NANO News 6 - April 2014

 

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6th issue of NF-POGO Alumni Network for Oceans Newsletter

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nano news - NF-POGO Alumni Network for Oceans NF-POGO Alumni E-Newsletter – Volume 06, April 2014 nano shinbun ナノ新聞 NANO family extended

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From the Editorial Board The Nippon Foundation-Partnership for Observation of the Global Oceans (NF-POGO) Centre of Excellence in Observational Oceanography (CofE) has been training ten young oceanographers over a period of ten months per year since 2008. These scholars subsequently become part of the NANO family. This programme has been successfully delivered four times at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS) and Phase 2 has now already begun at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), in Germany. This issue introduces all these future NANO Alumni. This newsletter has come out after the NANO Coordination Meeting, where the new NF-POGO CofE scholars were introduced to some of the Alumni. Also, the inauguration of the new CofE took place at the Museum of Natural History in Berlin, and both events took place in the early December 2013. The new scholars are enthusiastic and promising towards better understanding the ocean. NANO alumni felt extremely happy and charged to meet the new members of their family. A short report on the outcomes of the meeting is presented here. This newsletter covers a variety of topics ranging from ocean primary production to the impact of climate change on water resources in the Tibetan Plateau. This issue encompasses the biogeochemistry of many oceans from the Baltic Sea to the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. NANO News is constantly evolving, with new features being introduced with every new issue. This edition features the addition of a comprehensive review article. In future issues, the Editorial Board would like to introduce a space for the more creative alumni to express their artistic talents, such as through poetry or cartoons. We welcome suggestions from you that may enrich this publication. Articles in this newsletter address the advancements in ocean sciences achieved with the use of stateof-the-art instruments. Alumni in the UK and India have worked on the data obtained from such instruments, in particular gliders and Argos, and share their insights on the importance of these new methods of studying the ocean. Finally a NANO alumnus has written a very inspirational article on her interactions during her Harvard days with one of the Noble Prize recipients for Chemistry in 2013, Prof. Martin Karplus. Along with some other interesting articles and an interview, we are pleased to bring you the sixth issue of the NANO newsletter. With this we sign off and wish you all great success in 2014! Arvind Singh Editor-in-chief Patrons: Trevor Platt / Executive Director - POGO Shubha Sathyendranath / Former Executive Director - POGO Sophie Seeyave / Assistant Director - POGO Victoria Cheung / Scientific Coordinator - POGO Kentaro Ogiue / Maritime Affairs Department, Nippon Foundation Editorial Board: Arvind Singh (Editor-in-Chief), Olga Shatova, Kathleen Silvano, Gayatri Dudeja and Joeline Ezekiel. NANO News layout design editor: Lilian A. Krug Contact us: av.arvind@gmail.com, ssve@pml.ac.uk, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org Contact us: ar.arvind@gmail.com, ssve@pml.ac.uk, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org 1 1 NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

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NF-POGO Alumni E-Newsletter – Volume 06, April 2014 This issue: NANO meeting in Berlin ......................................................................................................................... NANO Regional Research Projects Ecological use of marine phytoplankton pigments at the Antares-ChloroGIN time-series stations .. NANO SEA Planning Meeting hosted by Marine Science Institute, University of Philippines ............ Eutrophication in the coastal waters of Southeast Asia - An assessment .......................................... NANO Outreach Project Call for participation ........................................................................................................................... NF-POGO CofE at AWI - Introducing the new scholars ........................................................................... When NANO ponders Dr. Kanthi Yapa: Tribute to a Great Nobel Laureate, Professor Martin Karplus ................................. Ms Zahidah (Zaidy Khan): NANO connects with an alumnus from Fiji ............................................... NANO alumni in the field Anna Rumyantseva: The view on the North Atlantic phytoplankton spring bloom from seagliders .. Nilanthi Priyadarshani: Two fascinating research cruises in the Bay of Bengal during 2013 ............. NANO Profile - Q&A: Dr. Margareth Kyewalyanga .................................................................................. Research communications by NF-POGO alumni Satya Prakash ..................................................................................................................................... Ousmane Diankha ............................................................................................................................. Gayatri Dudeja .................................................................................................................................. Monika Orchowska ............................................................................................................................ Gerry G. Salamena ............................................................................................................................. Review article by NF-POGO alumni Lailah G. Akita .................................................................................................................................... Opportunities announcements ….………………………………...…..……………………….………………………………....... 3 5 6 6 10 11 13 15 16 18 19 21 22 25 26 28 29 33 LET US SHOW YOUR ART Have any nice photos to share? E-mail us your seascapes, underwater photos or photos of field work and we’ll include them in NANO News! NANO News 6 cover art was compiled by Lilian A. Krug Erratum: In the previous issue of the NANO News, Mr Kentaro Suzuki was mistakenly referred to as Dr Suzuki. He has asked us to correct this since he hasn’t obtained his PhD qualification yet. NANO News Editorial board apologises for this mistake. Contact us: av.arvind@gmail.com, ssve@pml.ac.uk, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org 2

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NANO meeting in Berlin Olga Shatova A NANO coordination meeting was held in Berlin, Germany, from 5th to 6th of December 2013. The meeting was mostly focused on further development of the 4 regional research projects. In addition, the meeting initiated the creation of an Outreach component in the Network: the aim is to support NANO alumni in outreach activities in their regions. Another highlight of the meeting was the attendance of 10 new NF-POGO Centre of Excellence scholars that have recently commenced their training at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) for Polar and Marine Research. The first day of the meeting was devoted to the review of NANO progress in 2013. It started off with an introductory speech from Dr. Shubha Sathyendranath and self-introduction by the participants. These were followed by presentations on the progress of NANO to date (by Dr. Sophie Seeyave), the current members of NANO (by Lilian Krug) and the NANO communication tools, including the NANO website and NANO Newsletter (by Olga Shatova). Furthermore, Mr. Kentaro Ogiue, from the Nippon Foundation, gave an inspirational talk on the underlying reasons for Nippon Foundation’s support of the NANO initiative and about their vision for the bright future of the Network. The Introductory session was completed by Dr. Gerry Plumley who presented the advantages of the relocation of the Centre of Excellence to the AWI, Germany’s foremost polar and marine research institution. The first day continued with progress reports on Regional Projects and plans for 2014 from representatives of the 4 regional projects: Phan Minh Thu (Southeast Asia), Ravidas Naik and Kanthi Yapa (Indian Sub-Continent), Tiago Queiroz (North and West Africa) and Vivian Lutz and Jaimie Rojas-Marquez (Latin America). Furthermore, some of the alumni presented their ideas on how to better engage NANO alumni currently residing outside their home countries and far from centres of regional research projects. Small group discussions which engaged the new CofE scholars as well as the alumni, enabled planning for the Regional Projects and discussions on NANO Outreach, and wrapped up the first day of the meeting. Proposals for the Research projects and Outreach activities in 2014 Group photo at the NANO Coordination Meetwere drafted during the second day of the meeting. Representatives ing Berlin 2013. Photo by Dr. Victoria Cheung. of each discussion group reported back to the plenary about their ideas. This was followed by group discussions on NANO communications and ways to enhance alumni engagement in NANO activities. The meeting was closed on the afternoon of the 7th of December and all participants then attended an Inauguration ceremony for the new NF-POGO Centre of Excellence at AWI that took place at the Natural History Museum in Berlin. Overall, the meeting was very successful: main directions for further NANO development were identified and are presented next. Shubha Sathyendranath opened the meeting welcoming the participants on behalf of POGO Executive Director, Trevor Platt. “NANO is the Nippon Foundation and POGO’s most precious resource and represents a significant component of the leadership for ocean science in the future”. Photo by Lilian Krug Contact us: av.arvind@gmail.com, ssve@pml.ac.uk, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org 3

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NANO Regional Research Projects in 2014 Southeast Asia Eutrophication in the coastal waters of Southeast Asia: An assessment. NANO members from three countries (Vietnam, Philippines and Thailand) will investigate eutrophication, possibly enhanced by nutrient load and modulated by residence time. The study will include fieldwork, lab measurements and application of the LOICZ approach and the eutrophication index. Indian Sub-Continent Monitoring of HAB Species in the coastal waters of India and Sri Lanka. Objectives: • Analysis of the data collected during the period of 2013 from Indian and Sri Lankan coasts; • Use of multipurpose spectrophotometer and underwater radiometer to study the spectral characteristics of phytoplankton, detritus and CDOM; • Screening of isolated cultures for their toxin potential; • HAB workshop/training for Sri Lankan participants for common research methodology establishment. North and West Africa The first stage of the project is to set up sustainable nearshore erosion monitoring observatories in Angola, Ivory Coast and Tunisia (one in each country). The data will provide invaluable information to set up a Swell/ Storm Early Warning System (SEWS), and will improve our understanding of the role of local and remote forcing wave generation and its impacts along West and North African coasts. In addition, the observations will be the pillar of the modelling effort (stage 2). Latin America Pigment analysis using HPLC in Antares network coastal time-series stations It is planned to transfer the leadership in the Regional Project to Mexico with the new coordinator Adriana Gonzalez Silvera. Activities in 2014 will include a regional training workshop (in Mexico) for further development of the participants skills and intercomparison of HPLC analysis results. NANO Outreach 2014 It was proposed to promote outreach activities of the alumni by providing small grants to support outreach in developing countries. NANO will also develop an online catalogue of educational Powerpoint presentations in different languages (provided and translated by alumni). Supporting materials will also include print outs (booklets, hand outs), stationery and writing materials, which are particularly important for countries without reliable access to the internet. Contact us: av.arvind@gmail.com, ssve@pml.ac.uk, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org 4

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Ecological use of marine phytoplankton pigments at the Antares-ChloroGIN time-series stations The Latin American Regional Project Jaimie C. Rojas–Marquez NANO REGIONAL PROJECTS A Research Station Margarita (EDIMAR) La Salle Foundation of Natural Sciences Wikipage: http://www.nf-pogo-alumni.org/~Jaime+Rojas-Marquez fruitful workshop on phytoplankton pigments was carried out in the framework of the second phase of the LA-NANO Project at the Station of Marine Research of the La Salle Foundation for Natural Sciences in Margarita Island, Venezuela, from 21 to 24 October 2013. A total of 17 participants were gathered including two special guests, Suzanne Roy (Université du Québec à Rimouski, Canada) and Crystal Thomas (NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, USA), eight representatives of the five participating countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru), and seven local researchers from Venezuela (see Margarita Final Report at LA-NANO wikipage for more details and the complete list of participants). A few lectures were offered to provide a background on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) for the analysis of phytoplankton pigments, including topics such as: principles and comparison of methods; applications in oceanography; pigment indices; CHEMTAX; and remote sensing of Phytoplankton Functional Types, among others. Working sessions were held to discuss and interpret the pigment results of the first phase of the project provided by NASA. An outline of a manuscript using this pigment information in conjunction with satellite data was drafted. There were also intensive group discussions on the topics of phytoplankton pigment uses in oceanographic research and the possibilities of carrying out HPLC analyses in Latin America. Another concrete outcome was the gathering of new pigment samples collected at each of the participating stations during 2013, which were brought by the participants to Margarita, and with the kind help of Laura Lorenzoni were taken to the University of South Florida and from there shipped to the NASA laboratory for HPLC analyses. One of the main issues discussed was the strategy to obtain quality phytoplankton pigment information at the Antares stations. All participants emphasized their interest to collect data on phytoplankton pigments on a continuous basis at each time series station. It also became clear through the first phase of the project, when samples were shipped to the NASA laboratory, and through the second phase, when participants carried their own samples to Margarita that transporting samples across international or even national borders is cumbersome and risky. The long term solution would be to have samples analyzed in our own countries. At this point most time-series sites (Argentina, Colombia, Mexico and Peru) have the possibility to carry out HPLC analysis at their laboratories or at partner laboratories within their countries, while Brazil still needs to formalize such a partnership, and CARIACO holds a private agreement with NASA. Several recommendations were agreed on regarding the collection and processing of the pigment samples (see details at the workshop report). Among the recommendations it was mentioned that the use of a common method would be ideal, however, currently there is international recognition that this is not always possible (e.g., Workshop on intercomparison of methods in time series); the important point is to know the strengths and weaknesses of each method used and how they compare among each other. In this sense it was advised that occasional inter-center comparisons of samples should be run with respect to replicates sent to the NASA laboratory. The need for proper calibration of the instruments, as well as specific training of the personnel, was emphasized. Throughout the whole workshop, the necessity to complement pigment data with the identification of phytoplankton species using microscopy was emphasized. Future directions for the project were also discussed, and it was agreed that Adriana Gonzalez-Silvera will act as a new coordinator starting in April 2014, working with the support of the biooptics group from the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (Mexico). Finally, I would like to offer my thanks for this opportunity offered to me by NANO to enhance my work in the field of oceanography in my country integrating it with that carried out by other alumni in Latin America. Especially I am grateful to my teacher, Vivian Lutz, for trusting in my ability to coordinate this project and to Guillermina Ruiz for her unconditional support. We also thank all the participants of the ANTARES stations since they form the core of the project. Participants of the Ecological use of marine phytoplankton pigments at the AntaresChloroGIN time-series-stations 5 Contact us: av.arvind@gmail.com, ssve@pml.ac.uk, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

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NANO SEA Planning Meeting hosted by Marine Science Institute, University of Philippines Dr. Victoria Cheung Scientific Coordinator for the Partnership for Observation of the Global Oceans (POGO) vch@pml.ac.uk NANO REGIONAL PROJECTS I n November 2013, a planning workshop was arranged to discuss and plan a collaborative regional project proposal for submission from the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. The two-day workshop was hosted by NANO Friends, Dr. Laura David and Dr. Aletta Yñiguez of the Marine Science Institute, University of Philippines, and attended by NANO Alumni from the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam including Joseph Palermo, Irene Alabia, Anakul Buranapratheprat, Phan Minh Thu, Le Dinh Mau, Pham Thi Phuong Thao, and local organisers and observers Kristina Cordero and Aldwin Almo. The objectives of the workshop were to: 1. Introduce the participants to one another to encourage networking and collaboration; 2. Provide background information on the previous year’s regional project conducted by NANO members from the SEA region; 3. Discuss the next steps for the NANO SEA regional project for the coming year; 4. Prepare a project proposal and outline budget for a collaborative NANO-SEA project. After the self-introduction of the participants, Dr. Vikki Cheung provided an overview of NANO, its achievements and its objectives. A review of the NANO SEA project from year 1 was then provided by Dr. Aletta Yñiguez, which was entitled “Harmful Algal Bloom Remote Sensing Model (RS-HAB) for Southeast Asia Region”. Representatives from each of the three countries provided short presentations giving an overview of their current research interests and what they are able to contribute to a collaborative regional project. Led by Dr. Laura David, a group discussion involving all of the workshop participants enabled a project proposal to be outlined. It was noted that in the Gulf of Thailand, red tides were a major issue, but not toxic harmful algal blooms. It was established that water quality and eutrophication were important issues that needed to be monitored and addressed in the coastal waters of all of the NANO SEA countries and the participants were able to collectively draft a proposal and agree upon the methodology and variables that would be measured. The project proposed is entitled “Eutrophication in the coastal waters of SE Asia: An assessment”. The aims of the research project are to provide useful insights that can form the basis for informing stakeholders and give suggestions on how to manage water quality on a local and regional level. The proposal which was drafted at this meeting was further refined during the NANO coordination meeting held in Berlin, Germany in the following month. An update on the project progress since the Berlin Meeting is provided in the following article. Eutrophication in the coastal waters of Southeast Asia - An assessment Anukul BuranaprathepratA, Joseph PalermoB and Phan Minh ThuC Assistant Professor at the Department of Aquatic Science, Burapha University, Thailand Wikipage: http://www.nf-pogo-alumni.org/~Anukul+Buranapratheprat B Senior Research Associate at the Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines Wikipage: http://www.nf-pogo-alumni.org/~Joseph+Palermo C Principal Researcher at the Department of Marine Environment and Ecology, Institute of Oceanography, Vietnam Wikipage: http://www.nf-pogo-alumni.org/~Phan+Minh+Thu A The South East NANO Project Dr. Buranapratheprat Mr Palermo Mr Thu Summary I n this collaborative research project, NANO members from three countries (Vietnam, Philippines and Thailand) are investigating eutrophication, possibly enhanced by nutrient load and modulated by residence time. The project includes fieldwork, lab measurements and application of the LOICZ approach and the eutrophication index. This will also enhance networking between NANO members and other collaborators, and provide capacity building within the participating institutes. Introduction There are concerns about degrading water quality in the region as a result of unsustainable human activities and coastal development including aquaculture and agriculture, resulting in hypoxia, algal blooms and pollution in the Contact us: av.arvind@gmail.com, ssve@pml.ac.uk, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org 6

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The priority areas inthe coastal environments clude two offshore (Brown, 1985, Chen et stations (2.5 km away al., 2001, Terrados et from the coast with al., 1999, Wong et al., depths of 40 to 50 m) 2007). Increasingly, nulabelled as ChloroGIN trient overload can lead 1 & 2 and stations 1 to harmful algal blooms, to 13 located in the fish kills, impacts upon mouth through the tourism and ecosystems middle of the water (Atapattu & Kodituwchannel. This area has akku, 2009, Glibert et al., been of interest since 2010, O’Neil et al., 2012, it was heavily inflicted Ramesh et al., 2011). Of with Prorocentrum a graver concern is the minimum blooms that long-term effect of euhave caused mastrophication. FurtherFigure 1 - Monitoring sites for the NANO-SE Asia Regional Project sive fish kills in the more, we observe that past (Azanza et al., most human activities are The latter was originally scheduled 2005, San Diego-McGlone et al., 2008). located within coastal areas thus makfor March 2014 but due to other local Moreover, last April 2013, harmless aling them vulnerable to the impacts of cruise activities, oceanographic equipgal blooms were reported in the same eutrophication. ment at MSI was not available on the locality. The ability to accumulate or exchange scheduled dates. A total of 17 research The field itinerary commenced around nutrients in a water body is influenced staff and 2 undergraduate volunteers 5:30 am towards the offshore stations by the residence time. It exhibits seahave participated in the coastal moniand later on the sampling team cruised sonality and can also be modified by toring. There were 8 researchers and 2 along the inner channel of Bolinao until human activities e.g. the build-up of undergraduate volunteers on the first 6:00 pm. Two fiberglass boats and two fish cages within the systems has been field campaign that covered 25 staoutrigger boats were used during the shown to significantly alter residence tions. There were challenges with limfirst and the second field campaigns, time. To determine how impacted the ited manpower to carry out the entire respectively. Infinity ME, CTD and systems are, the research will quantify monitoring activities in the last field ADCP were deployed on board manuresidence time using the Land-Ocean campaign. There were only 7 full time ally, plankton samples were collected Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) researchers available that time and through vertical net tows, and discrete methods and assess eutrophication inconsequently only 15 monitoring stawater samples were obtained using Nidices for dry and wet seasons in four tions were covered. However, all desigskin bottles in all of the monitoring stamonitoring sites: Bolinao, Nha Trang nated priority stations were successfultions (Figure 3A-E). Protocols for sample Bay, Cam Ranh Bay, and Upper Gulf of ly monitored as illustrated in Figure 2. collection, pre-processing and analysis Thailand (Figure 1). were followed as described by Parsons NANO SEA II Project Implementation et al. (1984), Harris (2000), Suthers Philippines and Rissik (2009), and UNESCO (2010). All of the monitoring parameters that The NANO SEA II project in the Philipwere measured are listed in Table 1. pines is implemented by The Marine Science Institute (MSI), University of the Philippines (UP) as an enhancement to the existing project: ‘Detection and Mitigation Technology and Early Warning System for Philippine Harmful Algal Blooms (HABTech)’, which is funded by the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) through The Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD). Project participants were involved in the training and demonstration of coastal monitoring activities in the NFPOGO AWI-CofE Regional Training Programme on the ‘Detection of HABs in Southeast Asia by Remote Sensing: Operational Warning and Regional Monitoring Protocols’ held last 24 February to 16 March 2014. A short introduction to equipment and technical operation of CTD and ADCP was given. Datasets taken from the first field campaign were shared with the scholars and they were taught how to process and visualize Field campaigns in the water channel nel. Enclosed in the rectangular box are the 15 of Bolinao were conducted on 11 De- priority stations for the oceanographic survey cember 2013 and 26 February 2014, respectively, for wet and dry seasons. Figure 2 - Sampling stations in the Bolinao Chan- 7 Contact us: av.arvind@gmail.com, ssve@pml.ac.uk, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

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Figure 3 - Highlights of the oceanographic monitoring activities in Bolinao, Philippines. A) On-site programming and calibration of ADCP. B) CTD deployment and real-time ADCP acquisition. C) Initialization of Infinity ME (Multi-exciter insitu fluorometer) for deployment. D) Ship board pre-processing of nutrient, dissolved oxygen, pH, and chlorophyll-a samples. E) Deployment of Infinity ME and collection of plankton & discrete water samples using a Niskin Bottle on board a fiberglass boat. Photo by Joseph Dominic Palermo to visit the sampling sites from 5 am to 7 pm. The total number of stations was 21, including 8 stations in Cam Ranh Bay, 11 stations in Nha Trang Bay and 2 stations in the river. At every station, water samples were taken from the surface and bottom water layers if the water depth was more than 5 m and at only 2 m depth in shallower waters. CTD and current profiles were measured on board and analysed on return to the laboratory. DO, nutrients, TSS and Chlorophyll-a samples were prepared on board ship, and stored at 4 oC in dark conditions. All samples for TSS and chlorophyll-a were filtered immediately after returning to the laboratory in the night time and keep in a freezer. All of the samples were analysed after the field trip finished. In addition, participants in the VAST project (VAST-ĐLT.01/13-14) joined the field trips. That project focussed on light profiles, Fluorescent-chlorophylla profiles, marine optics and primary production. These parameters were measured at the same stations and at the same water depths. Weather and in situ conditions were challenging and had impacts on the project participants’ ability to collect samples. The strong wind and waves in Nha Trang Bay contributed to increasing the time of the field trip and the data in ODV. Their results were later compared to the algal bloom event in April 2013. Thailand Water quality parameters at 5 major river mouths in the north of the upper Gulf of Thailand (UGoT) were measured and collected on 22 - 23 February 2014. Each site was visited by car and then a small local boat was hired to measure and collect water samples. Field observations in UGoT were carried out using RV Kasetsart 1 on 27 - 28 February 2014. The field observations started near a small island in the east (Figure 4), and the route followed a clockwise direction from offshore to near shore transect lines. Temperature and salinity were measured at 1 m intervals by using a CTD while water samples were collected at 2 depths, near the sea surface and near the sea bed. Water samples were filtered onboard and then refrigerated for further analysis in the laboratory. The chemical and biological parameters to be measured included nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, ammonia, silicate, dissolved oxygen, pH, BOD and chlorophyll-a. The vessel left the port at around 7 am and stopped in the west of UGoT after completing the field work for 4 stations at about 5 pm of the first day. All members, after having dinner, slept onboard that night. Measurements of seawater properties and water samples were completed for all 7 stations around 1 pm of the second day. The sea conditions were quite rough during the cruise due to the south wind but all members were able to handle their duties very well. Vietnam The environmental quality in Nha Trang and Cam Ranh Bay Figure 4 - The upper Gulf of Thailand. Dots represent stations for seawere investi- water measurement and samplings gated by the number of people involved in each acVietnamese team (8 staff of VNIO and tivity. In Cam Ranh Bay, due to cloudy one from Ho Chi Minh City) on 6-9 Janucondition, light profiles could not be ary 2014. At Nha Trang, tourism boats measured, so marine optics were given were hired for two days for the field the priority for light intensive measuretrip from 6 am to 5 pm, whereas in Cam ments in the water. Ranh Bay, a local fishing boat was hired Contact us: av.arvind@gmail.com, ssve@pml.ac.uk, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org 8

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Figure 6 - Stations in Nha Trang Bay (left) and Cam Ranh Bay (Right), Vietnam. Figure 5 - Highlights of the oceanographic monitoring activities in the Upper Gulf of Thailand. A) Pre-processing of water samples on board. B) Discrete sample collection. C) RV Kasetsart 1 for UGoT observation. D) Sampling at a river mouth Table 1 - Water quality parameters monitored in the three NANO-SEA countries (P for Philippines, T for Thailand and V for Vietnam). Numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4 refer to the field work dates 11-Dec-13, 26-Feb-14, 22-23 Feb 14 and 5-10 Jan 14, respectively Figure 7 - Highlights of activities of the field trips in Nha Trang and Cam Ranh Bay, Vietnam. A) Team on board in the beginning. B) Moving samples and equipment from fishing boat to coracle. C) Collected CTD profiles. D) Water collection For references, please contact the author at jaydeepalermo@gmail.com OUTCOMES OF NANO SEA PROJECT 2013 PDF available at the SEA 2013 Project (http://www.nf-pogo-alumni.org/South-East+Asia+Regional+Project) Thu, P.M., Tien, N. M.; Khang, N.T.H.; Khin, L.V. 2012. Photosynthesis of phytoplankton in the southern marine regions of Vietnam from MODIS data. Proceedings of The GIS-IDEA 2012 conference, 175-180. Khin, L.V.; Thu, P.M.; Son,T.P.H. 2012. Ideas of application remote sensing techniques for algal bloom detection in marine regions of Vietnam. Proceedings of The GIS-IDEA 2012 conference, 157-162. Chen, C.F.; Laul, V.K.; Nguyen, T.S.; Chen,C.R.; Phuoc, H.S.T. 2013. The inherent optical properties of waters in South of Vietnam Coastal. Proceedings of the 34th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing, SC03-337. Son, T.P.H.; Long, B.H.; Khin, L.V.; Thang, H.N.; Chung, T.V.; Trung, P.B. 2013. Seagrass mapping in Thuy Trieu - Cam Ranh Lagoons (Vietnam) by using satellite multi sensors. Proceedings of the 34th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing, SC01-13. Son, T.P.H; Khin, L.V.; Thu, P.M. 2013. The inherent optical properties (IOPs) algorithms for detection the water quality in turbid waters of Mekong . Proceedings of the 34th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing, SC01-6. 9 Contact us: av.arvind@gmail.com, ssve@pml.ac.uk, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

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NANO OUTREACH PROJECT A A Call for participation New NANO Outreach Project Lailah Gifty Akita and BMonika Orchowska on behalf of NANO Outreach team PhD student. Institute of Geosciences, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany. Wikipage: http://www.nf-pogo-alumni.org/~Lailah+Lartey-Antwi B PhD student, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Science, Poland. Wikipage: http://www.nf-pogo-alumni.org/~Monika+Orchowska “It is a curious situation that the sea, from which life first arose, should now be threatened by the activities of one form of that life. But the sea, though changed in a sinister way, will continue to exist; the threat is rather to life itself.” - Rachel Carson, (1907-1964) The Sea Around Us, 1951 Rationale The ocean is our earth’s greatest natural resource. It is the place of origin for most life forms. Global environmental change and climate change effects on oceans are largely acknowledged and studied by the scientific community. However, public understanding of the vital role of the ocean, its processes and human impacts on the ocean is still inadequate. “Education’s purpose is to replace an empty mind with an open one.”— Malcolm Forbes Education in all forms is urgently needed to address issues of climate change, environmental degradation and its impacts on ocean ecosystems. Fundamental changes in human attitudes and behaviour can help address some of the issues. Progress in this direction is critically dependent on education and public awareness. It is imperative to advance ocean science and marine literacy by providing innovative outreach opportunities for students through virtual learning and simple hands-on-practical experiences in ocean science. The goal is to share the wonders of the ocean realm with young people and the general public while inspiring awareness and action for ocean science education, marine conservation and protection, and marine ethics. General Objectives: 1. To improve public awareness of the contemporary state of the world ocean and marine research through ocean science communication, education and outreach activities. 2. To provide a platform for NANO scholars and alumni for development of their ocean science advocacy and outreach skills. Specific Objectives: 1. To engage active participation of NANO scholars in thinking globally but acting locally using online outreach tools for dissemination of ocean science information. 2. To motivate young people to pursue marine science and to promote sustainable use of the ocean through sharing of experiences and scientific passion in the local media. 3. To support NANO scholars in providing ocean science education in schools (e.g. presentations, seminars, films, posters, stickers, etc.) through partnerships and involvement with national educational institutions. The focus is on ocean science communication, education and outreach. The primary aim is to increase the awareness on ocean science to young people and the general public. The first strategy is the establishment of an online catalogue of teaching materials. The second strategy is the use of online materials by alumni and friends of NANO for teaching ocean sciences to young people and the general public. The third strategy is the establishment of short-term, modest funding for Ms Akita Ms Orchowska ocean science outreach activities in schools. Funding will be available for good ocean science outreach proposals. We intend to collect material prepared by NANO alumni on relevant ocean science topics for different age groups (e.g. ages 6-10, 11-13, and 14-18). NANO Alumni are invited to actively participate in this great initiative. Guidelines for preparing presentations: Topic: Any topic of your interest on ocean science (e.g. Impact of plastic debris on marine ecosystems). Topics should be well-explained in simple everyday words for good understanding by the general public. Target group: Any target group of your choice. Format: 1. Short article (2 – 3 pages), 2. Power point presentations (15 – 30 minutes or 30 – 45 minutes) 3. Short posters 4. Animations, videos or any other materials Mode of communication: The topics should be well-explained in simple words. Deadline: 30 April 2014 Security: Your authorship will be secured. Only pdf versions of the presentation will be published and the author will be clearly acknowledged. Contact us: av.arvind@gmail.com, ssve@pml.ac.uk, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org 10

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NF-POGO CofE NF-POGO CofE at AWI - Introducing the new scholars Pogonians Year 5 (2013–2014) Compiled by Joeline Ezekiel and Shaazia Mohamed *Check the alumni wikipages by clicking on their names Widya Ratmaya (Indonesia): Halo semua, apa kabar? This is an Indonesian greeting meaning “Hi everybody, how are you”. Widya graduated under the Masters Double Degree Program (Indonesia-France) in Coastal Resource Management, from a Concentration Program in Planning and Management of MaMs Ezekiel Ms Mohamed rine Resources at Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia in April 2013. Before joining the NF-POGO CofE-AWI program, Widya studied the changes of the macro-zoo-benthos community structure in Jepara’s Waters (Northern part of Central Java Province). Widya is looking for opportunities as a PhD candidate in marine biogeochemistry. Subrata Sarker (Bangladesh): Subrata did his Master’s in Marine Science at the Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong-Bangladesh. His Master’s thesis was focused on geospatial modelling of fish habitat in the northern Bay of Bengal. Before joining the NF-POGO CofE-AWI, Subrata worked on eco-engineering for coastal defence and aquatic food production as a research associate. The objective of the project was to develop artificial oyster reefs to mitigate against coastal erosion whilst providing seed stocks that coastal villages could possibly utilize as a food source. Subrata believes that understanding the ocean dynamics from NF-POGO CofE-AWI courses will help him in his work when he returns home. For him, the CofE is the door for creating a global network and here is Subrata’s message to his fellow Pogonians, “My dear Pogonian friends, other than my family in Bangladesh, you all are my family members and I hope for the rest of the days we will have a great time with our best team efforts to realize our dream in becoming oceanographers”. Shaazia Mohamed (Trinidad & Tobago): Shaazia is a Master of Philosophy research student affiliated with the University of the West Indies, Trinidad & Tobago. Her passion for preservation of marine ecosystems was the main driver for her research on Climate Change and its effects on coral reefs in Trinidad and Tobago. She has investigated the steady increase in sea temperature that has resulted in unprecedented bleaching events. Shaazia’s research focuses on monitoring these events in order to promote conservation of these fragile marine ecosystems. She believes that the core skills offered through this CofE program would be a true asset towards strengthening her present research skills and also exposing her to other areas of research in oceanography. This program also provides Shaazia with the opportunity to communicate with professionals creating a forum for networking especially in the area of hydrodynamic modelling. It is for this reason that she is excited to continue research in oceanography at the PhD level whilst simultaneously creating awareness of research opportunities in related oceanography topics focused on Trinidad & Tobago and the Caribbean at large. Lobsang Tsering (Tibet): Lobsang is Tibetan by origin; however, he was raised in India. He completed his Master’s in Marine Biology from Pondicherry University, Andaman Island, India. His thesis was titled “Environmental Impact of deep sea benthos on Polymetallic nodules mining from Central Indian Ocean Basin” in which he focused on taxonomy studies of macro-benthos, epibenthic organisms, and deep-sea ecology. After graduation in 2012, he joined the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa as a research assistant. During his tenure at NIO, he gained experience in intertidal studies, coastal water expeditions and deep-sea research. He was involved in a coral reef monitoring project where he helped in translocation of corals from threatened zones of pipelines to safe zone areas in the Gulf of Oman-Muscat. Apart from deep-sea study, Lobsang has a keen interest in coral reef ecology and ecosystem functional studies. From his passion for deep sea research and coral reefs, Lobsang became a certified diver. He attended SCUBA School International in Havelock Island. Lobsang would like to continue to work on coral research especially on corals located in the Indian Ocean at the PhD level, as he believes these corals are under severe anthropogenic threats. Joeline Ezekiel (Tanzania): Joeline is a postgraduate student at the Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam. She is at the final stage of submitting her Master’s thesis titled “Temporal and seasonal variations of phytoplankton in Rufiji Delta/Mafia Channel, Southern Tanzania”. Her desire to protect the oceans has encouraged her to become a tutor at the Fisheries Education and Training Agency (FETA), mentoring young students in aquaculture and environmental education. Joeline is a past POGO-SCOR visiting fellowship recipient. Her areas of interests are in primary production and remote sensing of the ocean. Wilfried Panassa (Togo): Wilfried is from northeast Togo (West Africa). He completed his Master’s degree in Physics at the University of Lome (Togo). He moved to Benin in 2010 where he did his second Master’s in Physical Oceanography 11 Contact us: av.arvind@gmail.com, ssve@pml.ac.uk, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

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NF-POGO CofE at the International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA-UNESCO Chair) and Co-diploma with the University of Toulouse, France, in 2012. His Master’s thesis was on, “Assessment of variability and changes of water cycle in the Atlantic Ocean and West African continent’’. Wilfried utilized IPCC models (CMIP3/CMIP5) to study changes in rainfall and sea level data in the context of global climate change. He received an opportunity to attend a workshop in ‘’Fundamental ocean modeling in global and regional scale’’ organized by ICTP in collaboration with the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), India, in August 2013. His research interest is coastal erosion which is the major threat to this country’s coastline. He would also like to study coastal morphology and its hydrodynamic characteristics for the coastal area. For this he is looking forward to join the NANO-African group project on coastal erosion. This would allow him to gain experience and knowledge for further research at the PhD level on ocean modelling. Mathew KA (India): Mathew has a Bachelors degree in Botany and Biotechnology, after which he pursued his Masters in Marine Biology at Cochin University of Science and Technology, India. Mathew was a research fellow on the IndoMareclim Project at the Nansen Environmental Research Centre, India. He later joined the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. His main research interest is to study the influence of climate shift on the marine ecosystem with special reference to fluxes in biogeochemical cycles. At the NF-POGO CofE AWI, he is delighted to receive world-class training from international experts in oceanography. Mathew would like to be part of future workshops and conferences in ocean science and climate change, where he would be able to contribute productively and motivate prospective students to take up research in ocean science in his home country. Pedro Montoro Enrique Gonzalez (Cuba): Pedro is from Pinar del Rio City, the western province of Cuba. He has a Bachelor’s degree in Meteorology (2010) and MSc in Atmospheric Physics (2012). Pedro works as a forecaster and researcher in the Meteorological Prediction Centre of Pinar del Rio. His research interests include climate change and numerical modelling. To Pedro, the NF-POGO CofE-AWI program is a good opportunity to increase his scientific knowledge in oceanography as a multidisciplinary science and to obtain new tools to combat the main issues of coastal areas around the world. With the knowledge gained, Pedro will return to Cuba to train other researchers through workshops and educational meetings throughout the country in order to achieve a positive change of thinking and acting. He believes this would be an important tool for collective action with the slogan “Together we have the power to protect the ocean.” Natália Tasso Signorelli (Brazil): Natália is a physical oceanographer, from São Paulo, Brazil. She graduated with a BSc in Oceanography in 2010 from the University of São Paulo, and later earned her MSc in Physical Oceanography last year from the same institution. In her Master’s thesis, in collaboration with IFREMER, Brest, France, she explored the variability in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in global oceanic models. This variability was linked to both: 1) changes in the western boundary currents close to the Brazilian shelf linked to the changes in the South Equatorial Current bifurcation position (North Brazil Current/North Brazil Undercurrent at surface and the Intermediate Western Boundary Current at intermediate level); and 2) changes in the thermohaline properties of the water masses carried by these currents (South Atlantic Central Water and Antarctica Intermediate Water). With a strong background in ocean Pogonians Year 5 (2013-2014): From left behind are Mathew, models, she believes that the NF-POGO CofE will be imporJoeline, Pedro, Shaazia, Subrata, Wilfried and Widya. In the tant to her career back in Brazil, improving her abilities in front from right are Sutaporn, Lobsang and Natalia. Photo science management and operational oceanography, and credit: Silvia Giesicke, AWI expanding her horizons. Sutaporn Bunyajetpong (Thailand): The main emphasis of Sutaporn’s previous research activities was in marine natural products. Together with her expertise gained from her PhD (in marine natural products) and her zeal for research related to oceanography, she was accepted as a current lecturer in the Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Sutaporn’s main role at the university is to impart knowledge to her eager students whilst carrying out marine research. Participating in the NF-POGO CofE-AWI program was a perfect opportunity for her since she did not graduate directly in the field of oceanography. After NF-POGO CofE-AWI she will go back to Thailand where she will be able to: 1) teach students with the further knowledge and experience in chemical oceanography, 2) produce a new generation of oceanographers in Thailand, and 3) do useful research that has positive impacts to the community, the country and the world. Furthermore, the connections made with oceanographic experts and the fellow CofE scientists around the world will provide useful networks for her future research endeavours. Contact us: av.arvind@gmail.com, ssve@pml.ac.uk, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org 12

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When NANO ponders... Tribute to a Great Nobel Laureate, Professor Martin Karplus Kanthi K. A. S. Yapa Department of Physics, University of Ruhuna, Matara , Sri Lanka P rof. Martin Karplus of Harvard University (Emeritus professor) was one of the three Nobel Laureates in Chemistry in 2013. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for his contribution for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems. I had a personal acquaintance with Prof. Karplus some years back as a graduate student and I would like to share those valuable memories and experiences with the NANO community through this short article. sequence. An essential part of molecular biology is to predict a native structure from its amino acid sequence, modeling what the genetic code does in nature. However, as many millions of different possible sequences are available even for a moderate length of amino acid chain, determination of native structure by physical methI was admitted to the Graduate School of Tufts University, ods is not possible. Therefore, only a Medford, Massachusetts, USA in September of 1983 and computational model made appropriately to predict the nastarted my postgraduate studies in the Department of Physture of the final three-dimensional structure would provide ics. After completing my MSc degree in June 1985, I started a rational approach. The diffusion–collision model is a simmy PhD programme under the supervision of my advisor, the plified model in which the formation of the tertiary struclate Prof. David Weaver (he was a great supervisor and had a ture of a protein takes place by diffusion, collision and coagreat personality, I learned to face and overcome challenges lescence of fluctuating structural elements (microdomains) on my own following in his footsteps). My field of study was in such as α-helices and β-sheets. Existence of microdomains theoretical bio physics and the research problem centered on and consideration of microdomain–microdomain collisions in model building, protein folding mechanisms and molecular the model avoids examining the entire set of conformational dynamics/kinetics (If you are wondering, I stepped into the alternatives, thus making the computation more practical field of remote sensing/oceanography only later, after attendas well as close to nature. Only very recently experimental ing one of the very first workshops held by Dr. Trevor and Dr. studies demonstrated that the diffusion–collision model deShubha on Ocean Colour in Bangalore, scribes the folding mechanism of many India in 1995). My external supervisor Among his enormous contribuproteins. My research problem was was Prof. Martin Karplus who was the tions, developments in structure mainly about studying possible sheet– Chairman of the Department of Chem- determination and folding mechacoil transitions of β-strands. Though it istry at Harvard University at the time. nism of proteins had an enormous may not have contributed much to his Harvard is located in the city of Camimpact on the fields of Chemis Nobel Prize, I am very proud to have bridge, just a few kilometers away from a paper published from my research try and Biology which may have Tufts. Prof. Karplus had been working work with Professor Weaver and Proultimately paved the way to the on the problem of protein folding since fessor Karplus titled “β-Sheet coil tranlate 1960s and his collaboration with highest honour, the Nobel Prize. sitions in a simple polypeptide modProf. Weaver in the early 1970s has reel*”. Professor Weaver and I also had sulted what is known as the diffusion–collision model, a simthe privilege to publish a paper in a volume of the Journal plified model for the protein folding process. Among his enorof Physical Chemistry, dedicated to honor Professor Karplus mous contributions, developments in structure determination acknowledging his vast contribution to molecular research and folding mechanism of proteins had an enormous impact titled “Protein Folding Dynamics: Application of the diffuon the fields of Chemistry and Biology which may have ultision-collision model to the folding of a four-helix bundle**”. mately paved the way to the highest honour, the Nobel Prize. During my time at Tufts from 1985 – 1989 I had many visits to Let me give a very brief Harvard for discussions as well as to attend regular colloquia description about the proheld in the Department of Chemistry by students and posttein folding problem, as the doctoral fellows of Prof. Karplus. He had a large number of great majority of the NANO postdoctoral fellows and students working with him that time, community may not be very more than 25, if I remember correctly. He attended every such familiar with it. Three-dicolloquium and they postponed talks if he was away. I had to mensional conformation or make a presentation as well and I vividly remember how nervthe native structure deterous I was before my presentation, mainly because Professor mines the biological activDavid couldn’t attend that meeting for some reason. I was ity of any globular protein nervous for making mistakes because not only Prof. Karplus, and the native structure but also the whole audience was very knowledgeable about folds spontaneously or in a the topics discussed at meetings as they all had similar backtime scale of microseconds grounds. However, during the delivery I felt very comfortable to seconds under approand as always, Professor Karplus was very gentle in pointing priate conditions without out mistakes in slides or when offering suggestions about conany information than that tents or procedures. He had such a great capacity that he could Prof. Martin Karplus contained in the amino acid 13 Contact us: av.arvind@gmail.com, ssve@pml.ac.uk, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

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follow and understand much of the detailed discussions, they provided a very good foundation to build up a strong research career. Also, the meeting atmosphere was very conducive to free exchange of ideas as well as very friendly and quite a majority of his research fellows and students were from outside United States which helped us to “fit in” quite comfortably. He was very much like a father figure, but a very friendly and a gentle one, all had great respect and admiration for him. One such colloquium had fallen on his birthday, which was in March, and his postdoctoral fellows had ordered a huge “ice cream” cake to celebrate his birthday as well as to surprise him. Though it was March, the day was somewhat warmer than usual and on top, Prof. Karplus was getting late coming to the colloquium as the earlier meeting he attended had dragged on, the fellows were on pins and had to use all their chemistry knowledge to keep the ice cream cake from melting, but at the end it was a great birthday celebration. Just as Prof. Karplus had a huge group of researchers and students he also had a huge office room in the department, but there was no place for anybody to sit and talk inside the room because every floor space and every chair (except his chair, of course) was filled with piles and piles of manuscripts, papers, etc. (the majority could have been his own – coauthored by his students and postdoctoral fellows). Whoever went to the room to meet him had to reach his table very carefully without stepping on those piles and piles of papers. He had published hundreds and hundreds of papers (over 800 papers by now) and had won many prestigious awards, we knew even at that time the only award left for him to win was the Nobel Prize and he very much deserved to win it in 2013. He was a very simple, friendly and down to earth person with a pleasant and sincere smile all the time. He was a great cook too, especially French and Spanish cuisines, and he used to say that the best chemistry he did was in the kitchen. I remember once visiting his home for a dinner and he was the sole cook that evening, he greeted us still wearing the apron. Though I had very little chance to work with him directly during my postgraduate career and though I compared myself only as a tiny fish in the vast ocean of his collaborators, he was so sincere to reply promptly to my late email message sent congratulating him on his great achievement. I take this opportunity to wish him many more healthy and productive years ahead. Prof. Karplus showing his Nobel Medal during his visit to the Nobel Foundation. On this occasion, the Laureates retrieve the Nobel Diploma and Medal, which have been displayed in the Golden Hall of the City Hall following the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony. The Laureates also discuss the details concerning the transfer of their prize money. Photo by Niklas Elmehed. Copyright and source for photo and caption:© Nobel Media AB 2013 work on many different problems at the same time and even further, he could remember every single problem that his students and postdoctoral fellows were working on. Those meetings were very fruitful, and although as students we could not References * Yapa, K., Weaver, D. L., Karplus, M. (1992) β-Sheet coil transitions in a simple polypeptide model. PROTEINS: Structure, Function and Genetics, 12:237-265. DOI: 10.1002/ prot.340120304 ** Yapa, K. Weaver, D.L. (1996) Protein Folding Dynamics: Application of the diffusioncollision model to the folding of a four-helix bundle. J. Phys. Chem., 100: 2498-2509. DOI: 10.1021/jp952543e Prof. Karplus receiving his Nobel Prize from His Majesty King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden at the Stockholm Concert Hall in December 2013. Photo by Alexander Mahmoud. Copyright and source for photo and caption: © Nobel Media AB 2013 Contact us: av.arvind@gmail.com, ssve@pml.ac.uk, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org 14

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