COMPUTER_SYSTEMS FORM 4

 

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COMPUTER_SYSTEMS FORM 4

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SCHEMA LEARNING AREA 2 – COMPUTER SYSTEMS 2.1 System Concept 2.1.1 Overview of Computer Systems 2.1.1.1 Define computer systems A Computer System is defined as combination of component designed to process data and store files. 2.1.1.2 State the meaning of input, process, output and storage. PROCESS . MEANING: CPU or Central Processing Unit/ Processor/ Microprocessor is an electronic component on a computer’s motherboard that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer. Example of devices: Intel® Core™2 Duo Processor, AMD Athlon, G4, Mac INPUT MEANING: Any data and instructions entered into the memory of a computer. There are four types of input which are: text, graphics, audio and video. Example of devices: Keyboard, mouse, digital camera, joystick, trackball, touch screen, microphone, pointing stick, graphic tablet and scanner, barcode reader. OUPUT MEANING: The result of raw input data that has been processed by the Central Processing Unit (CPU) into meaningful information. Example of devices: Speaker, monitor, LCD projector, printer and plotter.

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STORAGE MEANING: A location in which data, instructions, and information are saved for future use. Example of devices: CDROM, diskette, hard disk, flash disk. 2.1.2.3 Describe the information processing cycle which includes input, process, output and storage. Process Output Input Storage INFORMATION PROCESSING CYCLE DESCRIPTION Information processing cycle of computer can be well described by the following points: (1) input, (2) processing, (3) output and (4) storage 1. Input-entering data into the computer. 2. Processing-performing operations on the data. 3. Output-presenting the results. User will input the data to be processed by the processor. The storage holds databases, files & programs. The output devices present the processed data as useful information products for the user. 4. Storage-saving data, programs, or output for future use. FETCHING STORING DECODING EXECUTING

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MACHINE CYCLE 4 Basic operation called Machine Cycle FETCHING : the process of obtaining a program instruction or data item from memory DECODING : the process of translating a program instruction into signal that the computer can execute EXECUTING : the process of implementing the instructions in a program STORING : the process of writing the result to the storage or memory 2.1.2 Data Representation 2.1.2.1 State the relationship of data representation: bit, byte and character. Computer recognizes 2 discrete: ON and OFF that represented by 2 digits 1 and 0 8 bits = 1 byte 8 bits = 1 character 2.1.3 Introduction to Binary Coding 2.1.3.1 Explain the function of ASCII code DEFINITION: American Standard Code for Information Interchange & was proposed by ASA in 1963 & was finalized in 1968. ASCII is standard of 7-bit code used to represent characters, which include letters, numbers & punctuation marks. ASCII Function of ASCII ASCII was established to achieve compatibility between various types of data processing equipment making it possible for the components to communicate with each other successfully. ASCII enables manufacturers to produce component that are assured to operate correctly in a computer. JUSTIFICATION ASCII makes it possible for humans to interact with a computer. It also enables users to purchase components that are compatible with their computer configurations. HOW ASCII WORKS IN A COMPUTER SYSTEM ? Example  1. Number 9 is typed using the keyboard 2. Electronic signal in sent to CPU for the computer to process. 3. Number 9 is converted to 00111001 4. Computer finishes processing the byte. 5. The software converts the byte back to the number 9 6. Number 9 is displayed on the monitor screen

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2.1.4 Data Measurements 2.1.4.1 State the unit of data measurement 1 Bit Single Binary Digit (1 or 0) 2 3 4 5 6 Byte Kilobyte (KB) Megabyte Gigabyte Terabyte (TB) 1 Byte = 8 bits 1 KB = 1024 bytes or 1 KB = 2 10 bytes 1 MB = 1 048 576 bytes or 1 MB = 2 20 bytes 1 MB = 1024 KB 1 GB = 1 073 741 824 bytes or 1 GB = 2 30 bytes 1 TB = 1 099 511 627 776 bytes or 1 TB = 2 40 bytes Additional notes: A petabyte (PB) is 1,024TB. Indiana University is now building storage systems capable of holding petabytes of data. An exabyte (EB) is 1,024PB. A zettabyte (ZB) is 1,024EB. Finally, a yottabyte (YB) is 1,024ZB. 2.1.5 Clock Speed Measurement 2.1.5.1 State the units of clock speed measurement: (Megahertz and Gigahertz) When people talk about a computer’s ‘speed’, they mean how fast it can process data. In other words, this means the speed the computer can turn data into information. Every microprocessor contains a system clock. The system clock controls the speed of all the operations within a computer. The speed of the clock in measured by how many cycles per second the clock makes. MEGAHERTZ (MHz) Mega is prefix that stands for million Example  one computer that operates at 933 MHz has 933 million clock cycles in one second. GIGAHERTZ (GHz) Giga is prefix that stands for billion 1 GHz equal to one billion cycles of the system clock For example, a microprocessor that runs at 200 GHz executes 200 billion cycles per second. This is what they a talking about if they say a computer is a 2.4 GHz machine. Its clock rate is 2.4 billion cycles per second. In relation with megahertz, 1.0 GHz is equivalent to 1000 MHz GHz is most often used as a measurement of a pc processor chip & power, with bigger numbers meaning more speed and higher price. Hertz & Second The clock speed unit is measured in hertz. 1 Hertz = 1 Megahertz (MHz) =

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1 GHz = 1 GHz = 1 000 MHz 2.2 Hardware 2.2.1 Input Devices 2.2.1.1 Identify the input devices used for text, graphic, audio and video. INPUT Dat DEVICES Any hardware component that allows users to enter data and instruction into a computer. TYPES OF INPUT Text Graphics Audio Video EXAMPLE OF INPUT DEVICES Keyboard, barcode reader Digital camera, scanner, graphic tablet Microphone, MIDI keyboard, digital voice recorder pen Digital video camera, webcam, CCTV 2.2.2 Output Devices 2.2.2.1 Identify the output devices used for text, graphic, audio and video. INPUT DEVICES Any hardware that is capable of delivering or showing o Information to one or more user. An output device shows, prints and presents the result of a computer’s work. EXAMPLE OF OUTPUT DEVICES Screen (monitor), printer, plotter Screen (monitor),printer, plotter Speaker, headphone LCD projector, screen (monitor) TYPES OF INPUT Text Graphics Audio Video 2.2.3 Motherboard 2.2.3.1 Identify the location of the central processing unit (CPU), expansion slots, expansion cards, RAM slots, ports and connectors on the motherboard.

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LABEL THE COMPONENTS:

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PORTS AND CONNECTORS: Power port mouse USB printer (parallel port) speaker monitor game port network telephone line out FM reception cable TV microphone keyboard USB serial port telephone line in svideo out

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COMPONENT Central Processing Unit Expansion Slot Expansion Card RAM Slot Port and Connector FUNCTION The Central Processing Unit (CPU) controls the operation of the computer. It interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer In computers, a slot or expansion slot, is an engineered technique for adding capability to a computer in the form of connection pinholes An expansion card is a circuitry designed to provide expanded capability to a computer. The slot where the computer memory, also called as RAM is placed on the computer’s motherboard. A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to a system unit so that the peripheral can send data to or receive information from the computer. A connector joins a cable to a peripheral PORTS AND CONNECTORS: TYPE OF PORT Serial Port Parallel Port USB Port Firewire Port FUNCTIONS Connect modem and old printer Connect printer Printer, external hard disk, mouse, scanner Require faster data transmission 2.2.4 Storage 2.2.4.1 Explain types and function of: - Primary Storage - Secondary Storage STORAGE PRIMARY SECONDARY Magnetic disk: floppy disk, hard disk, magnetic tape; video cassette, audio storage reel-to-reel tape ROM RAM Magnetic Medium Optical Medium CD, CD-ROM, and DVD CD-R: CD-RW, DVD-RW, and DVD-RAM Memory card, Flash drive Flash Memory

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PRIMARY STORAGE RAM o o ROM o o FUNCTION RAM is volatile, which means the program and data will be lost when the computer is turned off. Data from RAM can be read or retrieved and written or stored during processing ROM is non-volatile which means is holds the programs and data event when computer is turned off. data from ROM can just be read only. SECONDARY STORAGE Secondary storage is an alternative storage. It is very useful to store programs and data for future use. TYPE Magnetic Medium Optical Medium Flash Memory DESCRIPTION Magnetic Medium is a non-volatile storage medium. It can be any type of storage medium that utilizes magnetic patterns to represent information. The devices use disks that are coated with magnetically sensitive material. Optical Medium is a non-volatile storage media that holds content in digital form that are written and read by a laser. These media include various types of CDs and DVDs. Flash Memory is a solid-state, non-volatile, rewritable memory that functions like RAM and a hard disk drive combined. Flash memory store bits of electronic data in memory cells just like DRAM (Dynamic RAM), but it also works like a hard disk drive that when the power is turned off, the data remains in the memory. EXAMPLE Magnetic disk: floppy disk, hard disk, magnetic tape; video cassette, audio storage reel-to-reel tape CD, CD-ROM, and DVD CD-R: CD-RW, DVD-RW, and DVD-RAM Memory card, Flash drive 2.3 Software SOFTWARE o Software is a program which consists of a set of instructions that tells the computer how to perform a specific operation.

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TYPES OF SOFTWARE SYSTEM SOFTWARE A system software is a program that controls or maintain the operations of a computer and its devices o Microsoft Windows, MSDOS and MAC OS. o o ASPECT APPLICATION SOFTWARE o all programs that perform specific tasks for users. Definition o Examples Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Outlook Express and Internet Explorer. Enables users to work efficiently with documentation such as letters, accounting reports and presentations. Optional- depends on usage and needs. Without an application software, the computer is still able to function. Each computer can have more than one application software. Dependent- application software cannot work without system software. Provides the environment to enable users to accomplish specific tasks. Enables the computer to function properly. Usage o o Compulsory- each computer must have a system software to function Need o o o Each computer only needs one system software. Independent- system software can function without an application software. Provides the environment in which the applications run. Number of Software o o Dependency o Function o 1. Operating System System Software 2. Utility Program 2.3.1 Operating System (OS) OPERATING SYSTEM An operating system is a set of programs that schedule tasks, allocates storage and presents a default interface to the user between applications.

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2.3.1.1 State the various types of OS used on different platforms. PLATFORM PC Platform TYPE OF OS o Disk Operating System o Microsoft Windows XP o UNIX o LINUX o Mac OS o Mac OS X Cross-platform operating systems Apple Platform Operating Systems 2.3.1.2 State the function of OS Providing a user interface - When we start a computer, it loads the operating system into the computer’s memory. - This process is called booting. Booting means to load and initialize the operating system on a computer machine. it can happen in two ways: warm boot or cold boot. Starting a computer - When we start a computer, it loads the operating system into the computer’s memory. - This process is called booting. Booting means to load and initialize the operating system on a computer machine. it can happen in two ways: warm boot or cold boot. Managing data and programs - When we start a computer, it loads the operating system into the computer’s memory. - Multitasking operating systems enables users to work with two or more application programs at the same time. FUNCTION OF OS Managing memory - optimizing the use of random access memory (RAM) - allocating data and instruction to an area of memory while being processed - monitoring the contents of memory - releasing data and instructions from being monitored in memory when the process is done Configuring devices - Another function of an operating system is handling input and output, as well as enabling communication with input and output devices. - Most operating systems come with drivers for popular input and output devices. - These drivers install new devices and check whenever there is conflict with these devices.

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DIFFERENT INTERFACES OF OS COMMAND LINE INTERFACE o Requires a user to type commands or press special keys on the keyboard to enter data and instructions that instruct the operating system what to do. It has to be typed one line at a time. The command-line user interface is difficult to use because it requires exact spelling, syntax or a set of rules of entering commands and punctuation. We must observe the complicated rules of syntax that specify exactly what you can type in a given place. For example, if we want to rename a file name from ABC.txt to DEF.txt we use the following command. The command-line user interface also requires memorization. It is also easy to make a typing mistake. The advantage of command-line interface is, it helps the user to operate the computer quickly after memorizing the keywords and syntax. o o MENU-DRIVEN Enables the user to avoid memorizing keywords such as copy, paste and syntax. On-screen, menu-driven interface provide menus as means of entering commands. It shows all the options available at a given point in a form of text-based menu. Menu-driven user interfaces are easy to learn. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE o makes use of the computer’s graphics capabilities to make the operating system and programs easier to use, which is also called ‘user-friendly. On today’s PC’s and Macintosh. GUIs are used to create the desktop that appears after the operating system finishes loading into memory. We can easily differentiate the interfaces between Mac OS, Windows XP or Linux by looking at their desktops. Graphical user interface interact with menus and visual images such as buttons, icons and other graphical objects to issue commands. On the desktop, we can initiate many actions by clicking icons that represent computer resources such as files, programs and network connections. Graphical user interface is commonly used and has become a standard. o o o o o o o o o o o o 2.3.2 Application Software 2.3.2.1 State the types of application software (word processing, spreadsheet, presentation, graphic). Types of software 1. Word processing Example Proprietary Microsoft Word 2007, Corel Word Perfect X3, Lotus WordPro Microsoft Excel 2007, Corel Quattro Pro X3 Lotus 123 Microsoft Power Point 2007, Corel presentations X3 Lotus Freelance Adobe Photoshop CS3, Adobe Illustrator CS3, Corel Draw X3 Jasc Paint Shop Pro Ulead Photoimpact XL Open Source KWord OpenOffice.org Write AbiWord wikiCalc KSpread OpenOffice.org Calc StarOffice KPresenter JasperReports Ultimate Paint GIMP PhotoPlus 6 TwistedBrush Free edition Pixia 2. Spreadsheet 3. Presentation 4. Graphic

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2.3.2.2 Describe the uses of application software (word processing, spreadsheet, presentation, graphic). Spreadsheet Usage o Spreadsheet software is an application that allows users to organize and manipulate data in rows and columns. It produces worksheets that require repetitive calculationsbudgetingmaintaining a grade book, balancing accounts, tracking investment, calculating loan payments, estimating project costs and preparing financial statements. o Word processing Usage o A word processing software(word processor)allows users to create and manipulate documents containing mostly text and sometimes graphics. It provide the ability to create, check spelling, edit and format a document on the screen before printing it to paper. A word processing software can be used to produce documents such as letters memos, reports fax cover sheets, mailing labels, newsletters, and web pages. Presentation Usage Presentation software is an application that allows users to create visual aids for presentations to communicate ideas, messages and other information to an audience. o Graphic Usage Graphics software is an application that allows users to work with drawings, photos and pictures. It provides the users the ability of creating, manipulating and printing graphics. o o o o 2.3.3 Utility Program 2.3.3.1 Differentiate between the types and usage of utility programs (file management, diagnostic and file compression). UTILITY PROGRAM File Management Usage: File management is a utility program that performs functions related to files and disk management. It provides functions to delete, copy. move, rename and view files as well as create and manage folders (directories). File manager performs tasks of formatting and copying disks, displaying a list of files on a storage medium, checking the amount of used or free space on a storage medium, organising, copying, renaming, deleting, moving and sorting files and also creating shortcuts. Example: Windows Explorer Diagnostic Usage :A diagnostic utility compiles technical information about a computer's hardware and certain system software programs and then prepares a report outlining any identified problems. Information in the report assists technical support staff in remedying any problems. Example: Norton Utilities File Compression Usage: A file compression software that we use to shrink the size of files so they require less storage space and reduce transmission time if we send them over the internet. Example: WinZip, WinRar, PKZip

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2.3.4 Proprietary and Open Source Software 2.3.4.1 Differentiate between proprietary and open source software OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE Open source software is: o software provided for use, modification and redistribution o software that any programmer can download from the Internet for free and modify with suggested improvements. o the only qualification is that changes can't be copyrighted o User can get open source software for free of charge o User can install software freely into any computer o o o o o No one responsible to the software Users can modify the software Linux, Ubuntu, OpenOffice.org Write GIMP ASPECT PROPRIETARY SOFTWARE o Proprietary software is also called closed source software. The closed source software or proprietary software offers a stable system with support if the software fails or malfunctions. User must pay to get the proprietary software User must have a license from vendor before install into computer Full support from vendor if anything happened before install into computer DEFINITION PRICE LICIENSE o o o OWNER PRIVACY EXAMPLE o o o Users cannot modify the software MS DOS, MAC OS, UNIX, Solaris, Windows Adobe Photoshop CS3 2.4 Installation 2.4.1 Personal Computer (PC) Assembling 2.4.1.1 Assemble the components of a PC STEP 1 2 3 4 PROCEDURE Assembling the Motherboard Fixing the Processor Installing the RAM Connecting the Cables: 1) Connect the IDE cables to the motherboard 2) Connect other cables to their respective devices such as the processor fan, hard disk drive, floppy disk drive and CD-ROM drive Installing the Floppy Drive Installing the Hard Disk Installing the Optical Drive (DVD/CD-ROM) Installing Power Supply Connecting other Peripherals Powering the System Configuring the BIOS Setting 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

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2.4.2 Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting 2.4.2.1 Format and partition the hard disk. When do we need to format the hard disk? 1. Once the partition is created, the next screen will ask for the type of disk formatting to be used. 2. Formatting is the act of creating a file system on a volume, so that the operating system can store and retrieve data on that volume. Why do we partition the hard disk? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Limits accidental or deliberate damage of your data Increases security Making the computer run faster Organises Information Increases productivity 2.4.3 Software Installation 2.4.3.1 Install operating system, application software and utility programs. o Installing the operating system Example install Windows XP Professional o Installing an application software Example install Microsoft Office XP Professional with FrontPage o Installing a utility program Example install Antivirus Software - AVG Free Edition Anti-Virus

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