Inclusiveness for a prosperous and food secure drylands

 

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Inclusiveness for a prosperous and food secure drylands

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Inclusiveness for a prosperous and food secure drylands ICRISAT Annual Report 2013 Science with a human face

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Vision A prosperous, food-secure and resilient dryland tropics. Mission To reduce poverty, hunger, malnutri on and environmental degrada on in the dryland tropics. Photo: ICRISAT

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Inclusiveness for a prosperous and food secure drylands ICRISAT Annual Report 2013 Science with a human face About ICRISAT: www.icrisat.org ICRISAT’s scien fic informa on: h p://EXPLOREit.icrisat.org

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Cita on: ICRISAT Annual Report 2013. 2014. Interna onal Crops Research Ins tute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. Patancheru, Telangana, India: 56 pp. ISSN 1017-9933. Cover photo: Women in Chipata, Zambia shelling groundnuts in the company of friends and family. (S Sridharan, ICRISAT)

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Contents Messages 4 5 6 Message from the Director General Message from the Board Chair Research for development highlights Inclusiveness for a prosperous and food secure drylands 10 13 16 19 22 25 Watershed management transforms lives Just a small dose will do The power of Green SIM Regaining ground for Malawi’s groundnut West Africa: Time-traveling through future climates Leading the way to rural development in the Sahel About ICRISAT 28 29 33 36 38 50 50 51 52 53 54 ICRISAT Governing Board 2013 ICRISAT senior and collabora ve staff members New bilateral projects funded in 2013 Financial summary Capacity strengthening Publica ons Workshops, conferences and mee ngs in 2013 ICRISAT Ambassadors of Goodwill EXPLOREit@ICRISAT Awards 2013 ICRISAT in the NEWS Photo: PS Rao, ICRISAT

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Message from the Director General I nclusiveness is at the core of what we at ICRISAT, along with our partners globally, do to improve the livelihoods of the people of the drylands – the poorest, the hungriest, and the most marginalized people in the world. ICRISAT’s target, the dryland tropics, is home to 2 billion people, 650 million of whom are the world’s poorest of the poor, spread across 55 developing countries in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. People of the drylands are constantly plagued by poverty, hunger, food and nutri onal insecurity, and lack of empowerment. These regions are most vulnerable to climate change with very li le rainfall, degraded soils and poor social infrastructure. Being the only global agricultural research for development center focused on serving the dryland tropics, our commitment at ICRISAT is to put the people of these marginalized regions of the world first – empowering them to gain access to resources and to create opportuni es, to li their living standards, and to enable them to live fulfilling lives. This 2013, we chose ‘inclusiveness’ as our theme – in the context of being both a process and a goal. In this report, we illustrate how we innovate to include the poor, and the many elements we consider in pursuing inclusive agricultural research for development. Our inclusive strategy seeks to enable the dryland poor, par cularly the women, to par cipate, rather than be sidelined, in the development process. Our stories of inclusiveness show how the poor and other marginalized sectors are included in building solu ons – going past just interac ng and asking them what they need, but truly partnering with and le ng them take a real role, and a sense of ownership of the innova ons. We innovate to harness markets specifically to benefit the poor, carrying them from impoverished subsistence farming to prosperous market orienta on. We innovate to include – to bring innova ve techniques that are suitable to small farm sizes with less resources, to millions of smallholder farming families in the drylands. We include to achieve sustainable growth, enabling them to manage the risks they face, un l they are able to stand on their own, and become more resilient. In this annual report, we highlight our 2013 research for development achievements, while reflec ng on the “I” in our Inclusive Market-Oriented Development (IMOD) approach – the explicit goal to include the poor along the whole agricultural research for development (R4D) chain. During the year, one of the highpoints of our ac vi es was the visit of Mr Bill Gates, Co-chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Founda on, to the ICRISAT headquarters for the first me, to gain a be er apprecia on of the founda on’s R4D investments to the ins tute. During his visit, Mr Gates accepted to become the first ICRISAT Ambassador of Goodwill, to further champion our mission to reduce poverty, hunger, malnutri on and environmental degrada on in the drylands. We are proud to say that in the same year, we have been honored with the acceptance of Dr APJ Abdul Kalam, renowned scien st and 11th President of India, and Rt Hon James Bolger, former Prime Minister of New Zealand to be named ICRISAT Ambassadors of Goodwill, joining Mr Gates. ICRISAT will con nue to be heavily engaged in inclusive development, working along with the dryland poor as we strive to contribute to real improvements in their lives, as illustrated in the stories in this report. We will be fine-tuning our efforts and strategies, improving our effec veness, and strengthening our partnerships. “Inclusiveness” – a process and a goal – will always be at the core of our vision for a prosperous and food secure drylands. ICRISAT Annual Report 2013 4 William D. Dar Director General

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Message from the Board Chair G lobally, many people are excluded from development because of their poverty, gender, ethnicity, age, or disability. The effects of such exclusion are staggering and are deepening inequality across the world, par cularly in the drylands – home to the world’s poorest and most marginalized people. The solu ons can only be realized if all groups of people work together and contribute to create the opportuni es, share the benefits of development, and par cipate in decision-making. The year 2013 marked ICRISAT’s 41st year of existence, embracing the theme “inclusiveness.” As Chair of the Governing Board, I am very proud of ICRISAT’s commitment to innovate to include. We believe that the eradica on of poverty and hunger through sustainable and inclusive agricultural research for development (R4D) greatly depends on how we support the drylands, where many people depend directly upon a highly variable natural resource base for their livelihoods. We can also learn a lot from the people living in the drylands, as their strategies for resilience and their tradi onal and indigenous knowledge are a largely untapped resource. Mainstreaming “inclusiveness” along the whole R4D chain will give windows of opportunity for the 2 billion people in the dryland tropics to escape from poverty and hunger. In this annual report, we have stories of innova ons designed for the poor, and solu ons built with the poor. Some excellent examples featured in this annual report are: the fer lizer microdosing approach – where smallholder farmers in ICRISAT’s target countries have refined the techniques for the applica on of small doses of fer lizer in the right place at the right me, combined with a warrantage system; the Green SIM story on appropriate knowledge and ICT tools for smallholder farmers; and regaining ground for Malawi’s groundnuts through crop improvement, affordable tes ng, and seed system. Dr Kanayo Nwanze, President of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), said “I have seen the miracles that take place when we give farmers the tools to enhance existing technologies,” when talking about ICRISAT’s microdosing program. This tool has tremendously impacted millions of smallholder farmers’ livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa with dramatic improvements in yields. This is just one example of how appropriate technologies and innova ons can ensure that the benefits of AR4D reach the end users – in this case, the smallholder farmers – and when they are included in building the solu ons they can claim their own. The Governing Board will always be a constant source of guidance and encouragement to fuel the enthusiasm of the highly dedicated and mo vated ICRISAT team – in a journey of inclusiveness, through change, growth, stronger partnerships, global recogni on, and enhanced agricultural impacts for the benefit of the dryland poor of the world. ICRISAT Annual Report 2013 5 Nigel Poole Chair, Governing Board

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Research for development highlights he year 2013 was a rewarding and fulfilling year for ICRISAT in terms of scien fic contribu ons and impacts on the lives of the smallholder farmers in the dryland tropics of Asia and subSaharan Africa. Presented below are some of the highlights of the research for development (R4D) ac vi es that ICRISAT accomplished during 2013, with Inclusive Market-Oriented Development (IMOD) as the unifying framework, under four strategic thrust areas: Resilient Dryland System; Markets, Ins tu ons and Policies; Grain Legumes; and Dryland Cereals. ICRISAT is also leading two CGIAR Research Programs – Grain Legumes and Dryland Cereals, and is involved as a partner Center in five other CGIAR Research Programs on: Dryland Systems; Policies, Ins tu ons and Markets; Agriculture for Nutri on and Health; Water, Land and Ecosystems; and Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security. T ICRISAT sorghum lines were developed with high biomass and resistance to lodging, and seven lines tolerant to shoot fly were developed. Database on iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in sorghum germplasm ICRISAT has evaluated a large number of landraces (2246), hybrid parents (>500 B-lines and 100 R-lines), breeding lines and commercial sorghum cul vars (67) over the years (2005 to 2011) for grain Fe and Zn concentra ons and important agronomic traits. In 2013, a database on Fe and Zn concentra on in sorghum germplasm was made available in the public domain (h p://hdl.handle. net/11038/10081) for use by global sorghum researchers. For pearl millet, ICRISAT already released a publica on in 2009 providing important agronomic traits for 99 designated seed parents (B-lines). This publica on has been made available open access (h p://ec2-50-19-248-237.compute-1. amazonaws.com/1330/1/157_2009_Morphological_ Characteris cs.pdf). ICRISAT Annual Report 2013 6 Crop improvement More than 905 advanced breeding lines/varie es developed by ICRISAT and partners were included in Na onal Performance Trials to be evaluated for local adapta on and for possible release as improved cul vars for adop on by farmers. This is to make quality seed of improved varie es more available to farmers. ICRISAT and partners (NARS scien sts and extension staff, including NGOs and farmers’ groups), have also produced large quan es of breeder, founda on, cer fied and quality-declared/ truthfully-labelled seed (total of 72,688.8 tons) for dissemina on to the farming community. During 2013, NARS partners have released five chickpea, one groundnut, and two pearl millet varie es using ICRISAT germplasm and/or breeding lines. Thirteen heat-tolerant pearl millet breeding lines were developed with high seed set at more than 42 C. Twelve ICRISAT pearl millet lines resistant to blast were made available to NARS breeders. Eight Genome sequencing of 90 chickpea lines An ICRISAT-led global research team has completed high-quality sequencing of not one but ninety genomes of chickpea (Nature Biotechnology, 31: 240246). The chickpea genome sequencing project was undertaken by the Interna onal Chickpea Genome Sequencing Consor um (ICGSC) led by ICRISAT, the University of California-Davis (USA), and BGIShenzhen (China) with involvement of key na onal partners in India, USA, Canada, Spain, Australia, Germany and the Czech Republic.

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Germplasm conserva on ICRISAT is conserving 120,454 accessions in its gene banks in five countries across Africa and Asia – at its headquarters in India and its African loca ons in Zimbabwe, Malawi, Kenya, and Niger. A total of 6863 germplasm lines were distributed by the ICRISAT gene banks during 2013. In 2013, ICRISAT shipped 104,000 germplasm samples to the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Norway for conserva on as a duplicate set of germplasm. This includes samples of sorghum, pearl millet, chickpea, pigeonpea, groundnut and six small millets. project farmers increasing sorghum grain yields by 35-52% and fodder yields by 27-34% in three years. A new seed consor um was also formed to develop a sustainable seed system for easy access and availability to farmers of improved sorghum seed for the postrainy season. Growing dual-purpose postrainy-season sorghum cul vars has provided farmers in the drought-affected Marathwada and Western Maharashtra regions with higher grain yields and be er fodder quality and quan ty. Natural resource management Phase 2 of the Bhoochetana (land rejuvena on) ini a ve in the state of Karnataka, India was launched in 2013. This followed the success of the first 4-year phase, a partnership between ICRISAT and the state government to help make small farms more produc ve, diverse and resilient to drought, using science-based, low-cost and sustainable solu ons. This program is a good example of how to apply agricultural R4D to smallholder farms on a large scale. Phase 2 aims at strengthening Bhoochetana’s impact across rainfed and irrigated lands in the 30 districts of Karnataka, increasing yields by a further 20%. Despite poor rains in 2011, three million smallholder farmers across the 30 districts of Karnataka saw their yields increase up to 66%, bringing in extra profits of US$ 130 million. Tropical Legumes II project In Malawi’s Mchinji area, the Tropical Legumes II project organized farmers into groups to receive startup groundnut seed from ICRISAT to set up community seed banks, leading to the spread of improved varie es in the communi es. In 2013, the ac vity is currently running in three districts and boasts of 174 seed banks with about 8,000 farmers. In India, new chickpea and pigeonpea varie es have been adopted in several districts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, replacing the old variety with improved cul vars. The project achieved 85% area replacement of old varie es with new ones in Rangareddy district of Andhra Pradesh, leading to a doubling of produc vity – from 750 to 1500 kg/ ha during the past 7 years with direct benefits to approximately 40,000 smallholder farmers. To date, the total legume seed produced by partners through the project stands at 222,531 MT. Gender research strategy In 2013, gender integra on into research has been formalized in a Gender Research Strategy. A few examples of ICRISAT’s gender focus in R4D are: (1) Access to knowledge and income opportuni es – in 2013, 49% of 3,764 farmers engaged in pigeonpea seed produc on under the Irish Aid-supported Malawi Seed Industry Development Programme were women, a 13% increase from the previous year; (2) Be er understanding of women’s role in family nutri on for be er policies through the Village Dynamics Studies in South Asia (VDSA); (3) Training and par cipatory research for be er family nutri on under the AnBeJigi project in Mali, where HOPE (Harnessing Opportuni es for Produc vity Enhancement) project In Maharashtra, India the HOPE project’s five-point package of prac ces (in-situ moisture conserva on, improved cul vars, wide row spacing, use of fer lizers and insectpest management) with local partners has seen over 25,000 ICRISAT Annual Report 2013 7

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women have adopted nutri ous whole grain recipes using local produce, tested during collec ve cooking events; and (4) Adop on of improved crop varie es to ease women’s workload, like the CG7 groundnut variety in Malawi, a bunch type that is easier to harvest than tradi onal spreading varie es. studies aim to establish the contribu on of the ins tute’s R4D in achieving ins tu onal outcomes – self-sufficiency, intensifica on, diversifica on, resilience, nutri on and health, capacity building and gender perspec ves. Agri-business incuba on Integra ng nutri on Integra ng nutri on is an essen al cross-cu ng theme in ICRISAT’s holis c approach to R4D. ICRISAT works with smallholder farmers to grow more resilient, nutri ous and diverse food. Our R4D solu ons in the fight against malnutri on include: development of micronutrient-rich biofor fied crop varie es; appropriate grain prepara on and processing to improve nutri on value in Mali; promo ng the cul va on of legumes for a more diversified diet helps improve the family’s nutri on in Malawi; and par cipatory aflatoxin awareness programs, and training in the management of and access to aflatoxin-resistant seeds in Mali. In June 2013, world leaders came together to sign a global pact in the fight against malnutri on at the Nutri on for Growth Summit co-hosted by Bri sh Prime Minister David Cameron. ICRISAT’s work with smallholder farmers to grow more resilient, diverse and nutri ous food and the ins tute’s focus on gender was featured in a photo slideshow published on BBC (h p:// www.bbc.com/news/ world-22820185) in line with this historic event. In 2013, the Agri-Business Incuba on (ABI) program under the Agribusiness and Innova on Pla orm (AIP) celebrated its 10th anniversary highligh ng its success as a proven model in agribusiness incuba on replicated in different loca ons in India, and scaledup to a global level, especially in Africa and Asia, through partnership with various R4D agencies. To date, it has supported over 200 agribusiness ventures, benefited more than 500,000 farmers in Andhra Pradesh and neighboring states in India, facilitated the commercializa on of more than 100 agro-technologies, and extended its handholding and mentoring services to 22 Business Planning and Development units set up under the Na onal Agricultural Innova on Project (NAIP) under the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). More recently, ABI has taken its co-business incuba on services to Africa, mentoring and handholding six value chain agribusiness innova on and incuba on consor a spread across five countries in Ghana, Mali, Kenya, Uganda and Zambia. This is being done in partnership with the Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) as part of the Universi es, Businesses and Research in Agricultural Innova on (UniBRAIN) project. ICRISAT Annual Report 2013 8 ICRISAT’s data management policy and implementa on guidelines In close sync with the CGIAR Open Access and Data Management Policy approved by the Consor um Governing Board in 2013, ICRISAT has developed a Data Management Policy to mainstream be er data management, for quality data sharing and making it open access for public use. This policy promotes data management prac ces across the Ins tute and helps to bring in the required cultural shi among staff to share research data and make it open access for future use. Impact assessment studies Four impact assessment studies were completed in 2013. This included studies on: (1) Impact of fer lizer microdosing research and development in semiarid Zimbabwe; (2) Impact assessment of Lucheba watershed management in China; (3) Assessment of the impact of improved pigeonpea research and development in Tanzania; and (4) Socio-economic impacts of groundnut research and development investments in Malawi. ICRISAT’s impact assessment

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Increased use of Open Access data pla orms ICRISAT and partner scien sts are making datasets available to the global community. Scien sts upload their validated published and unpublished data into Dataverse pla orm. To date, 464 data files are available in Dataverse (h p://dataverse.icrisat.org/ dvn/). The archive is witnessing a gradual increase in usage. This archive complies with all modern protocols and iden fier systems. non-ISI/Thomson), 12 books, 54 book chapters and several others, giving an average of 2.75 publica ons per scien st (1.27 publica ons in Thomson Scien fic Indexed journals per scien st and an average of 1.48 publica ons in non-Thomson Scien fic Indexed journals). Management will con nue to encourage all scien sts to publish the results of their research in high quality journals in combina on with open access outlets. Scien fic publica ons ICRISAT has a strong scien fic publica on record (h p://oar.icrisat.org/). In 2013, ICRISAT scien sts produced 364 publica ons, which include 221 peerreviewed journal ar cles (168 ISI/Thomson and 53 CL Laxmipathi Gowda Deputy Director General - Research Photo: S Sridharan, ICRISAT ICRISAT Annual Report 2013 9

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Watershed management transforms lives An inclusive and par cipatory integrated watershed management program has brought prosperity to the small rainfed village of Lucheba, China. ICRISAT Annual Report 2013 Village roads constructed through collec ve ac on 10 n l a decade ago, the steep slopes of the Lucheba watershed were hot spots of poverty and malnutri on. Agriculture in this rainfed area was a challenge for smallholder farmers, with scarce water supply compounded by degraded natural resources, low crop yields, and lack of access to roads and market. Fast forward to 2013 – the watershed area is now covered with lush green vegeta on. The old and dilapidated houses that once stood in the village square have been transformed into brand new concrete houses with big courtyards and gates, equipped with modern appliances and gadgets. “We started using harvested rainwater for cul va on, and everything just changed,” said Mr Peng Fay Ou, a farmer with a one hectare landholding in the Lucheba watershed. With seven members in the family, he used to earn 3,000 RMB (US$ 500) per year. Now his agricultural income has increased three folds, to 10,000 RMB (US$ 1,650) per year, largely due to growing vegetables thrice in a year using harvested rainwater. U ICRISAT’s interven ons through its par cipatory integrated watershed management program (IWMP) have changed the lives of hundreds of smallholder farmers and their families in the small village of Lucheba. Unlocking the poten al of rainfed areas For the people of Lucheba, change began a decade ago, when ICRISAT and the provincial government brought to the village the results of its long years of research for development work on integrated management of natural resources for sustainable rainfed agriculture. In partnership with the Guizhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences (GAAS), the na onal agricultural research system, local communi es, and farm families, ICRISAT led a consor um of partners in implemen ng the Lucheba watershed program supported by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) from 2003 to 2006. Focused on reducing poverty and land degrada on by adop ng an inclusive, farmer par cipatory approach, the watershed management program introduced into

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An investment of US$ 472,191 in the Lucheba watershed development program has gained a net present value of US$ 14.7 million, and 31.14 benefit-cost ra o at 20% internal rate of return (IRR). Photo: ICRISAT under the Lucheba watershed program. the small village various interven ons such as soil and water management, improved cropping systems, crop diversifica on, integrated nutrient management, and integrated pest management prac ces, along with other income-genera ng microenterprises such as poultry and pig rearing. Throughout the program's dura on, the communi es were involved and played an ac ve part, from iden fica on of constraints and interven ons, implementa on, monitoring and evalua on, to impact assessment. As an entry point ac vity, the community came together in implemen ng two drinking water schemes by harves ng water from natural springs, and transpor ng the water through pipes in the villages. Throughout the program, the community undertook the construc on of 151 rainwater harves ng structures-cum-irriga on water storage tanks, plan ng of 133,600 trees on 100 ha of wasteland, construc on of an approach road, and crop diversifica on with high-value vegetable crops in the watershed. More than 260 biogas plants were set up in the village households to reduce pressure on fuel wood and to protect the forests. The whole village now has biogas-powered street ligh ng. Farmers with support from the project, their own contribu on and par al support from the government, constructed a 4.8 km village approach road from the main road to facilitate the transporta on of the vegetables produced to the markets. Later, a 6 km-long field road was constructed with support from the government. Clear and sustained impacts In 2013, seven years a er the comple on of the ADB-supported watershed program implemented in 2003-2006, ICRISAT revisited the small village of Lucheba in a study tled “Impact Assessment of Lucheba Watershed, China” targeted to gain a fair understanding of the extent of impact of the watershed program at the village level involving the whole community. ICRISAT Annual Report 2013 11

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Now managed by farmers and other community members, the Lucheba watershed program has clearly demonstrated the long-term sustainability of an inclusive development interven on in terms of crop produc vity, women empowerment and poverty eradica on. While a large number of studies have pinned watershed development program as among the most appropriate strategies for the development of rainfed agriculture ecosystem, few have been as successful and sustainable as the Lucheba watershed program. Engaging people, inclusive growth Mrs Song Pangying is now a micro-entrepreneur. While her husband works away on their one hectare land, Mrs Song runs a small grocery shop in another village. The family’s investments have extended to poultry raising. Mrs Song’s daughter-in-law, Mrs Caiyang Ju is 22 years old, cooks for the family and takes care of the home in the absence of her mother-in-law. She plans to expand to vegetable cul va on to earn more income for the family for a be er life. ICRISAT Annual Report 2013 A woman farmer enjoying the sight of her lush field of vegetables. Photo: ICRISAT “In all 1,347 people residing in the 43 km2 area with 340 households in 6 village farmers’ groups have benefited immensely in terms of improved quality of life, be er environment, and increased incomes,” said Mr Yang, village chief of Lucheba. “Our farmers are now well trained with new technologies, and are able to cope be er in any adverse situa on, like low market prices. The change in the village happened when our farmers started growing vegetables instead of rice – farmers now harvest rainwater, and are highly aware of water-use efficiency,” Mr Yang added. The impact assessment study confirms that the Lucheba watershed model holds promise as an appropriate approach for improving the natural resource base and enhancing livelihood op ons, and that it can be replicated in other dryland ecosystems in China. The outcomes of the case study also suggest that scien sts and policy makers of technical and ins tu onal arrangements for watershed development programs should have an in-depth understanding of the socio-economic and ecological linkages and stakeholders’ percep ons for long term shared watershed management. The Lucheba watershed program has indeed shown that building solu ons and making decisions together bring las ng benefits for all. 12 “We wanted to move to ci es in search of be er opportuni es. Back then, money was very hard to come by. But now due to the watershed program we are able to iden fy new ways to earn more,” says Mrs Wang Xianhui, women group leader in Lucheba. “Our village environment is cleaner than in the ci es.” Economic transforma on in Lucheba ▪ Increased average household land area with irriga on by 94%; reduced rainfed area by 34%. ▪ Area with high-value crops, like vegetables, of average household increased from improved water conserva on measures ▪ Yield levels of crops increased by 6-19% in rice and maize, and 32-673% for various vegetables. ▪ Farm-based employment and income shows that diversifica on in favor of high-value vegetable crops has increased labor earning by 82%. ▪ Farm income from crops, largely vegetables, increased by 192%. ▪ Total household income rose by 32%. ▪ Crop diversifica on significantly improved household food availability/security, shi ing dietary pa erns in favor of fish, meat, milk and eggs, while retaining cereal consump on. ▪ The Lucheba watershed development program cost of US$ 472,191 has gained a net present value of US$ 14.7 million, and benefit-cost ra o of 31.14 at 20% internal rate of return (IRR) on investment. Branded high-value crops being collected at a farmer’s house in the Lucheba watershed. The big house was built out of income earned from produce sold from the plots in the watershed. Photo: ICRISAT

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Photo: M Moyo, ICRISAT Philip Tshuma and his family proudly show extension agents their sorghum and pearl millet fields with microdosing applica on. Just a small dose will do In Zimbabwe, a bo le cap’s worth of fer lizer applied in the right place at the right me – is leading to drama c improvements in yields and incomes of smallholder farmers. technique developed by ICRISAT and its partners, using a bo le cap system so farmers can measure out small, affordable amounts of fer lizer.” Dr Nwanze believes that there is huge poten al to increase yields using low-cost and exis ng technologies. Escaping subsistence farming Crop yields in the semi-arid areas of Zimbabwe have been declining steadily over the years, mainly due to a decline in soil fer lity and droughts. Research results show that between 75 and 90% of cropped land in Zimbabwe is unfer lized each season, and average applica on rates for nitrogen fer lizer by smallholder farmers is only 3 kg per hectare. But how can resource-poor farmers get the highest returns from the fer lizer quan es they are able to afford? Resource poor farmers are likely to adopt lower rates as these are what they can afford. With I nclusiveness is about bringing life-changing innova ons to millions of smallholder farming families who have the biggest needs – techniques that are adapted to smallholder, resource-poor farmers. The President of the Interna onal Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) Dr Kanayo Nwanze, speaking at the 6th Africa Agriculture Science Week opening ceremony in Accra, Ghana, said “We have seen good results from a fer lizer microdosing ICRISAT Annual Report 2013 13

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