Il problema sociale degli uomini: rapporto finale (2000-2003)

 

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The European Research Network on Men in Europe: The Social Problem and Societal Problematisation of Men and Masculinities

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EU RESEARCH ON SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES The social problem of men Volume 1 FINAL REPORT EUR 21104

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Interested in European research? RTD info is our quarterly magazine keeping you in touch with main developments (results, programmes, events, etc). It is available in English, French and German. A free sample copy or free subscription can be obtained from: European Commission Directorate-General for Research Information and Communication Unit B-1049 Brussels Fax : (32-2) 29-58220 E-mail: research@cec.eu.int Internet: http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/rtdinfo/index_en. EUROPEAN COMMISSION Directorate-General for Research Directorate K – Knowledge-based economy and society Unit-K.4 – Research in the social sciences and humanities E-mail: rtd-citizen@cec.eu.int

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EUROPEAN COMMISSION EU RESEARCH ON SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES The social problem of men Volume 1 Final report Project HPSE-CT1999-00008 Funded under the Key Action ‘Improving the socio-economic knowledge base’ of FP5 Directorate-General Research Edited by: Jeff Hearn, Ursula Müller, Elzbieta Oleksy, Keith Pringle, Janna Chernova, Harry Ferguson, Øystein Gullvåg Holter, Voldemar Kolga, Irina Novikova, Carmine Ventimiglia, Emmi Lattu, Teemu Tallberg and Eivind Olsvik, with the assistance of Satu Liimakka, Hertta Niemi, Diane McIlroy and Jackie Millett Coordinator of project: Keith Pringle University of Sunderland School of Humanities and Social Sciences Partners: Harry Ferguson, University of The West of England, Faculty of Health and Social Care, England Voldemar Kolga, Tallinn Pedagogical University, Department of Psychology, Estonia Øystein Gullvåg Holter, University of Oslo, The Nordic Institute for Women’s Studies and Gender Research, Norway Elzbieta Olesky, University of Lodz, Women’s Study Center, Poland Carmine Ventimiglia, Università di Parma, Istituto di Sociologia e di Studi Politici, Italy Ursula Müller, University of Bielefeld, Department of Sociology, Germany Jeff Hearn, Svenska Handelshogskolan, Department of Management and Organisation, Finland Irina Novikova, University of Latvia, The Center for Gender Studies, Latvia Janna Chernova, European University at St Petersburg, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology, Russia October 2004 2004 Directorate-General for Research Citizen and governance in a knowledge-based society EUR 21104

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EUROPEAN COMMISSION RESEARCH Directorate-General for Research Director General: Achilleas Mitsos The Directorate-General for Research is responsible for implementing EU level policies and activities in view of the development of the European Research Area. It initiates and implements the necessary Community actions, in particular the RTD Framework Programmes in terms of research and technological development. It also contributes to the implementation of the “Lisbon Strategy” regarding employment, competitiveness at international level, economic reform and social cohesion within the European Union. The Directorate " Social Sciences and Humanities; Foresight" Directorate K, addresses key societal, economic and S&T challenges for Europe. It identifies and analyses major trends in relation to these challenges and examines them in the light of the principal EU strategic objectives and sectoral policies. The overall context for its work is the transition towards the knowledge based economy and society in Europe. Within this overall framework, the Directorate provides a policy relevant research based capability executed through the promotion and management of research activities in the areas of social sciences, humanities and foresight, the exploitation of their results and its own analyses. In this way, the Directorate offers knowledge for policies (including RTD policies) while supporting the formulation of policies for knowledge. Scientific Officer: Virgina Vitorino Virgina.vitorino@cec.eu.int http://www.cordis.lu/fp6/citizens.htm, for information on Priority 7 – ‘Citizens and Governance in a Knowledge Based Society’ under the 6th Framework Programme. http://improving-ser.jrc.it/default/, the database of socio-economic projects funded under the 4th and 5th Framework Programme. Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union Freephone number: 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 LEGAL NOTICE: Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information. The views expressed in this publication are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission. A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu.int). Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2004 ISBN 92-894-7560-9 © European Communities, 2004 Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. Printed in Luxembourg PRINTED ON WHITE CHLORINE-FREE PAPER

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EU FP5 Thematic Network. The European Research Network on Men in Europe: The Social Problem and Societal Problematisation of Men and Masculinities (HPSE-CT-1999-0008) “THE SOCIAL PROBLEM OF MEN”: FINAL REPORT (2000-2003) Jeff Hearn, Ursula Müller, Elzbieta Oleksy, Keith Pringle, Janna Chernova, Harry Ferguson, Øystein Gullvåg Holter, Voldemar Kolga, Irina Novikova, Carmine Ventimiglia, Emmi Lattu, Teemu Tallberg, Eivind Olsvik, with the assistance of Satu Liimakka, Hertta Niemi, Diane McIlroy and Jackie Millett Project funded by the Key Action “Improving the socio-economic knowledge base”, 1999-2002

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PREFACE Within the Fifth Framework Programme of the European Union for Research and Technological Development (RTD), the Key Action "Improving the socio-economic knowledge base" carried broad and ambitious objectives, namely to improve our understanding of the structural changes taking place in European society, to identify ways of managing these changes and to promote the active involvement of European citizens in shaping their own futures. A further important aim was to mobilise the research communities in the social sciences and humanities at the European level and to provide scientific support to policies at various levels, with particular attention to EU policy fields. Since the launch of the Key Action in 1999 more than 1600 research teams coming from 38 countries have been mobilised. While most of these collaborative efforts involve researchers from EU countries, the participation of accession countries and new member states is already noteworthy with 189 research teams from these countries. The Key Action was implemented through the launching of three calls for proposals addressing different but interrelated research themes which contributed to the objectives outlined above. These themes can be regrouped under a certain number of areas of major policy relevance, each of which is addressed by a significant number of projects from a variety of perspectives. These areas are the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • Societal trends and structural changes; 16 projects, total investment of 14.6 Million Euro, 164 teams Quality of life of European Citizens, 5 projects, total investment of 6.4 Million Euro; 36 teams European socio-economic models and challenges Social cohesion, migration and welfare 30 projects, 28 Million Euro; 249 teams. 9 projects; total investment of 9.3 Million Euro; 91 teams. 18 projects; total investment of 17.5 Million Euro; 149 teams 13 projects; total investment of 12.3 Million Euro; 97 teams Employment, and changes in work Gender, participation and quality of life Dynamics of knowledge, generation and use 14 projects; total investment of 12.9 Million Euro; 105 teams 22 projects; total investment of 15.3 Million Euro; 134 teams 28 projects; total investment of 25.5 Million Euro; 233 teams 16 project; total investment of 12.8 Million Euro; 116 teams 9 projects; total investment of 15.4 Million Euro; 74 teams. Education, training and new forms of learning Economic development and dynamics 8 projects; total investment of 6.1Million Euro; 77 teams Governance, democracy and citizenship Challenges from European enlargement Infrastructures to build the European Research Area The insights and information that the reader will obtain in the following pages constitute the main scientific findings and the associated policy implications of the thematic network “The Social Problem of Men”. The work undertaken by this project, which brought together 10 research teams in a collaborative endeavour 3

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lasting 36 months, has certainly contributed to the advancement of knowledge particularly in the area of gender, participation and quality of life. The main objectives addressed by this project were the following: - Analyse and understand more fully across the EU and its potential new members the differential associations of men’s practices with a variety of social problems including: home and work; exclusion; violence; and health. - Formulate provisional strategies to address some of those problems in terms of national and EU responses on equal opportunities and other policy areas. - Identify areas for further ongoing enquiry to develop such strategies. - Given possible EU enlargement, anticipate some of the national and transnational social problems relating to the impact of men’s practices upon social cohesion and inclusion in existing and new members of the Union. - Gain a more adequate understanding of contemporary and changing representations of men, and negotiations around such representations in governmental and other official, media and research contexts. This report consists of two volumes: the first volume presents the main scientific and policy findings of the work undertaken and the second one assembles all related appendices. The abstract and executive summary presented in the first volume offer to the reader the opportunity to take a first glance on the main scientific and policy conclusions, before going into the main body of the research provided in the other chapters of this volume. While results of the projects financed under the Key Action ‘Improving the Socioeconomic knowledge base’ become available to the scientific and policy communities, Priority 7 “Citizens and Governance in a Knowledge Based Society” of the Sixth Framework Programme of the European Union for Research and Technological Development (RTD) is building on the progress already made and aims at making a further contribution to the development of a European Research Area in the social sciences and the humanities. I hope readers find the information in this publication both interesting and useful as well as clear evidence of the importance attached by the European Union in fostering research in the field of social sciences and the humanities. A. SORS Acting Director 4

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THE SOCIAL PROBLEM AND SOCIETAL PROBLEMATISATION OF MEN AND MASCULINITIES FINAL REPORT: “THE SOCIAL PROBLEM OF MEN” Jeff Hearn,1 Ursula Müller,1 Elzbieta Oleksy,1 Keith Pringle,2 Janna Chernova,3 Harry Ferguson,3 Øystein Gullvåg Holter,3 Voldemar Kolga,3 Irina Novikova,3 Carmine Ventimiglia,3 Emmi Lattu,4 Teemu Tallberg,4 Eivind Olsvik,5 with the assistance of Satu Liimakka, 4 Hertta Niemi,4 Diane McIlroy6 and Jackie Millett6 CONTENTS First Volume Abstract 1. Introduction 1.1 Purpose and Structure of this Report 1.2 The Research Network 1.3 The Organisation of the Research Network 1.4 The Research Context 1.4.1 Critical Approaches to Men’s Practices 1.4.2 Comparative Welfare Systems in European Contexts 1.5 The Research Task 1.6 The Changing Policy Context and the Changing Forms of Masculinities 2. Research on Men’s Practices (Workpackage 1) 2.1 Comparative and Methodological Issues 2.2 The General State of Research 2.3 General Discussion on the Reports, including the 4 Thematic Areas 2.3.1 Home and Work. 2.3.2 Social Exclusion. 2.3.3 Violences. 2.3.4 Health. 2.4 Conclusions 9 13 24 Principal contractor. 2 Network co-ordinator. 3 Network participant. 4 Research assistant. 5 Co-ordinator for Critical Studies on Men, NIKK, Oslo. 6 Network administrator. 1 5

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3. Statistical Information on Men’s Practices (Workpackage 2) 3.1 Comparative and Methodological Issues 3.1.1 General Discussion 3.1.2 Baseline Comparative Statistical Measures for the Ten Nations 3.1 The General State of Statistical Information 3.3 General Discussion on the Reports Including the 4 Thematic Areas 3.3.1 Home and Work. 3.3.2 Social Exclusion. 3.3.3 Violences. 3.3.4 Health. 3.4 Conclusions 3.4.1 The Explicit Gendering of Statistics on Men´s Practices 3.4.2 The Source and Methodology of Statistics 3.4.3 Unities and Differences 3.4.4 Recent Structural Changes and Constructions of Men 3.4.5 Interconnections Power and Social Exclusion 4. Law and Policy Addressing Men’s Practices (Workpackage 3) 4.1 Comparative and Methodological Issues 4.2 The General State of Law and Policy 4.3 General Discussion on the Reports, including the 4 Thematic Areas 4.3.1 Home and Work. 4.3.2 Social Exclusion. 4.3.4 Violences. 4.3.4 Health. 4.4 Conclusions 5. Newspaper Representations on Men and Men’s Practices (Workpackage 4) 5.1 Comparative and Methodological Issues 5.1.1 Methods of Analysis 5.1.2 Broader Comparative and Methodological Issues 5.2 The General State of Newspaper Representations 5.3 General Discussion on the Reports, including the 4 Thematic Areas 5.3.1 Home and Work. 5.3.2 Social Exclusion. 5.3.3 Violences. 5.3.4 Health. 5.4 Conclusions 5.4.1 Research: 5.4.2 Methodology: 5.4.3 Extent of Newspaper Coverage: 5.4.4 Distribution: 5.4.5 Violences: 5.4.6 The Cultural Dimension: 6. Interrelations Between the Themes 7. Policy Recommendations 35 51 72 85 90 6

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7.1 Home and Work 7.2 Social Exclusion. 7.3 Violences. 7.4 Health. 7.5 Interrelations between the Themes 8. Dissemination 8.1 The European Data Base and Documentation Centre on Men’s Practices 8.2 Publications 8.3 Links with Other Research Networks 8.3.1 Clustering with EU-funded Research Projects 8.3.2 Links with Other International Networks Outside Framework 5 8.4 Book Projects 8.5 Interface Workshops 8.6 Conference 9. Conclusion Bibliography 93 98 115 Second Volume (published electronically at http://www.cordis.lu/citizens/publications.htm ) Appendices Appendix 1: Institutional Affiliations of Network Members Appendix 2: Institutions and Universities of the Network Appendix 3: Affiliate Members of the Network Appendix 4: The National Reports on Research Appendix 4A: Key Points from the National Reports on Research Appendix 4B: Gaps Identified from the National Reports on Research Appendix 5: The National Reports on Statistical Information Appendix 5A: Baseline Statistical Measures on the Ten Countries, Tables 1-6 Appendix 5B:Proportion of total active workforce in professional and managerial work by gender, EU countries, 1960 and 1990 Appendix 5C: Key Points from the National Reports on Statistical Information Appendix 5D: Gaps Identified from the National Reports on Statistical Information Appendix 6: The National Reports on Law and Policy Appendix 6A: Key Points from the National Reports on Law and Policy Appendix 7: The National Reports on Newspaper Representations Appendix 7A: Key Points from the National Reports on Newspaper Representations Appendix 7B: The newspapers selected for analysis in each country Appendix 7C: Percentages of articles and space devoted to men and men’s practices in three analysed newspapers: summaries of selected countries Appendix 8: Example of Review of Key Points for one Country 7

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Appendix 9: First Interface Workshop, 5th –7th October 2001, Cologne, Germany Appendix 10: Second Interface Workshop, 26th – 28th April 2002, Lodz, Poland Appendix 11: Policy Option Paper I: National Options and Priorities Appendix 12: Policy Option Paper II: EU, European and Transnational Options and Priorities Appendix 13: Publications from the Network and Network members Appendix 14: Conference Announcement and Programme Appendix 15: Conference Participants Appendix 16: Conference Work Groups Appendix 17: Deliverable List and Status 8

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Abstract The Network: Changing and improving gender relations and reducing gender inequality involves changing men as well as changing the position of women. The EU Framework 5 European Research Network on Men in Europe (2000-2003) has aimed to develop empirical, theoretical and policy outcomes on the gendering of men and masculinities in Europe. The Network has investigated the social problem and societal problematisation of men and masculinities. ‘Social problem’ refers to both problems created by men, and those experienced by men. ‘Societal problematisation’ refers to the ways in which men and masculinities have become problematised in society. The Network comprises women and men, researching men as explicitly gendered, in Estonia, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Russian Federation and UK. The Main Phases of Work have comprised, first, four phases on academic and analytical literature, statistical information, law and policy, and newspaper representations, followed by analysis and dissemination. For each of the first four phases there are national reports for each of the 10 participating countries, along with four summary reports. The main focus is on four main aspects of men, masculinities and men’s practices: men’s relations to home and work; men’s relations to social exclusion; men’s violences; and men’s health. The European Data Base and Documentation Centre on Men’s Practices (www.cromenet.org) archives Network outputs. The Main Foci: Recurring themes in Home and Work include men’s occupational, working and wage advantages over women, gender segregation at work, many men’s close associations with paid work. There has been a general lack of attention to men as managers, policy-makers, owners and other power holders. Another recurring theme is men’s benefit from avoidance of domestic responsibilities, and the absence of fathers. In some cases this tradition of men’s avoidance of childcare and domestic responsibilities is very recent indeed and still continues for the majority of men. Social Exclusion has proved to be the most difficult area to pre-define, yet one of the most interesting. It figures in research in different ways, such as, unemployment, ethnicity, homosexuality, homelessness, social isolation. The recurring theme in Men’s Violences is the widespread nature of the problem of men’s violences to women, children and other men, and the growing public awareness of men’s violence against women. Men are overrepresented among those who use violence, especially heavy violence. This violence is also age-related. The major themes regarding Men’s Health are men’s relatively low life expectancy, poor health, accidents, suicide, morbidity. Some studies see traditional masculinity as hazardous to health. Contradictions: There is a profound, enduring contradiction between men’s dominance in politics and economy, and the social exclusion of some groupings of men. There is a comparable contradiction between the high responsibility placed upon some men for societal development, and the recognition of some men’s irresponsible behaviour in terms of health, violence and care. Policy Context: Men and masculinities are set within changing policy contexts. There have been huge historical changes in forms of masculinity and men’s practices, yet also stubborn persistences in some aspects of men and masculinity. The EU itself can 9

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be understood as a project of positive possibilities largely led and negotiated by men politicians after the Second World War in contradiction to short-term nationalistic interests. There is increasing recognition of the central place of men and masculinity in the collective violence of war. To understand the national and transnational policy context involves considering ‘the social problem of men’ within organisational and governmental policy formation, in national, regional and EU institutions. Changing gender relations both constitute governments and provide tasks for governments to deal with. Governments can be seen as both part of the problem and part of the solution. The social problem of men relates closely to EU social agendas. There is a need to develop policy options, ‘best practices’ and policies on men, as an important, urgent matter. Key issues include the relation of the EU to accession; migration; human trafficking, especially men’s actions as consumers. Policy Recommendations: Home and work. To encourage men to devote more time and priority to caring, housework, childcare, and the reconciliation of home and paid work; to remove men’s advantages in paid work and work organisations, as with the persistence of the gender wage, non-equal opportunities practices in appointment and promotion, and domination of top level jobs; policies on men in transnational organisations and their development of equality policies; to encourage men’s positive contribution to gender equality; to remove discriminations against men, such as compulsory conscription of men into the armed forces, and discriminations against gay men. Social exclusion. To reduce the social exclusion of men, especially young marginalised men, men suffering racism, and men suffering multiple social exclusions; reducing the effects of the social exclusion of men upon women and children; ameliorating the effects of rapid socio-economic change that increase the social exclusion of men; specifically addressing the transnational aspects of social exclusion of men, in, for example, transnational migration, and homosexual sexual relations; to change men’s actions in creating and reproducing social exclusions. Violences. To stop men’s violence to women, children and other men, assisting victims and survivors; enforcing the criminal law on clear physical violence, that has historically often not been enforced in relation to men’s violence to known women and children; making non-violence and anti-violence central public policy of all relevant institutions – including a focus on schools within extensive public education campaigns; assisting men who have been violent to stop their violence, such as men’s programmes, should be subject to accountability, high professional standards, close evaluation, and not be funded from women’s services; and recognising the part played by men in forms of other violence, including racist violence. Health. To improve men’s health; to facilitate men’s improved health practices, including use of health services; to connect men’s health to forms of masculinity, such as risk-taking behaviour; to focus on the negative effects of men’s health problems upon women and children; to ensure that focusing on men’s health does not reduce resources for women’s and children’s health. General. In designing policy interventions one must seek to bridge the central divide which has previously existed in much research on men i.e the splitting of studies which focus on “problems which some experience” from those which explore “the 10

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problems which some create”. While the creation of effective policy interventions in the field of men’s practices are vital, they must never be made at the expense of funding for services to women and/or children. Interrelations between themes. There were many interrelations, interconnections and overlaps between the four themes. For example, in most parts of Western Europe, there is a striking tendency to treat fatherhood and men’s violences as separate policy issues. There are countries which both enthusiastically promote fatherhood and, quite separately, address men’s violences, but do not join up the two. These two policy areas should be joined up. Another example is interconnections between social exclusion and men’s health. There is considerable research across many countries illustrating a correlation between poor health, including the poor health of men, and forms of social disadvantage associated with factors such as class or ethnicity. More generally social exclusion/inclusion can be seen as an important element entering into the dynamics of all the other themes. This emphasises the need for particular policy attention to social inclusion and far more research on men’s practices and social exclusion/inclusion. 11

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