Chestnut (Castanea sativa): a Multipurpose European Tree

 

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Chestnut (Castanea sativa): a Multipurpose European Tree Based on the Workshop hold in Bruxelles the 30th of September 2010 Organizers: University of Florence (Faculty of Agriculture) University of Pisa (Faculty of Agriculture) Chestnut Study and Doc

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chestnut castanea sativa a multipurpose european tree brussels 30 sept 01 oct 2010 proceedings of the workshop chestnut castanea sativa a multipurpose european tree bruxelles 30 september 2010 organizers elvio bellini university of florence faculty of agriculture giovanni vannacci university of pisa faculty of agriculture chestnut study and documentation centre marradi-florence european chestnut network florence initiative granted by regione toscana d v ltd georgia patronage ministero delle politiche agricole alimentari e forestali regione toscana accademia dei georgofili associazione nazionale città del castagno associazione farina di neccio della garfagnana dop associazione per la valorizzazione della castagna del monte amiata igp consorzio di promozione e tutela del marrone del mugello igp venue regione toscana ­ rond point schuman 14 1040 bruxelles 8th floor 1

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chestnut castanea sativa a multipurpose european tree brussels 30 sept 01 oct 2010 2

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chestnut castanea sativa a multipurpose european tree brussels 30 sept 01 oct 2010 morning session 9.00-12.30 registration 8.30-9.15 reports max 20 minutes each 9.15-12.30 chairman michele pasca raymondo president of accademia dei georgofili sez intern bruxelles speakers and co-authors welcome speech on herbert dorfmann member of the european parliament welcome speech papuna khachidze chairman of forest department minister of environment protection and natural resources of georgia 1 castanea sativa the european tree marco conedera patrik krebs 2 multifunctionality of european chestnut trees ioan vasile abrudan francesco ferrini elvio bellini 3 pathogens and parasites of chestnut in europe stephanos diamandis alberto alma giovanni vannacci 4 sustainable orchards/chestnut forests management lorenzo santiago pereira werner maurer volker bouffier ernst segatz 5 enhancement of the chestnut fruit production and exploitation armindo aires afonso martins 6 enhancement of timber production jean lemaire marco togni marco fioravanti 7 economic aspects and effects of castanea sativa in europe the current situation and its potentiality luciano trentini stefano santarelli 8 chestnut fruits nutritional value and new products laura di renzo alessia bianchi antonio de lorenzo 12.30 buffet with chestnut-based products afternoon session 14.00-16.00 round-table the future of european chestnut trees chairman massimo burioni aggregate member of the accademia dei georgofili and ec dg research officer agriculture forestry fisheries aquaculture 3

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chestnut castanea sativa a multipurpose european tree brussels 30 sept 01 oct 2010 guest speakers ernst u schulte eu commission commission dg env b1 head of forest sector european roland beck eu commission dg agri unit h.4 bioenergy biomass forestry climate change gullermo cardon eu commission dg sanco directorate e -safety of the food chain unit e7 plant health dorota buzon eu commission dg sanco directorate e -safety of the food chain unit e7 plant health workshop secretariat stefano santarelli studio tecnico casati santarelli viale della repubblica 68 50032 borgo san lorenzo fi s.santarelli@studiocasatisantarelli.it phone +390558455046 mobile +39335334460 4

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chestnut castanea sativa a multipurpose european tree brussels 30 sept 01 oct 2010 workshop contents castanea sativa the european tree marco conedera patrik krebs multi-functionality of european chestnut trees ioan vasile abrudan francesco fellini elvio bellini pathogens and parasites of chestnut in europe stephanos diamandis alberto alma giovanni vannacci a diseases of sweet chestnut research state of the art and future priorities diamandis stephanos and giovanni vannacci b chestnut pests alberto alma ambra quacchia sustainable orchards/chestnut forests management lorenzo santiago pereira werner maurer volker bouffier ernst segatz 6-10 11-15 16-21 22-25 26-32 enhancement of the chestnut fruit production and exploitation in europe a martins gomes-laranjo e portela 33-41 enhancement of timber production fioravanti m lemaire j togni m quality and nutraceutical assessment of chestnut fruit laura di renzo phd alessia bianchi antonino de lorenzo md phd 42-55 56-67 round table discussion paper 70-85 5

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chestnut castanea sativa a multipurpose european tree brussels 30 sept 01 oct 2010 photos 6

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chestnut castanea sativa a multipurpose european tree brussels 30 sept 01 oct 2010 workshop 7

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chestnut castanea sativa a multipurpose european tree brussels 30 sept 01 oct 2010 castanea sativa the european tree marco conedera1 patrik krebs1 1 swiss federal research institute wsl ch-6500 bellinzona marco.conedera@wsl.ch summary the sweet chestnut castanea sativa mill is the only native species of the genus in europe the multipurpose character of the tree wood and fruit production in sylvopastural or sylvo-arable production systems soon attracted particular human attention during medieval times in most mountainous regions of europe the cultivation of chestnut became so dominant and indispensable for the survival of populations that rural life was organized with and around the species giving rise to a proper chestnut civilization despite a progressive decline of the chestnut cultivation starting in the xviii century and the present problems related to complete abandonment of phytosanitary threats the european chestnut area still covers in total 2.53 million hectares of which 2.22 million hectares are chestnut forests i.e forests where chestnut is the dominant tree species nevertheless the changing needs of a society that has moved from rural to industrial and urban-oriented and new competitors on the market e.g fresh fruits imported from china brought the european chestnut cultivation to a turning point towards a multipurpose and multiservice ecosystem management the chestnut has in fact the potential for both traditional products and new services and goods related to organic food and environmentally friendly products especially in marginal and mountain areas to reach this goal the research is called to play an important role in supporting the local politic and manager in updating and modernizing the chestnut groves services for the marginal areas in europe 1 origin of the european chestnut culture the sweet chestnut castanea sativa mill is the only native species of the genus in europe krebs et al 2004 demonstrated that castanea sativa most probably survived the cold periods of the last glaciation in europe about six european macroregions displaying scattered microenvironmentally favourable habitats the southern coast of the black sea the balkan peninsula southern and central italy between the tyrrhenian coast and the apennine ridge up to the french département of isère the hills of the pre-alps east from lago di garda especially the colli euganei the area of northern iberia cantabrian coast the multipurpose character of the tree wood and fruit production in sylvo-pastural or sylvoarable production systems soon attracted particular human attention at the latest starting with the greeks and the romans the chestnut tree and its cultivation has been extended to the whole central and southern europe making nowadays difficult to trace its precise original range and autoecology conedera and krebs 2008 during this first expansion phase wood production was the primary driving force behind the introduction of chestnut into europe conedera et al 2004a a major interest in managing chestnut for fruit production as well as in cultivation for self-sufficiency developed after the roman period and can be associated with the socio-economic structures of medieval times during this phase chestnut coppices for timber production and orchards for staple food production became widespread components of the traditional farming system in most mediterranean and in 8

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chestnut castanea sativa a multipurpose european tree brussels 30 sept 01 oct 2010 the southern parts of central europe chestnut became an essential source of food in many mountain regions what resulted in a wide range of cultivated varieties with different ripening periods early mid-season late types of use fresh consumption long-term storage drying flour animal feed and ranges of distribution higher altitudes lower slopes ubiquitous etc conedera and krebs 2008 the few regions where commercial transport routes already existed during the middle ages e.g piedmont or tuscany where the only places where chestnut plantations with just one or few high-quality chestnut or marron-cultivars were started in this period the fruits were then sold on the regional or even international markets pitte 1986 the marron varieties then defined as elliptic-shaped fruits of medium to large size with marked dark strips on the tegument which are light to peel no intrusion of the epispermatic pellicle in the cotyledons and sweet in taste bassi 1993 have traditionally been cultivated only in italy and a few areas in france in some regions of the iberian peninsula northern portugal and galicia double-purpose varieties fruit and timber production are quite common here the chestnut trees are topped above the grafting point usually 2 meters above ground level bourgeois et al 2004 this complex historical background makes it impossible to reliably estimate the number of chestnut cultivars or ecotypes existing in europe even if the inventories so far performed at the national level suggest that there are thousands more varieties conedera et al 2004b during this periods in most mountainous regions of europe the cultivation of chestnut became so dominant and indispensable for the survival of populations that the species was established at the limits of its potential ecological range pittes 1986 and many local traditions bylaws and property structures has been established for and around the chest tree cultivation what some authors do not hesitate to identify as chestnut civilization and chestnut countries terres de castanide pitte 1986 2 decline of the traditional chestnut culture the decline of the traditional european chestnut culture took place at different time in different countries but some common driving factors may be cited pitte 1986 the general climatic cooling of the little ice age caused frost damages on chestnut orchard trees at the exposed sites the improvement of the agricultural cultivation techniques combined with the introduction of alternative crops from abroad maize potatoes allowed a greater production of calories with shorter rotation times causing the progressive substitution of the chestnuts as staple food the industrial revolution also contributed to the decline of the chestnut culture causing the exodus of the people from the mountain countryside and locally the falling of chestnut trees for charcoal production at the end of the xix century the development of the industrial procedure for tannin extraction from the wood caused in many chestnut areas a systematic cut of chestnut groves for tannin production the decline of the chestnut cultivation locally accelerated because of the introduction and spread of two major diseases of the species the soil-born plant pathogen phytophthora spp ink disease and the wound-parasite cryphonectria parasitica chestnut blight followed in very recent times by the introduction in europe and rapid spread of the gall wasp dryocosmus kuriphilus quacchia et al 2008 when abandoned and unmanaged the chestnut forests tend to be colonized by other tree species giving way to rapid post-cultural evolutions towards mixed and dense stands paci et al 2000 conedera et al 2001 in the frame of this natural evolution the cultural components as well as important ecosystem services e.g specific biodiversity traditional landscape touristic potential etc are lost finally the recent climatic extremes such as the summer drought 2003 highlighted the potential extreme susceptibility of the chestnut tree to climate change especially in the most xeric 9

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chestnut castanea sativa a multipurpose european tree brussels 30 sept 01 oct 2010 mediterranean condition and at the limits of its potential ecological range where it was cultivated for surviving purposes conedera et al 2010 3 present situation and future perspectives despite the described decline and in certain cases the complete abandonment of the chestnut cultivation since the last post-war period and the present threats the european chestnut area still covers in total 2.53 million hectares of which 2.22 million hectares are chestnut forests i.e forests where chestnut is the dominant tree species and the remaining 0.31 million hectares are mixed forests with chestnut the distribution area ranges from southern europe e.g crete to the north southern england belgium the european chestnut forests are concentrated in just a few countries with a long tradition of chestnut cultivation france and italy together account for 79.3 of the whole chestnut forest area spain portugal and switzerland account for a further 9.7 the remaining 11.0 are dispersed in the other countries conedera et al 2004b most of the chestnut-growing area 1.75 million ha 79.0 is devoted to timber production both as coppice system 1.48 million ha and high forests 0.29 million ha the chestnut-growing area devoted to fruit production is nowadays reduced and accounts only for 0.43 million hectares 19.3 of the total chestnut-growing area many ancient orchards abandoned at the beginning of the last century have been in fact coppiced because of the high incidence of the chestnut blight and of the demand for chestnut wood for tannin mining and especially in spain for barrels pitte 1986 in addition in recent decades people have become more aware of the value of chestnut grovess as a multifunctional landscape element in many countries they have begun to revitalize chestnut orchards as they see them as having aesthetic and ecological value acting as tourist attractions and serving as fire-breaks bounous et al 1992 besides the revitalisation of traditional orchards in marginal chestnut-growing areas new plantations or even re-grafted old orchards with highquality varieties marrons and similar or large-size euro-japanese varieties have been cultivated in several countries mostly in france spain and italy in addition the increasing demand for natural and environmentally friendly products in europe and the recognition of the aesthetic cultural and ecological value of managed chestnut ecosystems have led to more interest in the chestnut concerning the chestnut wood new sylvicultural techniques are under development in order to provide chestnut timber products that fits the modern market requests amorini et al 2000 lemaire 2008 as a consequence traditional chestnut products have now more opportunities on the market poles for land consolidation work or playgrounds logs for flooring chestnut flour for pasta production certification of local cultivars etc and new products chestnut parquet chestnutlaminated veneer boards chestnut pasta chestnut beer etc have been launched some of these new products and new applications such as finger-jointed beams and shingles from the wood and pasta biscuits beer from the fruit are particularly interesting because it is possible to produce them from small-sized chestnut timber or fruits in addition products derived from transformed chestnuts are available during the whole year and are therefore disconnected from seasonal market trends despite this historical background chestnut cultivation is thus at a turning point being confronted with changing needs of a society that has moved from being rural to becoming industrial and urban-oriented and new competitors on the market e.g fresh fruits imported from china the development of the chestnut market in recent decades confirms the potential of this resource for both traditional products and new services and goods related to organic food and environmentally friendly products especially in marginal and mountain areas this allow us to conclude with an optimistic statement about the future of the european chestnut cultivation 10

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chestnut castanea sativa a multipurpose european tree brussels 30 sept 01 oct 2010 4 open questions the research is now called to play an important role in supporting the local politic and manager in updating and modernizing the chestnut groves services for the marginal areas in europe main general open questions are in my opinion monitoring chestnut genetic resource including the phylogenetic patterns studying autoecology and physiology of the chestnut tree in view of climatic change and associated climatic extremes and for developing pathogen and pest control approaches exploring the cultural social and economic potential in marginal areas of the chestnut groves analysis of the potential ecosystem services of the chestnut groves biodiversity of managed chestnut coppices and orchards protection capability of managed stands touristic attractivity etc development of adapted sylvicultural and management approach for achieving such services and renewing the chestnut resource references amorini e bruschini s manetti m.c 2000 alternative silvicultural systems in chestnut coppice effects of the silvicultural practice on stand structure and tree growth ecologia mediterranea 261-2 155-162 bassi d 1993 castagno da frutto valorizziamo la qualità riv frutticoltura 55 12 39-41 bounous g bouchet m gourdon l 1992 ricostituzione del castagneto a frutto tradizionale interventi in piemonte e nel sud della francia informatore agrario 9 155-160 bourgeois c sevrin e lemaire j 2004 le châtaignier un arbre un bois 2nd revised edition institut pour le développement forestier paris conedera m stanga p oester b bachmann p 2001 different post-culture dynamics in abandoned chestnut orchards for snow landsc res 76 3 487-492 conedera m krebs p tinner w pradella m torriani d 2004a the cultivation of castanea sativa mill in europe from its origin to its diffusion on a continental scale vegetation history and archaeobotany 13 3 161-179 conedera m manetti m.c giudici f amorini e 2004b distribution and economic potential of the sweet chestnut castanea sativa mill in europe ecol med 30 179-193 conedera m krebs p 2008 history present situation and perspective of chestnut cultivation in europe in abreu c.g peixoto f.p gomes-laranjo j eds proceedings of the second iberian chestnut congress vila real p june 20-22th 2007 acta hort 784 23-27 conedera m barthold f torriani d pezzatti g.b 2010 drought sensitivity of castanea sativa case study of summer 2003 in the southern alps acta hort 866 297-302 11

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chestnut castanea sativa a multipurpose european tree brussels 30 sept 01 oct 2010 krebs p conedera m pradella m torriani d felber m tinner w 2004 quaternary refugia of the sweet chestnut castanea sativa mill an extended palynological approach vegetation history and archaeobotany 13 145-160 lemaire j 2008 estimer la potentialité de son taillis de châtaignier et y adapter les éclaircies forêt entreprise 179 2 17 paci m maltoni a tani a 2000 i castagneti abbandonati della toscana dinamismo e proposte gestionali in bucci g minotta g borghetti m eds applicazioni e prospettive per la ricerca forestale italiana atti del ii congresso della società italiana di selvicoltura ed ecologia forestale bologna 20-23 october 1999 9-16 pitte j.r 1986 terres de castanide hommes et paysages du châtaignier de l antiquité à nos jours librairie arthème fayard paris quacchia a moriya s bosio g scapin i alma r 2008 rearing release and settlement prospect in italy of torymus sinensis the biological control agent of the chestnut gall wasp dryocosmus kuriphilus biocontrol 53 6 829-839 12

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chestnut castanea sativa a multipurpose european tree brussels 30 sept 01 oct 2010 multi-functionality of european chestnut trees ioan vasile abrudan1 francesco ferrini2 elvio bellini3 1 university of transilvania abrudan@unitbv.ro 2 university of florence francesco.ferrini@unifi.it 3 chestnut study and documentation centre marradi-florence info@centrostudicastagno.it summary a critical review of the existing literature on the multi-functionality of chestnut trees reveals that the priority topics to be addressed in the future from the ecological point of view are an integrated and harmonized taxonomic approach of chestnut forests at european level the influence of site conditions and different management systems on the growth production and quality of chestnut stands the optimum pest and disease control methods and the use of the species in the climate change context the market demand and new utilizations for chestnut wood should be further assessed and socio-economic studies are required to identify the most suitable land uses for the abandoned orchards despite the considerable literature on chestnut fruits new researches could include their use for bioactive non-nutrients new foods or sources of antioxidants and the use of nuts bark and leaves in cosmetics and pharmaceutics the studies on the utilization of extracts from shells and on their use as heavy metal absorbent should also continue key words chestnut ecological value economic benefits multi-functionality european chestnut castanea sativa mill is an important tree species both for its ecologicalsilvicultural and economic value being known as a species with multiple uses from the ecological point of view several detailed studies on the taxonomy and ecology of castanea sativa mill forests in different regions of south and south ­ western europe france italy portugal spain etc have been published in the last decades with more recent contributions from south-eastern europe konstantinidis et al 2010 ketenoglu et al 2010 what needs to be addressed in the future is an integrated and harmonized taxonomic approach of castanea sativa mill forests at european level considering the existing differences between the classification systems and taxonomic units of different european countries in which the species is found from the silvicultural point of view different approaches in terms of regeneration/establishment tending operations and silvicultural systems are considered according to the use of the species in a forest stand or in an orchard several studies on the regeneration growth and management options of chestnut forests have been carried out in different european regions e.g cuttini 2001 everard and christie 1995 pividori et al 2004 as well as on the influence of site factors on the growth of trees in young stands or plantations e.g alvarez-alvarez et al 2010 radoglou et al 2003 zysset et al 1996 more scientific work is needed in order to identify the influence of site conditions and different management systems including tending operations pruning etc on i the growth production and quality of chestnut stands and ii the spread and control of chestnut blight and ink disease as well as the optimum pest and diseases control methods also the proportion of species in stand composition as well as its role as a coppice under main tree species or canopy species in various 13

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chestnut castanea sativa a multipurpose european tree brussels 30 sept 01 oct 2010 site conditions should be further analyzed another potential field of investigation is the ecological and silvicultural importance of the species in the new climate change context chestnut is an economically important species which occupies more than 2,25 million ha in europe and covering large areas in france greece italy portugal spain and turkey conedera et al 2004 in the mediterranean region chestnut is an important multi purpose tree used for both nut and wood production the use of the species increased as the surface area and distribution range expanded and grafted orchards and coppices are now found in vast continuous areas fernández-lópez and alía 2003 chestnut wood and biomass production is presented in several studies undertaken at regional level as well as its carbon sequestration capacity e.g lancho and gonzales 2005 leonardi et al 1996 patricio et al 2005a,b regarding chestnut wood many published studies have addressed the anatomy structure composition technological and chemical properties of wood and the impact of heat treatment on its characteristics e.g ates et al 2010 clair et al 2003 fonti et al 2002 gunduz et al 2009 several studies and reviews are concentrating on the uses of chestnut wood from veneer to barrels from construction wood to poles in vineyards from furniture to tannin e.g canas et al 2009 marino et al 2010 ozgan and kap 2008 more investigations are needed in order to assess the market demand and new utilizations options for chestnut wood considering its relatively large area in some european countries and the abandonment of many orchards in mediterranean region due to rural depopulation socioeconomic studies are also required in order to assess the most suitable land use options in the case of abandoned orchards the chestnut fruits are extensively consumed by humans and various commercial forms are available e.g fresh and industrially processed there have been various scientific articles and reviews on the composition of chestnut fruits and the health benefits that these fruits and their home-processed and industrial products can provide e.g barreira et al 2009 de vasconcelos et al 2010 erturk et al 2006 as well as an extensively documented review on the influence of industrial processing on the nutrient and non-nutrient composition of the fruits de vasconcelos et al 2009 2010 despite the considerable literature data on nutrients in fresh chestnut fruits there seem to be less information on bioactive non-nutrients such as phenolics a topic that could be further investigated as well as the opportunities for potential uses as new foods or as sources of antioxidants another field of future investigation is the use of nuts together with bark and leaves in natural and homeopathic medicine based on the already accumulated experience in the treatment of despair diarrhea muscle pain and whooping cough the chestnut fruit processing generates large amounts of residues as pericarp outler shell 8.913.5 and integument inner sheet 6.3-10.1 these materials clearly have the potential as sources of valuable co-products and recent studies de vasconcelos et al 2010 vazquez et al 2008 2009 assessed the potential use of chestnut shell extracts especially for pigments polyphenols chrome substitutes or antioxidant compounds such studies should be continued in the future and extended to other potential uses of the large quantities of shells resulting from chestnut processing as well as on their use as heavy metal absorbent vazquez et al 2009 also the potential use of leaves as natural antioxidants calliste et al 2005 and their use together with bark and nuts in cosmetics and pharmaceutics have a great potential that should be further investigated 14

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chestnut castanea sativa a multipurpose european tree brussels 30 sept 01 oct 2010 references alvarez-alvarez p diaz-varela e camara-obregon a afif-khouri e 2010 relating growth and nutrition to site factors in young chestnut plantations established on agricultural and forest land in northern spain agroforestry systems 793 291-301 ates s akyildiz m.h ozdemir h gumuskaya e 2010 technological and chemical properties of chestnut castanea sativa mill wood after heat treatment romanian biotechnological letters 151 4949-4958 barreira j casal s ferreira i oliveira m b pereira j.a 2009 nutritional fatty acid and triacylglycerol profiles of castanea sativa mill cultivars a compositional and chemometric approach journal of agricultural and food chemistry 577 2836-2842 calliste c.a trouillas p allais d.p duroux j.l 2005 castanea sativa mill leaves as new sources of natural antioxidant an electronic spin resonance study journal of agricultural and food chemistry 532 282-288 canas s caldeira i belchior a p 2009 comparison of alternative systems for the ageing of wine brandy wood shape and wood botanical species effect ciencia e tecnica vitivinicola 242 91-99 clair b ruelle,j thibaut b 2003 relationship between growth stress mechanical-physical properties and proportion of fibre with gelatinous layer in chestnut castanea sativa mill holzforschung 572 189-195 conedera m manetti m.c giudici f amorini e 2004 distribution and economic potential of the sweet chestnut castanea sativa mill in europe ecol med 30 179-193 de vasconcelos m.d.b.m bennett r.n rosa e.a.s ferreira-cardoso j.v 2009 industrial processing effects on chestnut fruits castanea sativa mill 1 starch fat energy and fibre international journal of food science and technology 4412 2606-2612 de vasconcelos m.d.b.m bennett r.n rosa e.a.s ferreira-cardoso j.v 2009 industrial processing effects on chestnut fruits castanea sativa mill 2 crude protein free amino acids and phenolic phytochemicals international journal of food science and technology 4412 2613-2619 de vasconcelos m.d.b.m nunez f viguera c.g bennett r.n rosa e.a.s ferreira-cardoso j.v 2010 industrial processing effects on chestnut fruits castanea sativa mill 3 minerals free sugars carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins international journal of food science and technology 453 495-505 de vasconcelos m.d.b.m bennett r.n rosa e.a.s ferreira-cardoso j.v 2010 composition of european chestnut castanea sativa mill and association with health effects fresh and processed products journal of the science of food and agriculture 9010 1578-1589 erturk u mert c soylu a 2006 chemical composition of fruits of some important chestnut cultivars brazilian archives of biology and technology 492 183-188 15

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