to strengthen international security.

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Pacifist Journal - Edition nº 9 | 10 Human Rights and Assistance Humanitarian Eleanor Roosevelt with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1949 The exercise of human rights was a central reason for creating the UN. The atrocities of World War II and genocide led to a consensus that the new organization must work to prevent similar tragedies in the future. The initial goal was to create a legal framework for considering and acting on complaints about human rights violations. The UN Charter obliges all member nations to promote “universal respect for and observance of human rights” and have “joint and separate action” to that end. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, though not legally binding, was adopted by the General Assembly in 1948 as a common standard of achievement for all. The Assembly regularly takes up human rights issues. The UN and its agencies are central in upholding and implementing the principles enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. An example is support by the UN for transition to democracy in the country. Technical assistance in providing free and fair elections, improving judicial structures, drafting constitutions, training human rights officials, and transforming armed movements into political parties have contributed significantly to democratization worldwide. The UN has helped run elections in countries and territories with little or no democratic history, including recently (Afghanistan and Timor-Leste). The UN is also a forum to support the right of women to participate fully in the political, economic, social life of their countries. The UN contributes to raising consciousness of the concept of human rights through its covenants and its attention to specific abuses through its General Assembly, the Security Council resolutions, or International Court of Justice. The goal of the Human Rights Council of the United Nations, established in 2006, is to combat human rights violations. The Council is the successor to the UN Commission on Human Rights, which was often criticized by prominent positions which gave no guarantee that the human rights of its citizens Member States. The council has 47 members distributed by region, which each serve three-year term and may not serve three terms consecutivos.39 A candidate to the body must be approved by a majority of the General Assembly. In addition, the Council has strict rules for membership, including a universal human rights review. While some members with questionable human rights records have been elected, is more important than ever to give a greater focus on the record of each member state’s human rights. The rights of some 370 million indigenous peoples around the world is also a focus for the UN, with a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples being approved by the General Assembly in 2007 The statement sets out the individual and collective rights for culture, language, education, identity, employment and health, thereby addressing post-colonial issues that confronted indigenous peoples for centuries. The declaration aims to maintain, strengthen and encourage the growth of institutions, indigenous cultures and traditions. It also prohibits discrimination against indigenous peoples and promotes their active participation in matters that concern their past, present and future. countries, as well as projects peacekeeping in more than 24 countries. Social and economic development Millennium Development Goals 1. Erradicar a pobreza extrema e a fome; 2. Atingir o ensino básico universal; 3. Promover a igualdade entre os sexos e a autonomia das mulheres; 4. Reduzir a mortalidade infantil; 5. Melhorar a saúde materna; 6. Combater o HIV/AIDS, a malária e outras doenças; 7 Ensure environmental sustainability; and comparative measure of countries that consider poverty, literacy, education, life expectancy and other factors. The Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that all 192 member states of the United Nations agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015 This was stated in the Millennium Declaration of the United Nations, signed in September 2000. Mandates Occasionally the different organs of the United Nations approve resolutions that contain operating paragraphs that begin with the words “requests”, “calls” or “encourages”, which the SecretaryGeneral interprets as a mandate to create a temporary organization or do something. These mandates can be to research and publish a written report, or mounting a large-scale operation of peacekeeping (usually the exclusive domain of the Security Council). Although the specialized institutions, such as the WHO, were originally set up by this means, they are not the same as mandates because they are permanent organizations that exist independently of the UN with their own membership structure. One could say that original mandate was simply to cover the process of creating the institution, and therefore the long term. Most mandates expire after a limited period of time and the need for renewal of the body that set them. One result of the 2005 World Summit was a mandate (called id 17171) for the Secretary-General to “review all mandates over five years from resolutions of the General Assembly and other organs”. To facilitate this review and finally bring coherence to the organization, the Secretariat has produced an on-line registry of mandates to gather reports relating to each one and create an overall picture. Others Throughout the history of the UN, over 80 colonies gained independence. The General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples in 1960 with no votes against but abstentions from all major colonial powers. Through the UN Committee on Decolonization, created in 1962, the UN drew considerable attention for decolonization. She also supported the new states that have arisen as a result 8 Develop a global partnership for development. The UN is involved in supporting development, eg by the formulation of the Millennium Development Goals. The United Nations Programme for Development (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source that provides technical assistance around the world. Organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO), UNAIDS and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria are leading institutions in the battle against diseases around the world, especially in poor countries. The Population Fund, the United Nations is a major provider of reproductive services. He has helped to reIn conjunction with other duce infant and maternal organizations like the mortality in 100 countries. Red Cross, the UN proviThe UN also promotes hudes food, drinking water, man development through shelter and other humani- various related agencies. tarian services to people The World Bank and the suffering from famine, International Monetary displaced by war, or affec- Fund (IMF), for example, ted by other disasters. The are independent, specialized and observers within main humanitarian branthe UN agencies, under ches of the UN are the a 1947 They were iniWorld Food Programme tially formed as separate (which helps feed more organizations of the UN than 100 million people a through the Bretton Wooyear in 80 countries), the ds Agreement in 1944 . The UN annually publioffice of the High Comshes the Human Devemissioner for Refugees lopment Index (HDI), a with projects in over 116

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Pacifist Journal - Edition nº 9 | 11 of self-determination initiatives. The committee has overseen the decolonization of every country larger than 20,000 km ² and removed from the UN list of non-autonomous territories, Western Sahara, greater country than the UK, only ceded by Spain in 1975. The UN declares and coordinates international observances, periods of time to observe some issue of international interest or concern. Using the symbolism of the UN, a logo specially designed for the year and the infrastructure of the United Nations System, various days years have become catalysts to move forward with the key issues of concern on a global scale. For example, World Tuberculosis Day, Earth Day and International Year of Deserts and Desertification. for the least developed Reform countries, a maximum Proposed logo for a Parate of 0.01% is applied. rhlamentar Assembly of the United Nations, which The current operating involves the direct elecbudget is estimated at $ tion of a representative of 4.19 billion (see table for the country by its citizens. major contributors). A large part of the expenses of the UN addresses the core UN mission of peace and security. The budget for peacekeeping for the years 2005 and 2006 was approximately $ 5 billion (compared to approximately $ 1.5 billion for the UN core budget over the same period), with some 70,000 troops deployed in 17 missions around the world. UN peace operations are funded by assessments, using a scale derived from the regular funding formula, but including a weighted surcharge for the five permanent members of the Security Council, which must approve all maintenance operations. This surcharge serves to offset discounted peacekeeping rates for the evaluation of the least developed countries. From January 1, 2008, the top 10 providers of assessed financial contributions to United Nations peacekeeping, were: United States, Japan, Germany, UK, France, Italy, China, Canada, Spain and the Republic of Korea. Special UN programs not included in the regular budget (such as UNICEF and UNDP) are financed by voluntary contributions from member governments. Most of this is financial contributions, but some is in the form of agricultural commodities donated to the affected population. Since its founding, there have been many requests to reform the United Nations, although little consensus on how to do it. Some want the UN to play a greater or more effective role in world affairs, while others want its role reduced to humanitarian work. There were also several requests for membership to the Security Council should be increased, for different ways of electing the Secretary-General of the United Nations and for a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly. The UN has also been accused of bureaucratic inefficiency and waste. During the 1990s the United States withheld its contributions citing inefficiency, and only started repayment on the condition that a major reforms initiative was introduced. In 1994, the Office of Internal Oversight Services (ESSI) was created by the General Assembly to serve as an observatory efficiency. An official reform program was begun by Kofi Annan in 1997 The reforms include changing the aforementioned permanent members of the Security Council (which currently reflects the power relations of 1945), making the bureaucracy more transparent, accountable and efficient, making the UN more democratic, and institute an international tariff on arms manufacturers worldwide. G4 nations, an alliance between Ger- many, Brazil, India and Japan with the aim of supporting the proposals of each other to join permanent seats in the Security Council. In September 2005, the UN convened a World Summit that brought together the heads of most of the United States, calling the summit “a unique opportunity in a generation to take bold decisions in the areas of development, security, human rights and reform of the United Nations. “Kofi Annan proposed that the summit agree with a “big contract” comprehensive reform of the United Nations, which would renew the focus of the organization on peace, security, human rights and development, and to become better equipped to face the issues of the century XXI. The outcome of the summit was a compromise text agreed by world leaders, which included the creation of a Peacebuilding Commission to help countries emerging from conflict, a Council of Human Rights, and a fund for democracy, and a clear condemnation unequivocal terrorism “in all its forms and manifestations”, and agreements to devote more resources to the Office of Internal Oversight Services, to spend billions more on achieving the millennium Development Goals, to terminate the Trusteeship Council due the achieve- Financing Contribution of the Member State (% of UN budget) United States 22.000% Japan 12.530% Germany 8,018% UK 6.604% France 6.123% Italy 4.999% Canada 3.207% People’s Republic of China 3,189% Spain 3,177% Mexico 2.356% South Korea 2.260% Australia 1.933% Netherlands 1.855% Brazil 1.611% Russia 1.602% Other Member States 18.536% The UN is financed from voluntary contributions from Member States. The regular two-year budgets of the UN and its specialized agencies are funded by assessments. The General Assembly approves the regular budget and determines the assessment for each member. This is largely based on the relative capacity of each country to pay, as measured by its Gross National Income (GNI), with adjustments for external debt and low per capita income. The Assembly has established the principle that the UN should not be overly dependent on any one member to finance its operations. Thus, there is a ‘ceiling’ rate, setting the maximum amount of each member is assessed for the regular budget. In December 2000, the Assembly revised the scale of global assessment to reflect current circumstances. As part of that revision, the regular budget ceiling was reduced from 25% to 22%. The United States is the only member who has fulfilled the ceiling. In addition to a rate limit, the minimum amount assessed to any member nation (or ‘floor’ rate) is set at 0.001% of the UN budget. Also, ment of its mission, and that the international community has a “responsibility to protect” - the duty to intervene when national governments do not fulfill their responsibility to protect their citizens from atrocious crimes. O Escritório de Serviços d and Internal Oversight Services is being restructured to more clearly define its scope and mandate, and will receive more resources. In addition, to improve the oversight and auditing of the General Assembly an Advisory Committee Independent Audit (CCAI) is being created. In June 2007, the Fifth Committee created a draft resolution for the terms of reference of this committee. An ethics office was established in 2006, responsible for administering new financial disclosure and whistleblower protection policies. Working with ESSI, the Ethics Office also intends to implement a policy to avoid fraud and corruption. The Secretariat is in the review of all UN mandates that are more than five year process. The review is intended to determine which programs or unnecessary duplication should be eliminated. Not all member states are in agreement as to which of the over 7000 mandates should be reviewed. The dispute focuses that mandates that have been renewed should be examined.

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Pacifist Journal - Edition nº 9 | 12 INTERVIEW WITH ZAKARIA EL HAMEL MARROCOS - PART 2 2) WHAT ARE YOUR ACTIVITTIES AND CONQUESTS WITH THE “YOUTH FOR PEACE” IN YOUR COUNTRY, MAROCCO? First of all let me please thank you for giving me this opportunity to introduce you our Organization Youth for Peace –Iinternational Youth for Peace and Dialogue between Cultures, a non-profit organization which mission is to build a world where young people from different religions and backgrounds can come together to create understanding and respect by serving their communities. Promoting the culture of peace and Human Rights We work to inspire youth around the Globe to become valuable advocates for tolerance and peace Youth for Peace is a member of d member of the Steering Committee of Moroccan Network of Anna Lindh Foundation and member of the coalition for the International Criminal Court PACIFIST JOURNAL JOINS UNICEF, THROUGH UNO, TO WORK FOR A MORE DIGNIFIED INFANCY, SUPPORTING EDUCATION TO EVERYONE, SINCE CHILDHOOD, PROTECTION TO CHILDREN OF THE WHOLE PLANET, AIMING TO GENERATE INPUTS FOR A BETTER HEALTH AND FOOD, AS WELL AS AFFETIVE-FAMILIAR SUPPORT, FIGHTING AGAINST INFANCE DEPRIVATION What does UNO´s Security Council serve for? Rome Statute It is a treaty that established International Penal Court - IPC (also known as International Penal Tribunal - IPT). Treaty was embraced in July 17 1998, in Rome, Italy Creation The first basis of Rome future Statute was established in July 1994 by International Right Commission. But only in 1995 began the first negotiations at United Nations (UNO). After two meetings of United nations General Assembly, it is decided to create a preparatory Committee (also called PrepCom) whose objective was to propose a project of Statute. PrepCom had two meetings in 1996, three in 1997 and the last one in 1998, when the Statute project was presented. Embracing ICP Statute was opened to signatures in Rome, on July 17, 1998. At the occasion, 122 States signed the treaty. Several countries signed the Statute hoping they Council United Nations Organization (UNO) Security Council was created in 1945, at the end of the Second World War, aiming to maintain international peace and security. It authorizes economic sanctions, sends peace missions and usage of force – and it is considered the most important UNO´s organism. The five greatest military potencies are permanent members (The United States, Russia, The United Kingdom, France and China), that, at the time of the organism creation represented the responsible ones for the international stability. They have the right of veto, or else, they can void any resolution approval. Therefore, being a permanent member guarantee much more power to the country. The other ten rotating members are elected by the General Meeting of UNO, and fulfill a twoyear mandate de. These vacancies are divided among regions and continents (see info graphic). There is still an agreement between the African group and the Asiatic one so to, alternately, there is always a representative of an Arabian country. could modify it later on (what was done, in part, after approval of several amendments). Therefore Bill Clinton signed it just before leaving the presidency of the United States. Brazil became signatory of referred Treaty in 2002, when National Congress approved the text in June 2002, and promulgated by President Fernando Henrique Cardoso through Law Decree n. 4.388/021 on September 25 of that year. In 2013, 122 nations had ratified Rome Statute of international Penal Court, among them: Germany, Australia, France, United Kingdom, and Polony. Other ones had signed, but not ratified, among them: China and Russia. The United States signed the Treaty during Bill Clinton Presidency, but withdrew signature George W. Bush was elected President. After that, American Presidency started working actively against the Treaty, namely signing bilateral Trea- ties with other States, or else, with Romania, from which these States submit themselves no to send American citizens to be judged by International Penal Tribunal. Ratification It was necessary at least 60 countries to ratify the Statue, so that IPC could be created. That quorum was achieved on April 11, 2002 during UNO´s ceremony, when 10 States ratified the Statute simultaneously. On July 1st, 2002, the Statute got in force. IPC started its activities officially on March 11, 2003 Contents Rome Statute is divided in 13 chapters, which are divided in several articles. Let´s see a presentation of the different chapters subject: 1) Defines IPC; 2) Chapter II: Defines IPC competences; 3) Define competences of different parties not included in IPC; 4) Defines the composition of IPC; 5) Define the role of different parties of IPC; 6) Defines principles into which judgments must proceed; 7) Defines applicable penalties to individuals declared guilty; 9) Defines principles of cooperation among different parties with IPC; 10) Defines penalties execution proceedings; 11) Defines the principles of functioning of Members States Assembly; 12) Defines modalities of financing of ICP and the way it can benefits amounts which are allocated to it; 13) Defines CPI in force date, as well as of its statute review THIS EDITION OF PACIFIST JOURNAL, IN WHICH WE INTRODUCE THE THEME WITH THE MAJOR GOAL FOR HUMANITY OF OUR WORK FOR A FAIRER AND HAPPIER HUMANITY, WE INSERT, HERE, AS TO CLARIFY HUMANITY, THE DECLARATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS

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Pacifist Journal - Edition nº 9 | 13 THIS EDITION OF PACIFIST JOURNAL, IN WHICH WE INTRODUCE THE THEME WITH THE MAJOR GOAL FOR HUMANITY OF OUR WORK FOR A FAIRER AND HAPPIER HUMANITY, WE INSERT, HERE, AS TO CLARIFY HUMANITY, THE DECLARATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS… UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS Embraced and proclaimed by resolution 217 A (III) United Nations´ General Assembly on December 10, 1948 Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalieIN THIS IMAGE, ZAKARIA EL HAMEL, WHO WORKS WITH US IN A PARTnable rights of all memNERSHIP (3th from left to right), defends Human Rights in Wilson Palace, Genebers of the human family va, at UNO, as AMBASSADOR FOR PEACE REPRESENTING HIS COUNTRY: is the foundation of freMAROCCO. edom, justice and peace roon, Canada, Colombia, in the world. Whereas Denmark, France, Ger- disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which many, Holland, India, have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which Kenya, Jordan, Mexico, human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear Nepal, Nigeria, Slovakia, and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people. Somalia, South Africa, Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last Sri Lanka, Switzerland, resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be U.K., U.S.A., and Zam- protected by the rule of law. Whereas it is essential to promote the development bia. Never before has of friendly relations between nations, Whereas the peoples of the United Nathere been such a global tions have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in event to raise awareness the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and and have determined to promote social progress and better standards ENTREVISTA COM ZAKARIA EL of fundamental Human women of life in larger freedom. Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to Rights amongst such diHAMEL MARROCOS – PARTE 3 verse populations. achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms. Whe3) HOW DO YOU WORK FOR THE “HUMAN RIOrganized by youth of reas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest GHTS” FOR A BETTER HUMANITY, AND HAPdifferent ethnics, reli- importance for the full realization of this pledge. PIER HUMANITY? gions, races, and cul10 December marks Hu- Human Rights, which tures, the International THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY PROCLAIMS man Rights Day. Youth endeavors to raise awa- Walk for Human Rights This universal declaration of human rights as a common standard of achievefor Peace in partnership reness about the 30 rights became a reality through ment for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every with youth for human of the Universal Declara- hundreds of international rights organize An Inter- tion of Human Rights and emails. The youth range organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by national Walk for human combat violations from students, to singers, teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and rights Participants walk to basketball players, and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member in the First Countries participating even to racecar drivers. to date include Australia, States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction. International Walk for Austria, Barbados, CameArticle I All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article II Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. Preamble

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Pacifist Journal - Edition nº 9 | 14 Article XVI 1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. Article IV No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be 2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. prohibited in all their forms. 3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State. Article V No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment Article XVII or punishment. 1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others. Article VI Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law. 2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property. Article III Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. Article VII All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination. Article XVIII Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance. Article XIX Article VIII Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribu- Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right inclunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution des freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. or by law. Article IX No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. Article XX 1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. 2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association. Article X Article XXI Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations 1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives. and of any criminal charge against him. 2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country. 3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this Article XI 1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures. guarantees necessary for his defense. 2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or Article XXII omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social securiimposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was ty and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and committed. resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. Article XII No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, Article XXIII home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honor and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks. 1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favorable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. 2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal Article XIII 1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the work. 3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favorable remuneration enborders of each state. 2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return suring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. to his country. 4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests. Article XIV 1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from Article XXIV persecution. 2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions ge- Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of nuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts con- working hours and periodic holidays with pay. trary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. Article XXV 1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and Article XV well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and 1) Everyone has the right to a nationality. 2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event change his nationality.

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Pacifist Journal - Edition nº 9 | 15 of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. 2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All The United Nation´s Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights - OHCHR children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social pro- (in Portuguese, Escritório do Alto Comissário das Nações Unidas para os Direitos tection. Humanos – EACDH) is an United Nations´ organism dedicated to promoting and protecting Human Rights guaranteed by international legislation and provided by Article XXVI Universal Declaration of Human Rights, from 1948. It was established by United 1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the Nation´s General Meeting in December 20, 1993. elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compul- It is directed by High Commissioner for Human Rights, which coordinates activisory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available ties in human rights field and supervises the Human Rights Council, in Geneva. and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. This commissioner meets at PALAIS WILSON, in Geneva. 2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental Palais Wilson – UNO freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. Wilson Palace 3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given UNO to their children. Article XXVII 1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits. 2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author. Article XVIII Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized. Article XXIV 1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible. 2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society. 3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. Majestic, prestige, as it is famous today, Palais Wilson, which met all its bright of the past after restoration due to the fire that devastated it in August 1987. Opened in 1875, nowadays called Quai Wilson, turned to the waterfront, this palace of great luxury, with 225 rooms, called “Hôtel Nacional”, has received the most famous guests. In April 1919, League of Nations was established in Geneva. The next year, its General Secretariat was set in the hotel facilities, which, in 1924, received the name “Palais Wilson”. Two commemorative plaques remind us of this historical episode: one for the memory of Woodrow Wilson, the league initiator, and the other one in tribute to this organization and its work for peace. Article XXX Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the Nowadays, the Palace hosts the High Commissioner of United Nations for human rights. destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein. Zakaria El Hamel ZAKARIA EL HAMEL, FROM MAROCCO, WHO HAS PARTNERSHIP WITH PACIFIST JOURNAL ATHUMAN RIGHTS SUMMIT AT THE UNITED NATIONS PALACE – GENEVA UNO´S HEADQUARTERS, FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, GENEVA AT UN HEADQUARTERS FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, GENEVA, SWITZERLAND, UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, PALACE WILSON. The Palace Wilson, a former hotel in Geneva, Switzerland, headquarters of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, in English Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). It is situated on the right bank of Lake Geneva at the pier Wilson, named after the American president Woodrow Wilson who had a leading role in the creation after World War II, the League of Nations (LDN) during the Peace Conference in Paris 1919

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