Pliegos de Yuste

 

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Revista de cultura, ciencia y pensamiento europeo

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Pliegos de Yuste N.º15, 2013 Revista de cultura, ciencia y pensamiento europeos PVP: 9€ Versión electrónica (http://www.pliegosdeyuste.eu) Envejecer en Europa Commissioner Andor Almuth Fricke Angela Kydd Anne-Sophie Parent Georgina Siklossy Lisa Schönenberg Alejandra Betegón Salamanca Soeren Hougaard Barbara Keck Maude Luherne Viviane Brunne Vitalija Gaucaite Wittich Claudia Kaiser Ursula Lehr Diego A. Bernardini

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p l i e g o s d e y u s t e, 1 5 ENvEjECEr EN EUroPA Esta revista ha recibido el apoyo financiero de la Unión Europea. Las opiniones vertidas a través de los textos publicados en Pliegos de Yuste son responsabilidad únicamente de sus autores, sin que la Agencia Europea de Educación y Cultura de la Comisión Europea tengan responsabilidad alguna del uso que pueda hacerse de la información contenida en dichos artículos. ISSN: 1697-0152 Nº15, 2013 www.pliegosdeyuste.eu Fundación academia europea Yuste Director: Enrique Barrasa Sánchez Asesor: Miguel Ángel Martín Ramos Coordinación: Carlos Rodríguez Iturriaga Documentación: Rafael González Martínez de Tejada Administración: Fernando Iglesias García Comunicación: Nuria Verdiguier Cerón Secretaría: Beatriz Cartas Gómez Mantenimiento: Adolfo Rico Rodríguez pedidos Y suscripciones Real Monasterio de Yuste E-10430 Cuacos de Yuste (Cáceres) Tels.: +34 927 01 40 90/327 01 40 92 Fax: +34 927 01 47 11 coordinacion@fundacionyuste.org impresión Y diseño Gráficas Luengo depósito LegaL S. 1.255 -2003 conseJo asesor Martti Ahtisaari Umberto Eco M.ª Del Carmen Iglesias Cano Gustaaf Janssens Hans Küng Ursula Lehr Antonio López Monica Luisa Macovei Federico Mayor Zaragoza Manuela Mendonca Marcelino Oreja Peter Piot Juan Carlos Rodríguez Ibarra Miguel Sáenz Margarita Salas Zsuzsanna Sandorné Fergé Inge Schoenthal Feltrinelli Reinhard Selten Peter Shaffer Abram De Swaan Alain Touraine Tzvetan Todorov Gilbert Trausch Joaquim Veríssimo Serrão Edoardo Vesentini

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ÍNDICE The European Year for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations 2012: What did we do and the next steps ................................................................................5 Creating a New Old ......................................................................................................11 ‘What do you mean by difference?’: The artistic use of digital media builds bridges between the generations ..................................................................................15 The Goals and Actions to Achieve Active Aging: What about care home residents? ........................................................................................................................21 Towards an Age-Friendly European Union by 2020 ..................................................29 The EU’s hidden ageing population: Improving policies for older ethnic minorities and migrants ................................................................................................37 Retaining and regaining independence and inclusion in later life. Notes and practice examples from ESN’s Autumn Seminar 2012 ..............................................43 Fundación Cibervoluntarios: aumentando los derechos y oportunidades de las personas mayores a través de las TIC ................................................................47 Ageing and Hearing ......................................................................................................51 Medienkompetenz im Alter ..........................................................................................55 The European quality framework for long-term care services ..................................59 Active ageing and solidarity between generations in Europe and beyond. A view from the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe ........................63 Aktives Altern und Solidarität zwischen den Generationen: Theoretische Konzepte und praktische Umsetzung des Europäischen Jahres 2012 in Deutschland ............ 73 2012 Año Europeo del Envejecimiento Activo y la Solidaridad Intergeneracional. Una mirada multidimensional a un fenómeno global ..................................................85 Autores ..........................................................................................................................97 N.º 15, 2013 pliegos de yuste

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ThE EUroPEAN YEAr for ACTIvE AgEINg AND SoLIDArITY bETwEEN gENErATIoNS 2012: whAT DID wE Do AND ThE NExT STEPS CommISSIoNEr ANDor europe is getting older In recent years, the European Union and its Member States have faced an unprecedented financial and economic crisis together with its employment and social consequences. Government measures had to respond to financial but also social emergencies. At the same time, however, we also have to find the right answers to long-term challenges, such as Europe's demographic transformation. The European Year has provided a framework for this. Today, Europeans are living longer and healthier than ever before. Since 1960, life expectancy has risen by eight years, and demographers predict a further five-year increase over the next five decades. This is a historic achievement and the most tangible sign of progress of our societies. It also means, however, that the European Union is experiencing significant population ageing. By 2060 there would be only two European people of working age (15-64) for every person aged over 65, compared to a ratio of four to one today. N.º 15, 2013 So the fact that people are living longer is good news, but it also brings challenges, and in particular for our welfare systems and solidarity between generations. Indeed, the rapidly growing number of older people is potentially seen as a heavy burden on younger people. Others are afraid that the younger generation will reduce its support to older people who will become increasingly poor. And many expect tensions between older and younger generations. These negative scenarios are not inevitable, though. They neglect that older people have valuable skills and experience that allow them to make a significant contribution to society, from which also young people can benefit. They also neglect that people have strong personal ties across generations and that old and young care for each other. pliegos de yuste

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6 the europeaN year for active ageiNg aNd solidarity betweeN geNeratioNs 2012 active ageing as a response to ageing societies The challenges of ageing societies can be dealt with, if we offer more opportunities to older people to realize their full potentials. We need to create more work opportunities for older workers. Also, we need to enable older people to stay healthy for longer, and be active in their communities. They also need an environment where growing old does not mean becoming dependent on others. ‘Active Ageing’ has to become a reality for all so that we can remain in charge of our own lives much longer than today. This is why the aim of the European Year 2012 for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations was to enable people, as they grow older, to continue to contribute to the economy and society and to look after themselves. Making active ageing happen is complex, though. This cannot be achieved by decree. It requires all levels of government, businesses and social partners, civil society, the media and individual citizens to adapt and to play their part in changing society to make it fit for an ageing population. the european Year 2012 The European Year for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations 2012 developed a framework for action on the three dimensions of active ageing: employment, participation in society and independent living. It has been a major effort in communicating and raising awareness and in mobilising action in this area. The Eu- ropean Year website was the central hub of all these activities (www.europa.eu/ey2012/). The EU is one partner among many others who need to cooperate to make active ageing happen. Through the European Year, we wanted to get different players to get together and to commit to specific actions and goals during this year, so that we will see older people’s opportunities improve tangibly. In that spirit, the European Year has been a shared effort. The European Union set up the EU website and introduced two action days. The first of them was generations@school, and took place around the 29th of April, which was designated, in 2008, as the European Day of Solidarity between Generations. The idea of generations@school is that schools invite older people into the classrooms to discuss with pupils about their respective experiences and expectations, to learn from each other and about each other and to explore what the generations could achieve together. The second action day was called Seniorforce and took place around October 1st. All around Europe, events were held to promote senior volunteering. There was also the Award Scheme in which inspiring practices promoting active ageing at the workplace, in the media, through local authorities or by actions of social entrepreneurs were recognized. All these initiatives could only succeed thanks to the very active involvement of national administrations and in particular the national coordinators of the European Year, and the civil society organisations that established, under the leadership of AGE pliegos de yuste N.º 15, 2013

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commissioNer aNdor 7 Platform Europe, a European stakeholder coalition. Follow up to the european Year 2012 The European Year has now come to an end. As Commissioner responsible for it, I believe the topic we chose for the Year was the right one at the right time; and we can already see some good results. By highlighting the contribution that older people make to society, this European Year has brought a positive change in the way people view ageing. The Year has contributed to changing the perception of older people and their contribution to the economy and society. Where we once saw the rise in the number of older people only as a problem, we now see older people as part of the solution. It has popularised the concept of active ageing in many countries. These are first, and admittedly subjective impressions. It is too early to have a full assessment on what has been achieved during the European Year 2012, but there can be no doubt that it has mobilised a wide range of stakeholders across Europe. It gave rise to hundreds of events and initiatives at European, national, regional and or local level dealing with employment, social participation and independent living of older people. The European Year website present many of them. Some Member States chose to focus on promoting employment among older people, while others concentrated on older people’s participation in society and N.º 15, 2013 independent living. Member States face different challenges, so it makes sense that they set their own priorities. Let me give you some examples: Austria has adopted a new Federal Plan for Senior Citizens. Ireland has decided that every county will have its own programme for becoming age-friendly by the end of 2013. Poland has adopted a government programme to promote social activities involving older people.Belgium established a federal advisory council for the elderly. The European Year has been pivotal to the development in Wales of the first national integrated ageing well programme, which will start in 2013. In addition, the EU Member States have developed together with the Commission the "Guiding Principles for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations", which were endorsed by the EU's Social Affairs Ministers on 6 December 2012. The Guiding Principles are addressed to Member States, regions and cities, companies and other relevant organizations which all have a role to play in further improving the conditions for active ageing over the coming years. The Guiding Principles do not tell the Member States and stakeholders what they have to do. That makes sense, because their needs are so diverse, as are the arrangements for responding to them. So it will be for the national governments, regions, cities, companies, trade unions and civil society organisations to apply the guiding principles according to their own situations and challenges. But they could play a useful basis for discussions between different authori- pliegos de yuste

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8 the europeaN year for active ageiNg aNd solidarity betweeN geNeratioNs 2012 ties and stakeholders on how to achieve in a concerted manner certain goals in relation to active ageing. The European Year has taught us that promoting active ageing calls for integrated policy-making, involving many levels of government and departments and agencies responsible for many different policy areas. To facilitate this process, the Commission plans to offer financial support for the development of comprehensive activeageing strategies through a call for proposals in early 2013. Setting goals for integrated strategies and monitoring their success require good indicators. As part of the legacy of the European Year a new policy tool was developed, namely the Active Ageing Index (AAI). The AAI was developed in a joint project between the European Commission and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the European Centre for Social Policy and Reform in Vienna. The index will help the EU Member States to identify challenges and unrealized potentials and to monitor progress in the area of active ageing. The first results show that the three countries that come at the top of the overall Active Ageing Index are Sweden, Finland and Denmark, followed by the Netherlands, Ireland and the United Kingdom. In contrast, most Central and Eastern European countries as well as Malta and Greece, are at the bottom and have much scope for further improvements and policy actions to promote active ageing outcomes. In each of the countries, there are differences in the results for women and men, showing the need for more targeted and gender-sensitive policies. Beyond the european Year 2012 Overall, I am convinced that this European Year has been a great success, but it is only a start. A lot more remains to be done in the coming years to promote active ageing and to improve the quality of life of older people. We need to build on the political momentum created and make sure that we follow up on this issue in the future. The Commission is keen to support the Member States and stakeholders engaged in various initiatives. The role of the EU with regard to active ageing goes indeed far beyond the European Year. The EU deals with a wide range of policy areas, including employment, public health, information society, transport and social protection, which all have to contribute to active ageing. As one of the initiatives for the coming years, the Commission is planning a joint project with the World Health Organisation (WHO) to set up a European Network of Age-Friendly Cities. This project should feed into the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. The Partnership brings key stakeholders together with a view to overcoming potential barriers to innovation and increasing the average individual’s healthy lifespan by two years by 2020. Active ageing is also crucial to the success of the Europe 2020 Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. N.º 15, 2013 pliegos de yuste

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commissioNer aNdor 9 Europe 2020 sets a number of targets, including achieving a 75% employment rate for people aged 20 to 64, and lifting 20 million people out of poverty and social exclusion by 2020. Active ageing policy is critical for the sustainability of our pension systems, and thus to meeting those targets. Pensions, as we know, are a thorny issue. Many people see the reforms being implemented across Europe as depriving them of hard-earned rights. But we have to come to terms with the fact that rising life expectancy and a shrinking workingage population demand some adjustment. Only by maintaining a good balance between the years we spend working and the years we spend in retirement can we ensure that we will have decent pensions at a reasonable cost. The Commission presented its thinking on pension reform in a White Paper in February 2012. The general thrust has been translated into specific recommendations addressed to many Member States. Extending people’s working lives is crucial to meeting the Europe 2020 employment rate target and balancing budgets in the long run. It means encouraging people to stay on the labour market longer and — most of all — enabling them to do so by improving their employability. Of course, we also need to combat unemployment among young people and make it easier for them to get into the labour market. The European Social Fund can be very useful for promoting employment of young and older workers alike. social investment Tackling challenges like population ageing calls for innovative policy and practice. Many excellent examples of social innovation emerged during the 2012 European Year, which, I hope, has helped disseminate new ideas. Many social innovations promoting active ageing are already being tried and tested across the EU. The challenge is to scale them up. Social innovation is also closely linked with social investment. The social investment approach recognises that social policy is a productive factor, and that it is necessary for economic development and employment growth. Social investment is based on the idea that social policy — implemented via well-designed, activating, flexible systems — can yield a high economic and social return. I intend to look at this in an ambitious social policy initiative at the beginning of 2013. Overall, the European Year 2012 has been a great success, but it is just the beginning on our journey of making full use of the potential that ageing societies bring. N.º 15, 2013 pliegos de yuste

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CrEATINg A NEw oLD CIAráN mCKINNEY mArINo INSTITUTE of EDUCATIoN, IrELAND Let me begin this article by asking you a couple of questions; What kind of world do you want to grow older in? How do you want to grow older? The reason I ask those questions is that there has never been a better time to be an older person in European society. We are living longer and the majority of us are living healthy lives in older age, lives that have opportunities for learning and taking part in the community. This is something to be celebrated and, of course, is an opportunity to imagine the future and be part of creating the vision for future generations. Ageing is something that happens to all of us so, let’s plan for the world in which we will grow older and imagine the kind of older person you want to be. During EY2012 the European Year for Active Ageing and Solidarity Between Generations there were many events to celebrate and highlight the benefits associated with active ageing. Active ageing is about making the best of our lives at each stage as we grow older and includes helping N.º 15, 2013 ourselves to be as physically, mentally and emotionally well as possible. The Year was also celebrating solidarity between generations and Member states highlighted the many ways in which intergenerational contact and solidarity is encouraged and maintained. A society that is age friendly is one that brings benefits to all ages. We are currently witnessing significant changes to the make-up of society across the globe. Europe (as with other Western countries) has an ageing population and life expectancy is increasing. Recent demographic data show that the European population aged 65 years and over is growing, and will continue to grow for the next few decades. According to the United Nations1 one out of every nine people in the world is over 60 yrs of age (this is 810 million people). By 2050 people over 60 will outnumber the population of children (under 14) for the first time in human history and one out of every five people will be over 60 (over 2 billion people). pliegos de yuste

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12 c r e at i N g a N e w o l d However, this demographic change is predominantly portrayed as a problem or a challenge i.e. how will society be able to afford the needs of a growing ageing population? The discourse on ageing is often confined to the costs of pensions and healthcare rather than the opportunities or bounty presented by an ageing population. We posed the two questions above because we have a vision for the future where older people realise our full potential and participate fully in an inclusive society. These two questions are being faced by lots of us as we get older, particularly because many of the expectations and norms associated with older age no longer apply. For many of us older age is a time of opportunity in which we continue togrow and flourish rather than accepting the view that older people should passively retire and cease to live lives of autonomy. As an organisation we focus on physical activity, learning and personal development and creativity as ways to facilitate active ageing. Our work in creativity led us to develop the Bealtaine festival – celebrating creativity as we age- which is now in its seventeenth year and is the largest cooperative festival in Ireland. This year we invited guests from all over Europe and beyond to a conference to consider how participation in the arts brings huge benefits to the ageing process. “Creating a New Old2” was an exciting and engaging three days of sharing good practice and networking. For some people creative ageing has already become a strategy to age well and, consequently, recent years have seen pro- jects and research that facilitate and address the impact of the arts on the health and wellbeing of older people from a broader perspective than the previously dominant problem-oriented approach to ageing. Creativity has been characterised as a key factor in adaptation to ageing (Smith & Andersson, 1989)3, and as promoting resilience in older people (McFadden & Basting, 2010)4. Maintaining and widening activity levels as one ages was found to lessen some negatives associated with ageing like functional decline, and to help people adapt to the ‘fourth age’ (Silverstein & Parker, 2002)5. Re-thinking how we regard ageing and older people will have a significant impact on policy making – in this instance arts/culture policies and policies on ageing. An international network, established and supported by Age & Opportunity will be a lead player in sharing and contributing to world-wide best practice, innovation and creativity. We organised “Creating a new Old” to bring people together so that they could share ideas and use the conference as a platform to encourage collaboration. It was a huge success and delegates left the conference feeling inspired and energised. Many of them expressed a desire to stay in touch with us and each other, which in effect was the start of a European network. If you are interested in being part of this network get in touch with me. We envisage this becoming a Europe-wide platN.º 15, 2013 pliegos de yuste

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ciaráN mcKiNNey 13 form of people (arts practitioners, teachers, people involved in delivering services to older people and policy makers) who share a vision for the future; making meaningful arts participation possible for older people in every society. You are invited to take part. NOTAS UN, 2012, Population Ageing & Development, 2012. 1 See our website for more details;www.bealtaine.com 2 Smith, G.J., & Andersson, G. 1989. Creativity as a key factor in adaptation to old age. Psychological Research Bulletin. 1989. 29(7) p.24-28 3 McFadden, S., & Basting, A., 2010. Healthy Aging persons and their brains: promoting resilience through creative engagement. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 26, p.149-161 4 5 Silverstein, M., and Parker, M.G., 2002. ‘Leisure Activities and Quality of Life Among the Oldest- Old in Sweden,’ Research on Aging, Vol. 24, No 5. pp528-547 N.º 15, 2013 pliegos de yuste

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‘whAT Do YoU mEAN bY DIffErENCE?’: ThE ArTISTIC USE of DIgITAL mEDIA bUILDS brIDgES bETwEEN ThE gENErATIoNS ALmUTh frICKE INSTITUT für bILDUNg UND KULTUr E.v., gErmANY Projects fostering intergenerational bonding and dialogue are increasingly in demand: The demographic profile of Europe is changing and by the year 2050 almost half of Europeans will be over 50, while at the same time the birth rate continues to fall. Demographic ageing is strongly affecting the relationships among generations. Family structures are changing: More and more children and young people are growing up far away from their grandparents and an increasing proportion of the population grows old without having children and grandchildren. Nevertheless, older people often wish to keep in touch with younger people to transfer own experiences and to keep up with a quick changing world. Young people value the wealth of experience and knowledge of the older generation and are keen on learning about past times. The demand for organising engagements between the generations is on the increase. The European project "mix@ges - Intergenerational Bonding via Creative New Media," explores in five European counN.º 15, 2013 tries how the artistic use of digital media can bring together both young and old. The project aims to encourage intergenerational bonding and support social linkage in order to challenge and overcome negative stereotypes between the generations and to foster cross-generation interaction. It endeavours to bridge both the generational gap as well as the digital divide by enhancing media literacy of older people, strengthening media competence of young people and allowing intergenerational access to digital media. Through its outcomes, products and recommendations the project aims to contribute to the European Year of Active Ageing and Intergenerational Solidarity in 2012 by enabling more older citizens to develop, enhance and use their skills in new ways. This complements the EY2012 consideration that older people ‘still have a lot to give and to experience even after they have reached an advanced age’. It encourages older people to partake in intergenerational activities and allow them to get involved in many social activities that pliegos de yuste

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