The Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative city of the future’

 
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The Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative city of the future’

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Socrates Almanac 2014

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 ISSN 2053-4736.(Print) Socrates Almanac Publisher: Europe Business Assembly Europe Business Assembly 2 Woodin’s Way Oxford OX1 1HF Tel: +44 (0) 1865 251 122 Fax: +44 (0) 1865 251 122 www.еbaoxford.co.uк Text copyright Europe Business Assembly or as otherwise stated. Reproduction in whole or in part of any content contained in this publication without prior permission is strictly prohibited. ISSN 2053-4736.(Print) The information contained in this publication has been published in good faith and the opinions expressed here are those of the authors and not of Europe Business Assembly. Europe Business Assembly cannot take responsibility for any error or misinterpretation based on this information and neither endorses any products advertised herein. References to materials used in creating this publication are included.

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Socrates Almanac Innovative City of the Future

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Excerpts from the report "STATE OF THE WORLD'S CITIES 2012/2013" Prosperity of Cities STATE OF THE WORLD’S CITIES 2012/2013 PROSPERITY OF CITIES Urban and Regional Trends More than Half of the World Population is Now Urban It is really remarkable that only one century ago, two out of 10 people in the world were living in urban areas. In the least developed countries, this proportion was as low as five per cent, as the overwhelming majority was living in rural areas. The world has been rapidly urbanizing since then and, in some countries and regions, at an unprecedented pace. It was only two years ago that humankind took a landmark step when, for the first time in history, urban outnumbered rural populations. This milestone marked the advent of a new ‘urban millennium’ and, by the middle of this century, it is expected that out of every 10 people on the planet, seven will be living in urban areas. Interestingly, only 60 years ago or so (1950), the number of people living in urban centres was slightly higher in developed (54 per cent, or 442 million) as compared with developing countries. Today, of every 10 urban residents in the world more than seven are found in developing countries, which are also hosts to an overwhelming (82 per cent) proportion of humankind. Moreover, it is estimated that, between 2010 and 2015, some 200,000 people on average will be added to the world’s urban population every day. Worth noting is that 91 per cent of this daily increase (or 183,000) is expected to take place in developing countries. In the last quarter of 2011, the world population reached the seven billion mark. This historic event took place 12 years after the six billion mark. It took 123 years to double fromone to two billion but ‘only’ 33 years to cross the three-billion threshold. Although demographic growth is slowing down across the world as a whole, it remains that the ever-shorter time it has taken to add one extra billion signals a major shift in both the pace and scale of global demographics. It is almost certain that at some point in late 2011, the seven-billionth human was born in a developing country. This is where virtually all (93 per cent) of the world’s population growth is 4 Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’ happening today. Moreover, all future population growth is expected to take place in urban areas, and again nearly all of it in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Therefore, it is highly probable that the seven-billionth human was born in a city in any of these three regions. These numbers highlight the extent to which the world population has increasingly come to live in urban areas. For all the clarity of these trends and the benefits that come with urbanization, too many governments still maintain ambivalent if not hostile attitudes to this process. In 2009, slightly over two-thirds (67 per cent) of countries in the world reported that they had implemented policies to reduce or even reverse migrant flows from rural areas to cities. Of an average 10 African governments, slightly over eight were found trying to stem rural migration. However, contrary to common perception, migration from rural to urban areas is no longer the dominant determinant of urban population growth in developing countries. Today, natural increase accounts for some 60 per cent of that growth, and the transformation of rural settlements into urban places, a process known as ‘reclassification’, accounts for another 20 per cent or so. Understanding current and prospective trends in urban demographic growth is fundamental if appropriate policies and strategies are to be designed and deployed to maximize the benefits of urbanization. This includes taking advantage of opportunities, devising better regional and urban policies, and planning for the future. In this chapter, every major region of the world is shown to feature unique development patterns that are analysed against the background of current trends and projections. Urban Change in Developed Countries Urban Population Growth is Next to Stagnant In the more advanced nations, urban population growth is next to stagnant (0.67 per cent on an annual average basis since 2010), which represents an additional six million or so every year. In Europe, the annual increase is only two million. By comparison, the aggregate annual population increase in six major developingcountry cities – New Delhi and Mumbai (India), Dhaka (Bangladesh), Lagos (Nigeria), Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo) and Karachi (Pakistan) – is higher than Europe’s entire population. Population in North American cities was the least slow of all those

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in the developed world between 2005 and 2010, particularly in the United States (one per cent on average). The growth, decline and prosperity of cities: There is no clear association between the demographic growth or decline of cities and their degrees of prosperity. Although population numbers have declined in a number of cities in Western Europe, Canada and New Zealand, this did not affect living standards, which in some cases even improved. On the other hand, and as might be expected, population declines in a number of cities in Eastern Europe and the United States of America are strongly associated with economic decay. The loss of economic momentum in Cleveland, Detroit and Buffalo (homes to the USA’sdeclining automobile, steel and heavy industries, respectively) and the deterioration of inner city conditions (deserted residential areas and crumbling infrastructure) have all gone hand in hand with population declines. Population decline in the city proper can very often go hand in hand with rapid growth in peripheral areas, a phenomenon known as the ‘doughnut effect’. For example, in Saskatoon, one of Canada’s most dynamic and affluent economic hubs, migration and natural increase caused a 15 per cent population increase in peripheral municipalities between 1996 and 2001. Likewise in the United States of America, there has been a continuous decline (minus 8.3 per cent between 2000 and 2010) in the population of affluent St. Louis, while neighbouring cities such as St. Charles and Jefferson increased their populations by 26.6 per cent and 10.8 per cent,respectively, during the same period. Growing cities are located in growing regions: Cities and the surrounding regions are typically interdependent economically and tend to share similar socioeconomic and demographic trends. In most North American cities, growing cities correspond to the most dynamic regions and those experiencing population losses are located in less dynamic regions. Canada is a case in point. Research found that between 1981 and 2001, two-thirds of smaller cities and towns with declining populations were located within declining regions, and 77 per cent of cities on a positive demographic trend were to be found in growing regions. In contrast, in Western Europe the prosperity of entire regions is largely dependent on a primate conurbation and the concentration of services and manufacturing that comes with it. A study on the sustainability of 285 European regions conducted by the Berlin Institute in 2007/8, just prior to the financial crises, showed that cities like Reykjavik, Stockholm, Oslo, Zurich and Geneva were doing well, as did the regions where they are located. With their relatively unchanged, well-educated and well-nigh fully employed populations, these cities base their economic momentum on a combination of factors: they act as administrative and/or financial/economic as well as cultural capital cities, with high value added activities (including communications, business services, high technologies, research, etc.), and this momentum spills over across the (often largely urbanized) surrounding regions through manufacturing and ancillary (logistics, etc.) activities. Cities in the north will continue to attract migrants: European urban areas, in particular, will continue to feature low fertility rates and rapidly aging populations. These demographic trends are unmistakable and point to overall demographic decline. Between 2005 and 2010, net international migration counterbalanced the excess of deaths over births in 11 developed countries, while contributing twice as much to population growth in another nine countries. With the ongoing economic crisis, the aggregate flow of immigrants to developed countries has slowed down from an annual 2.3 per cent average rate in 2000–05 to 1.7 per cent in 2005–10. Rising unemployment in some of the host cities/countries may cause governments to impose restrictions on increased immigration. In Italy, the dynamic, affluent northern industrial cities of Brescia and Reggio Emilia saw the share of immigrants in their populations increase from five and six per cent respectively in 2002 to 19.3 and 17.2 per cent in 2010. Ireland’s economic boom caused Dublin’s foreign-born population to soar by over 300 per cent between 1991 and 2008. With the ongoing economic crisis, the aggregate flow of immigrants to developed countries has slowed down from an annual 2.3 per cent average rate in 2000–05 to 1.7 per cent in 2005–10.12 Despite these current trends, it looks like enduring demographic and economic asymmetries between the North and South will continue to fuel international migration, as developed nations require foreign workers to address labour shortages and counter the effects of population aging on welfare systems. Foreword STATE OF THE WORLD’S CITIES 2012/2013 Prosperity of Cities Ban Ki-moon Secretary-General’s Our world today is predominantly urban. Cities can be prime driving forces of development and innovation. Yet the prosperity generated by cities has not been equitably shared, and a sizeable proportion of the urban population remains without access to the benefits that cities produce.The 2012/2013 State of the World’s Cities Report, “Prosperity of Cities”, introduces a notion of prosperity that looks beyond the confines of economic growth that have dominated development policy and agendas for many years. It examines how cities can generate and equitably distribute the benefits and opportunities associated with prosperity, ensuring economic well being, social cohesion, environmental sustainability and a better quality of life in general. As the world continues to grapple with the impact of an economic crisis, which has triggered a series of other crises, we are also witnessing valiant and creative attempts at different levels, by different actors, to seek solutions. Despite the challenges they face and, indeed, the dysfunction that prevails in many urban areas, cities have a central role to play in contributing to national and global recovery. And as the world seeks a more people-centred, sustainable approach to development, cities can lead the way with local solutions to global problems. I commend the findings of this timely report to scholars, policy makers, development planners and all others interested in promoting prosperous towns and cities. Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’ 5

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STATE OF THE WORLD’S CITIES 2012/2013 Prosperity of Cities Foreword STATE OF THE WORLD’S CITIES 2012/2013 Prosperity of Cities Joan Clos Under-SecretaryGeneral, United Nations Executive Director, UN-Habitat This is a time of crises. This is also a time for solutions. Indeed, the world is currently engulfed in waves of financial, economic, environmental, social and political crises. Amidst the turmoil, however, we are also witnessing valiant and creative attempts at different levels and by different actors to seek for solutions. The State of the World’s Cities Report 2012/2013 presents, with compelling evidence, some of the underlying factors behind these crises that have strongly impacted on cities. It shows that a lopsided focus on purely financial prosperity has led to growing inequalities between rich and poor, generated serious distortions in the form and functionality of cities, also causing serious damage to the environment – not to mention the unleashing of precarious financial systems that could not be sustained in the long run. The Report proposes a fresh approach to prosperity, one that is holistic and integrated and which is essential for the promotion of a collective well-being and fulfilment of all. This new approach does not only respond to the crises by providing safeguards against new risks, but it also helps cities to steer the world towards economically, socially, politically and environmentally prosperous urban futures. In order to measure present and future progress of cities towards the prosperity path, the Report introduces a new tool – the City Prosperity Index – together with a conceptual matrix, the Wheel of Urban Prosperity, both of which are meant to assist decision makers to design clear policy interventions. To varying degrees of intensity, cities have been hit by different crises. However, this Report tells us that cities can also be a remedy to the regional and global crises. When supported by different tiers of government, and in the quest to generate holistic prosperity, cities can become flexible and creative platforms to address these crises in a pragmatic and efficient manner. Prosperity, in this sense, can be seen as a Pharmakon – both a cause of the problem and a remedy. As per this ancient Greek construct, when used properly, it can help decision-makers to steer cities towards well-balanced and harmonious development. In this Report, UN-Habitat advocates for a new type of city – the city of the 21st century – that is a ‘good’, peoplecentred city, one that is capable of integrating the tangible and more intangible aspects of prosperity, and in the process shedding off the inefficient, unsustainable forms and functionalities of the city of the previous century. By doing this, UN-Habitat plays a pivotal role in ensuring that urban planning, legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks become an instrument of prosperity and well-being. This is a time of solutions to the numerous challenges that confront today’s cities. If we are to take measures that will make a difference to the lives of the billions of people in the world’s cities, and to future generations, we need sound and solid knowledge and information. This Report provides some of these crucial ingredients. I am confident that it will serve as a useful tool in the necessary redefinition of the urban policy agenda at local, national and regional levels. I do believe also that it will provide valuable insights in the search for urban prosperity and related policy changes 6 Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’ in the years ahead. The Report is a bridge between research and policy, with inputs from more than 50 cities, individual scientists and institutions, particularly the Directorate-General for Regional Policy from the European Commission, and other partner institutions around the world that participated actively in the preparation of this study. I would like to thank them for their immense contribution. I would also like to thank the Government of Norway for its financial support. The partnerships that have evolved during the preparation of this report are part and parcel of, as well as critically essential in, creating the building blocks of a more sustainable prosperity, one that is shared by all. UN-Habitat is determined to sustain and consolidate such partnerships as we collectively chart a better future. This is a time of crises. This is also a time for solutions. Indeed, the world is currently engulfed in waves of financial, economic, environmental, social and political crises. Amidst the turmoil, however, we are also witnessing valiant and creative attempts at different levels and by different actors to seek for solutions. The State of the World’s Cities Report 2012/2013 presents, with compelling evidence, some of the underlying factors behind these crises that have strongly impacted on cities. It shows that a lopsided focus on purely financial prosperity has led to growing inequalities between rich and poor, generated serious distortions in the form and functionality of cities, also causing serious damage to the environment – not to mention the unleashing of precarious financial systems that could not be sustained in the long run. The Report proposes a fresh approach to prosperity, one that is holistic and integrated and which is essential for the promotion of a collective well-being and fulfilment of all. This new approach does not only respond to the crises by providing safeguards against new risks, but it also helps cities to steer the world towards economically, socially, politically and environmentally prosperous urban futures. In order to measure present and future progress of cities towards the prosperity path, the Report introduces a new tool – the City Prosperity Index – together with a conceptual matrix, the Wheel of Urban Prosperity, both of which are meant to assist decision makers to design clear policy interventions. To varying degrees of intensity, cities have been hit by different crises. However, this Report tells us that cities can also be a remedy to the regional and global crises. When supported by different tiers of government, and in the quest to generate holistic prosperity, cities can become flexible and creative platforms to address these crises in a pragmatic and efficient manner. Prosperity, in this sense, can be seen as a Pharmakon – both a cause of the problem and a remedy. As per this ancient Greek construct, when used properly, it can help decision-makers to steer cities towards well-balanced and harmonious development. In this Report, UN-Habitat advocates for a new type of city – the city of the 21st century – that is a ‘good’, peoplecentred city, one that is capable of integrating the tangible and more intangible aspects of prosperity, and in the process shedding off the inefficient, unsustainable forms and functionalities of the city of the previous century. By doing this, UN-Habitat plays a pivotal role in ensuring that urban planning, legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks become an instrument of prosperity and well-being. This is a time of solutions to the numerous challenges that confront today’s cities. If we are to take measures that will make a difference to the lives of the billions of people in the world’s cities, and to future generations, we need sound and solid knowledge and information. This Report provides some of these crucial ingredients. I am confident

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that it will serve as a useful tool in the necessary redefinition of the urban policy agenda at local, national and regional levels. I do believe also that it will provide valuable insights in the search for urban prosperity and related policy changes in the years ahead. The Report is a bridge between research and policy, with inputs from more than 50 cities, individual scientists and institutions, particularly the DirectorateGeneral for Regional Policy from the European Commission, and other partner institutions around the world that participated actively in the preparation of this study. I would like to thank them for their immense contribution. I would also like to thank the Government of Norway for its financial support. The partnerships that have evolved during the preparation of this report are part and parcel of, as well as critically essential in, creating the building blocks of a more sustainable prosperity, one that is shared by all. UN-Habitat is determined to sustain and consolidate such partnerships as we collectively chart a better future.

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City Management Globalization and urbanization continue to fundamentally alter the way cities work. Growth means wider and more complex challenges to meet the needs of residents and businesses. This is as true for the mayor of a large urban metropolis as it is for a small town mayor suddenly attracting more people from rural areas. Those who share in the day-to-day life of a city – residents, commuters, workers, tourists – have a variety of expectations, from the basic requirements of housing and security to the more intellectual desires of the arts, theater, and science. A city must be attractive to keep its citizens. It must have resources – financial, human, and cultural – to sustain growth, vibrancy, and success. In a world where people, capital, and information are increasingly mobile, circulating freely and easily across borders, the traditional ties that bind are all but gone. When conditions seem better elsewhere, they relocate.

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Urban management Urban management "People need to be able to get to work, school, hospitals and places of recreation safely and quickly.  Getting mobility right can regenerate urban centres, boost productivity and make a city attractive for all users – from investors to visitors and residents." Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon  World Habitat Day, 2013

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ASSOCIATION OF CITIES 10 Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’

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Urban management United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) represents and defends the interests of local governments on the world stage, regardless of the size of the communities they serve. Headquartered in Barcelona, the organisation’s stated mission is: To be the united voice and world advocate of democratic local selfgovernment, promoting its values, objectives and interests, through cooperation between local governments, and within the wider international community. A targeted work programme UCLG’s work programme focuses on: – Increasing the role and influence of local government and its representative organisations in global governance; – Becoming the main source of support for democratic, effective, innovative local government close to the citizen; – Ensuring an effective and democratic global organisation. United Cities and Local Governments supports international cooperation between cities and their associations, and facilitates programmes, networks and partnerships to build the capacity of local governments. It promotes the role of women in local decision-making, and is a gateway to relevant information on local government across the world. UCLG’s members represent over half of the world’s total population Present in 140 of the 191 UN members states in seven world regions, UCLG’s members include individual cities and national associations of local governments, which represent all the cities and local governments in a single country. Over 1000 cities across 95 countries are direct members of UCLG. 112 Local Government Associations (LGAs) are members of UCLG, representing almost every existing LGA in the world. See more at: www.uclg.org/en/organisation/ about#sthash.DvCw6GI4.dpuf UCLG AFRICA The UCLG AFRICA is the umbrella organization and the united voice and representative of local government in Africa. It results from the unification of the three pre-existing continental groupings of local governments,namely the African Union of Local Authorities (AULA), the Union des Villes Africaines (UVA) and the Africa Chapter of the Unao dos Ciudades y Capitaes Lusofono Africana, (UCCL AFRICA). It is an institution that gathers 40 national associations of local governments from all regions of Africa as well as the 2000 cities that have more than 100.000 inhabitants. Therefore UCLG AFRICA represents nearly 350 million Africans citizens. UCLG AFRICA is a founding member of the United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) world organization, and its regional section for Africa. UCLG AFRICA is currently headquartered in the City of Rabat, The Kingdom of Morocco, where it enjoys a diplomatic status as a Pan-African International Organisation. www.afriquelocale.org/en UCLG Eurasia World organization United cities and local governments (WO UCLG) is a voluntary international alliance of associations, unions and individual municipalities established in 2004 in order to represent rights of citizens at the level of local self-government. UCLG is the most powerful and influential institution in the field of interaction of local governments, their representation at the international level and implementation of democratic principles. At the moment UCLG unites more than 1000 cities and world associations and represents over half the world’s population. WO UCLG consists of 7 regional sections. Eurasian section of UCLG is the youngest and the most dynamically developing, it consists of more than 100 cities and associations of local authorities of the CIS countries and Mongolia. Members of the Euro-Asian sections have hosted many events of national and international level. The headquarters of the Eurasian office is located in Kazan www.euroasia-uclg.ru/ Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’ 11

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Association of Cities Fonds Mondiale pour le developpement ` des villes The Global fund for cities development (FMDV) was created in October 2010 at the initiative of Metropolis, United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) and 34 founding members (cities and city networks). It is an international political organisation which aims to strengthen solidarity and financial capacity by and among local authorities and is complementary to existing mobilisation, coordination and advocacy networks. FMDV meets the need expressed by local governments to have their own instrument that is: ·· Operational and effective in order to help contracting authorities find expert, sustainable and viable financial solutions for projects and activities led by territorial authorities, ·· Tailored to the specific needs and realities of territories and to the capacity and competences of administrative teams and their local partners, applying a principle of subsidiarity, efficient management and know-how transfers, ·· Independent vis-à-vis governments, the private sector and the main international donors so that it can operate in line with the key directions defined by the local authorities themselves. In this respect, FMDV provides technical expertise and financial engineering throughout the urban development project process (definition, fundraising and organisation). It facilitates territorial authorities’ access to financial resources which match the needs that they themselves have identified and under the best possible conditions: guarantees, loans, subsidies, grants, financial markets and endogenous mechanisms. This dual approach, based on technical assistance to re-think urban planning and appropriate financial engineering so that it can be sustainably financed, allows local authorities, elected officials and technical teams to design, develop and appraise their own development projects, in line with the coherence and potential of the territory and in consultation with local stakeholders. FMDV is based in Paris and is present in Africa, Asia and Latin America via its regional offices. This allows the organisation to work as closely as possible with its members and the territorial projects they are implementing. www.fmdv.net International Assocition of French speaking Mayors The International Organisation of La Francophonie represents one of the biggest linguistic zones in the world. Its members share more than just a common language. They also share the humanist values promoted by the French language. The French language and its humanist values represent the two cornerstones on which the International Organisation of La Francophonie is based. The International Organisation of La Francophonie was created in 1970. Its mission is to embody the active solidarity between its 77 member states and governments (57 members and 20 observers), which together represent over one-third of the United Nations’ member states and account for a population of over 890 million people, including 220 million French speakers. IOF organises political activities and actions of multilateral cooperation that benefit French-speaking populations. Its actions respect cultural and linguistic diversity and serve to promote the French language, peace and sustainable development. www.francophonie.org UCLG Asia – Pacific United Cities and Local Governments Asia-Pacific (UCLG ASPAC), the regional section of UCLG, is based in Jakarta, Indonesia. The organisation is the key knowledge management hub on local government issues in the region. UCLG is a worldwide association of local government organisations that dates back to 1913. UCLG is the only local government organization recognised by the United Nations, and nominates 12 Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’ 10 out of 20 members of UNACLA, the first advisory body of local authorities affiliated with the UN. The Asia and Pacific region is the biggest of the eight sections in UCLG with linkages to more than 7.000 local governments. It represents well over 3.76 billion people – more than half of the world population – and incorporates economically fast developing countries such as China, India and Indonesia.

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Urban management Commonwealth Local Government Forum CLGF works to promote and strengthen democratic local government across the Commonwealth and to encourage the exchange of best practice – through conferences and events, projects and research. Working with national and local governments to support the development of democratic values and good local governance. As a Commonwealth organisation, CLGF draws on the influential network of the Commonwealth that provides a solid basis for its programmes and activities. As an associated organisation officially recognised by Commonwealth Heads of Government, CLGF is well-placed to influence policy development and lead on democracy and good governance at local level. CLGF’s strength lies in its membership whose representatives are the key players in local government in the Commonwealth and can be drawn into CLGF’s work as experts and influencers. CLGF is unique in bringing together central, provincial and local spheres of government involved in local government policy and decisionmaking. CLGF has more than 160 members in 40 Commonwealth countries including local government associations, individual local authorities, ministries dealing with local government.  www.clgf.org.uk Arab Town Organization The Arab Town Organization (ATO) is a regional, non-governmental and non-political organization specialized in municipal and town affairs in the Arab world. The ATO was established in 1967 with headquarters in Kuwait City. The membership of the organization is open to all Arab cities wishing to join it. ATO counts more than 400 members in the following countries: Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Somalia, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Yemen, Tunisia, Comoros, Djibouti, Syria, Amman, Palestine, Qatar, Lebanon, Libya, Egypt and Mauritania. www.commed-cglu.org International Council Environmental Initiatives ICLEI is the world’s leading association of cities and local governments dedicated to sustainable development. We are a powerful movement of 12 mega-cities, 100 super-cities and urban regions, 450 large cities as well as 450 medium-sized cities and towns in 86 countries.  We promote local action for global sustainability and supports cities to become sustainable, resilient, resource-efficient, biodiverse, lowcarbon; to build a smart infrastructure; and to develop an inclusive, green urban economy with the ultimate aim to achieve healthy and happy communities. www.iclei.org UCLG Middle East and Western Asia As one of the eight regional sections of UCLG World Organization, United Cities and Local Governments, Middle East and West Asia Section (UCLG-MEWA) continues its activities from its headquarters in Istanbul. International Union of Local Authorities, Section for the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East Region (IULA-EMME), as the predecessor of UCLG-MEWA, was established in Turkey in 1987 as one of the regional sections of International Union of Local Authorities (IULA). IULA-EMME has been transformed into UCLG-MEWA in 2004, in parallel with the creation and restructuring of the UCLG World Organization. Since its establishment, UCLG-MEWA continues its activities for cities and local governments in the region, from its headquarters in Istanbul, Turkey, serving the main principles of democracy, human rights, local selfgovernment, international solidarity, accountability and transparency, and sustainable development. www.uclg-mewa.org Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’ 13

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