ICT_SOCIETY FORM 4

 

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ICT_SOCIETY FORM 4

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LA 1 — ICT & SOCIETY 1.1 Introduction to ICT 1.1.1 Overview of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 1.1.1.1 Define ICT Information refers to the knowledge obtained from reading, investigation, study or research. Communication is an act of transmitting messages. It is a process whereby information is exchanged between individuals using symbols, signs or verbal interactions. Technology is the use of scientific knowledge, experience and resources to create processes and products that fulfill human needs. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) ICT is the technology required for information processing, in particular, the use electronics computers, communication devices and application software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information from anywhere, anytime. 1.1.1.2 Describe the brief evolution of computers TECHNOLOGY TIMELINE 3500 BC :- The Sumerians developed cuneiform writing In 1500 BC :- The Phoenicians developed the alphabet In 105 BC :- Tsai Lun of China invented paper. In 1454 :- Creation of a printing machine. In 1793 :- Telegraph line was invented. In 1876 :- Telephone was introduced. In 1925 :- Television was introduced. In 1941 :- Computer was created. In 1958 :- Photocopier machine was introduced. In 1963 :- The Communication satellite was introduced. In 1969 :- The first Internet known as ARPANET was introduced. First generation computers (1940 – 1956) Vacuum tubes was introduces, is an electronic tube made of glass used as computer components to store and process data. ENIAC is first generation computer that contains weights of 30 tons, 18000 vacuum tubes, 30-50 foot space and 16000 watts of power. Second generation computers (1956 – 1963) Transistors replace vacuum tubes. Transistors are small devices that transfer electronic signal across resistor. Transistor do not produced lots of heats and use less power also faster, cheaper and smaller than vacuum tubes. Third generation computers (1964 – 1971) Integrated circuits (IC) replaced transistor. An IC is a complete electronic circuit on a small chip made of silicone. IC was reliable, compact and cheaper than transistors. 1|Page Information & Communication Technology

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LA 1 — ICT & SOCIETY Fourth generation computers (1971 – present) Microprocessor was introduced, from thousand of integrated circuits change onto single silicone chip. The Intel 4004 chip developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer from the central processing units and memory to input/output controls on a single chip. Computer is 100 times smaller than ENIAC computer in first generation. Fifth generation computer(present – beyond) Based on artificial intelligence are still in development though there are some applications such as voice recognition that are being used today. 2|Page Information & Communication Technology

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LA 1 — ICT & SOCIETY 1.1.2 ICT In Everyday Life: Education, Banking, Industry and Commerce 1.1.2.1 List the usage of ICT in everyday life. a. Education  Teachers use computers to research for teaching materials, participate in online forums and online conferences .  Students use the computers as a reference tool and browse the Internet .  Researchers use computers to collect and process data.  School administrators use computers for administrative purposes to make sure that the entire operation runs smoothly. b. Banking Electronic Banking Services:  Automated Teller Machine (ATM), Cheque Deposit, Electronic Fund Tranfer, Direct Deposit, Pay by phone system, Personal Computer / Internet Banking.  Customers can make any transactions at the 24 hour service centres or via online.  Businessmen using the online services, access company accounts for loan applications, business transactions and update their cash flow at any time.  Bank administrators can oversee the entire banking activities such as reconciliations, inter-branch transactions (IBT), telegraphic transfer and others by referring to the banking system. c. Industry  Computers are used to facilitate production planning and control systems  Computers help Workers operate machines.  Computers help Researchers to analyse and collect research data for future reference.  Administrators use computers to oversee and control the entire operations in the factory. d. E-Commerce  Computer makes buying and selling activities easier, more efficient and faster.  Customers use computers online with suppliers to purchase products.  Suppliers keep track of their transactions. All products are bar coded and can be read by the computer scanner to help in determining prices and managing inventory.  Employees use computers and telephones to communicate with their customers for any enquiries. 3|Page Information & Communication Technology

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LA 1 — ICT & SOCIETY 1.1.2.2 State the differences between computerised and non-computerised systems. FIELD BANKING BEFORE ICT Banking was done manually by taking deposits directly Transactions can only be made during working hours Takes time to approve any loan applications Production was slow because done manually and depended on human labour Trading using the barter system and currency. Advertisement was in the form of word of mouth, billboards and printed flyers. Trading extremely slow, late and expensive. Teachers use Chalk and talk for teaching ,forums and conferences AFTER ICT Transactions are done by computers Transaction can be done at anytime and place Fast : online services, phone banking system, credit cards are available Production fast : can be increased through an all day operation Distribution, buying, selling and servicing products that are done electronically INDUSTRY E-COMMERCE EDUCATION Teachers use computers to research for teaching materials, participate in online forums and online conferences 1.1.2.3 State the impact of ICT on society. Positive impacts a. Faster communication speed b. Lower communication cost c. Can share opinions and information d. Paperless environment e. Information and communication borderless through internet. Negative impacts a. Can be negative because it courage people to access pornography and violence web sites. b. Can harm uses for long hours used 4|Page Information & Communication Technology

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LA 1 — ICT & SOCIETY 1.2 Computer Ethics and Legal Issues 1.2.1 Definition 1.2.1.1 Define Computer Ethics, Code of Ethics, Intellectual Property, Privacy, Computer Crime and Cyber Law. Computer ethics is a system of moral standards or values used as a guideline for computer users ethical. Code of ethics is guidelines in ICT that help determine whether a specific computer action is ethical or unethical. Intellectual Property refers to works created by inventors, authors and artists. Privacy refers to the right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict and collection and used of information about them. Computer Crime is any illegal acts involving computers. Cyber law refers to any laws relating to protecting the Internet and other online communication technologies 1.2.1.2 Differentiate between ethics and law. Ethics As a guideline to computer users. Ethical behavior is judged by moral standards. Computer users are free to follow or ignore the code of ethics. No punishment for anyone who violates ethics. Universal, can be applied anywhere, all over the world. Not following ethics are called immoral Law As a rule to control computer users. To prevent misuse of computers Computer users must follow the regulations and law. No Punishments Depend on country and state where the crime is committed Not obeying laws are called crime 1.2.1.3 State the need for intellectual property laws. Copyrights for materials Trademarks for brand identity Patents for inventions Design for product appearance to establish and safeguard their intellectual property rights 5|Page Information & Communication Technology

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LA 1 — ICT & SOCIETY 1.2.2 Privacy 1.2.2.1 List ways to protect privacy. Privacy can be protected by: (a) Privacy law The privacy laws in Malaysia emphasises on the following: - Security Services to review the security policy - Security Management to protect the resources - Security Mechanism to implement the required security services - Security Objects, the important entities within the system Environment (b) Utilities software - Install anti-spam program, firewall, anti-spyware and antivirus - Purchase goods with cash rather than credit card - Clear your history file when you are finished browsing - Fill in only necessary information on warranty and registration form. 1.2.2.2 State authentication and verification methods / technologies. Authentication is a process where users verify their identity. Authentication deals with the problem of determining whether a user should be allowed access to a particular system. METHODS OF AUTHENTICATION There are two commonly used authentication methods, which are biometric device and callback system. Biometric device is a device that translates personal characteristics into a digital code that is compared with a digital code stored in the database. Callback system refers to the checking system that authenticates the user Verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification. METHODS OF VERIFICATION 2 methods : User identification refers to the process of validating the user. Processed object refers to something the user has such as identification card, security token and cell phone. 6|Page Information & Communication Technology

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LA 1 — ICT & SOCIETY 1.2.3 Controversial Contents and Control 1.2.3.1 List effects of controversial contents on society: • Pornography • Slander Pornography: Any form of media or material (books,video,photos) that show erotic behavior and intended to cause sexual excitement. can lead to criminal acts such as exploitation of women and children can lead to sexual addiction or perversion can develop low moral value towards other men, women or children can erode good religious, cultural and social beliefs and behavior Slander : Is a false spoken statement about someone, intended to damage his reputation. can develop into a society that disregards honesty and truth can develop bad habit of spreading untruths and rumors can lead to unnecessary argument can cause people to have negative attitudes towards another person 1.2.3.2 Describe the process of filtering to control access to controversial contents. Internet Filtering 1. Keyword blocking. Uses a list of banned word or objects terms such as xxx, sex, and nude. The filter searches, If found, it will blocked. 2. Site blocking. Use software to list the websites that will be blocked by using software. The software prevents users from being access the web sites on list. 3. Web rating system. Web sites are rating in terms of nudity, sex, violence and language. The web sites rate can be done by setting the browser to only accept page with certain level of ratings. 7|Page Information & Communication Technology

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LA 1 — ICT & SOCIETY 1.2.4 Computer Crimes 1.2.4.1 Explain the need for Cyber Law. Cyber law refers to any laws relating to protecting the Internet and other online communication technologies. Examples of Malaysian cyber laws : Digital Signature Act 1997 Computer Crimes Act 1997 Telemedicine Act 1997 Communications and Multimedia Act 1998 Private Data Protection Bill Electronic Government Activities Bill Electronic Transactions Bill The needs of cyber law are i. Integrity and security Information ii. Legal status of online transactions iii. Privacy and confidentially of information iv. Intellectual property rights v. Security of government Data 1.2.4.2 Explain briefly the computer crimes below: • Fraud • Copyright Infringement • Theft • Attacks Fraud : defined as having an intention to take advantage over or causing loss to other people through the use of computers. Examples : e-mail hoaxes, program fraud, investment schemes, sales promotions and claims of expertise on certain fields. Copyright infringement : defined as a violation of the rights secured by a copyright. Examples: illegal copy or reproduction of copyrights material by the black market group. Theft : defined as the unauthorized use of another person’s property with the intention to deny the owner the rightful possession of that property or its use. Examples : #transfer of payments to the wrong accounts, #get online materials with no cost, #tap into data transmission lines on database at no cost, #divert goods to the wrong destination. Attack : defined as any activities taken to disrupt the equipment of computer systems, change processing control or corrupt stored data. Examples : #Physical attack that disrupt the computer facility or its transmission lines, #An electronic attack that uses the power of electromagnetic energy to overload computer circuitry, #a computer network attack that uses a malicious code to exploit a weakness in software, or in the computer security practices of a computer user. 8|Page Information & Communication Technology

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LA 1 — ICT & SOCIETY 1.3 Computer Security 1.3.1 Definition 1.3.1.1 Define computer security. Computers security means protecting our computer systems and the information they contains against unwanted access, damage, destruction or modification. 1. Hardware security 2. Software security/data security 3. Network security 1.3.2 Security Threats 1.3.2.1 Explain briefly the different threats to computer security: • Malicious code • Hacking • Natural disaster • Theft Malicious code: known as a rouge program. It is a treat to computing assets by causing undesired effects in the programmer’s part. The effect cause by agent, with the intention to cause damage. The agent for malicious code is the writer of the code, or any person who causes its distribution. There are various kinds of malicious code. They include virus, Trojan horse, logic door, trapdoor and backdoor, worm and many others. Hacking is a source of threat to security in computer. It is defined as unauthorized access to the computer system by a hacker. Hackers are persons who learn about the computer system in detail. They write program referred to as hacks. Hackers may use a modem or cable to hack the targeted computers. Natural Disaster : mean Computers are threatened by natural or environmental disaster. Be it at home, stores, offices and also automobiles. Examples of natural and environmental disasters:  Flood,Fire,Earthquakes, storms and tornados,Excessive Heat,Inadequate Power Supply Two types of Computer theft: 1) Computer is used to steal money, goods, information and resources. 2) Stealing of computer, especially notebook and PDAs. 9|Page Information & Communication Technology

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LA 1 — ICT & SOCIETY 1.3.3 Security Measures 1.3.3.1 Select the appropriate security measures to overcome the identified computer threats. SECURITY THREATS Malicious Code Hacking Natural Disaster Theft Hacking SECURITY MEASURES Antivirus And Anti-Spyware Firewall Data Backup Human Aspects Firewall RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SECURITY THREATS AND SECURITY MEASURES Security threats may come from in many forms. Example: when someone is invading your account information from a trusted bank, this act is considered as a security threat. Security measures can be used to prevent this invader from getting the account information. Example: the bank can use a firewall to prevent unauthorised access to its database. MALICIOUS CODE THREATS VS. ANTIVIRUS AND ANTI-SPYWARE Security threats include virus, Trojan horse, logic bomb, trapdoor and backdoor, and worm. Antivirus and anti-spyware can be used to protect the computer from the threats by:  limiting connectivity  allowing only authorised media for loading data and software  enforcing mandatory access controls  blocking the virus from the computer program HACKING VS. FIREWALL Hacking is an unauthorised access to the computer system done by a hacker. We can use firewall or cryptography to prevent the hacker from accessing our computers. A firewall permits limited access to unauthorised users or any activities from the network environment. Cryptography is a process of hiding information by changing the actual information into different representation, for example, an APA can be written as 7&*. NATURAL DISASTER VS. DATA BACKUP The natural and environmental disasters may include: • flood, • fire, • earthquakes, • storms , • tornados Natural disasters may threaten a computer’s hardware and software easil y. Computers are also sensitive to their operating environment such as excessive heat or the inadequacy of power supply. The backup system is needed to backup all data and applications in the computer. With the backup system, data can be recovered in case of an emergency. THEFT VS. HUMAN ASPECTS Computer theft can be of two kinds:  can be used to steal money, goods, information and computer resources  the actual stealing of computers, especially notebooks and PDAs Measures that can be taken to prevent theft:  prevent access by using locks, smart-card or password  prevent portability by restricting the hardware from being moved  detect and guard all exits and record any hardware transported 10 | P a g e Information & Communication Technology

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LA 1 — ICT & SOCIETY 1.3.3.2 Apply the correct security procedures: • Antivirus • Anti-Spyware • Cryptography • Firewall • Data backup • Human aspects 1) ANTIVIRUS An antivirus program protects a computer against viruses . Examples: virus, worm or Trojan horse. 2) ANTI-SPYWARE Is a program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge. It secretly collects information about the user. Examples popular anti-spyware programs : • Spybot Search and Destroy • Ad-aware • Spyware Blaster 3) CRYPTOGRAPHY Is a process of hiding information by altering the actual information into different representation. Example, an APA can be written as I? X. PLAINTEXT Encryption CIPHERTEXT  Decryption  PALINTEXT 4) FIREWALL Is a piece of hardware or software which functions in a networked environment to prevent some communications forbidden by the security policy. 3 Types : SCREENING ROUTERS Simplest See only add & service protocol type Screen based on connection rules PROXY GATEWAY Somewhat complex See full text of communication Screen based on behaviour proxies GUARD Most complex See full text of communication Screens based on interpretion of message content 5) DATA BACKUP Data Backup is a program of file duplication. Importance information can be backups daily, weekly or biweekly from a hard disk. 6) HUMAN ASPECTS Refer to the user and also the intruder of a computer system. Example: Most common problem is the lack of achieving a good information security procedure. 11 | P a g e Information & Communication Technology

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