Urban Archaeology

 

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Artifact Guide

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NYCDOE Archaeology Kit: A collection of NewYork City authentic artifacts,1870-1890 A  curriculum  resource  unit  developed  by  The  NYC  Department  of   Educa

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  Carmen  Fariña   Chancellor     Office  of  School  Programs  and  Partnerships     Monique  Akil-­‐Darrisaw,  Ed.D   Executive  Director     Norah  Lovett   Senior  Director     Jessica  Kaplan   Senior  Director     Philip  Panaritis     Project  Director     Brian  Carlin   Project  Director       Special  thanks  to  the  following  institutions  for  their  support  in  this  project:   The  New  York  City  Landmarks  Preservation  Commission,  The  New-­‐York  Historical  Society,  The   Brooklyn  Public  Library,  The  Museum  of  the  City  of  New  York,  The  National  Archives  and   Records  Administration-­‐North  East  Region       52  Chambers  Street   New  York,  New  York  10007  

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Table of Contents Introduction ...................................................................................3 Project Team …….…………………………………………………….4 The Collection ...............................................................................6 Sample CCLS connections ..........................................................8 How to read the "Artifact Card"..................................................10 Artifact Cards ...............................................................................11 Glossary .......................................................................................70 Artifact observation and analysis templates ............................76 Sample Lessons ..........................................................................80

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Touching The Past Have you ever held an object from the 1860’s? Have you ever been able to touch an artifact that someone used over 150 years ago? Well, now thanks to a cooperative effort between OSPP and The NYC Landmarks Commission, students across the city are being given that opportunity. Bronx Teaching American History, Project Directors Philip Panaritis and Brian Carlin led a team of NYCDOE curriculum writers who have helped to organize, research and develop Artifact Kits to be used in the classroom. The Landmarks Commission generously donated an extensive collection of mid19th c. artifacts from archaeological excavations in Williamsburgh and Cypress Hills Brooklyn. The TAH team culled the best 75 items, photographed and researched them; and then wrote a onepage laminated artifact information card with contextual references, vocabulary words and illustrations for each artifact. The collections are now packaged into three user-friendly "kits" of 25 items. After completing a training session, teachers may borrow one of the kits for up to two weeks. At that point, children are able to unwrap, actually touch, and then read and write about authentic toys, vulcanite combs, slate pencils, bone toothbrush handles, inkwells and medicine bottles used by working-class New Yorkers five generations ago. The kits were first piloted at Bronx TAH grants workshops in spring 2012. This gave teachers the opportunity to design lessons and provide feedback on classroom instruction. Each kit provides teachers and students with original museum-quality, hands-on, (free!) teaching materials that are directly connected to our city's past. Study of the artifacts is conducive to students working individually, in small groups or on whole-class projects. The project appeals to students' across several "multiple intelligences" and helps powerfully convey the idea that history is all around us. Learning about how and object was made, how it was used and why we don't (or do) still use it today affords a less is more interdisciplinary learning experience rich in history, geography, culture, mathematics, graphing, and several sciences. Every kit comes with a customized database (on a thumb drive) that contains nearly 2GB of background information for teachers and students including: maps, photographs, lesson plans and much more. The original archeological reports are included This guide contains the resources. created for the latest kit, 29 c. 1880 artifacts from Cypress Hills Brooklyn.

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      Gary  Carlin  has  worked  for  the  NYCDOE  as  a  science  teacher  and  STEM  professional   developer  and  educator  for  the  past  twenty-­‐eight  years,  where  he  has  gained  extensive   experience  in  writing  science  curricula,  inquiry-­‐based  learning,  and  interdisciplinary   literacy  skills  development.  His  professional  development  work  strongly  encouraged  the   use  of  literacy  and  process  skills  to  support  content  delivery  and  student  learning   experiences  in  the  sciences  and  mathematics  and  to  allow  students  and  professionals  to   "globally  share  their  ideas"  and  interact  with  experts  in  the  field.       Marsha  Green:  after  over  35  years  in  Brooklyn  and  the  Bronx  as  an  excellent  classroom   teacher,  Ms.  Green  has  worked  as  an  educational  consultant  for  the  TAH  Grant   Programs  for  more  than  eight  years.    She  helps  administer  all  TAH  Grant  programs   including:  Summer  Institutes,  History  Talks  book-­‐signings,  PD  workshops,  the  annual   Museum  Fair,  Study  Groups,  the  Urban  Archaeology  Project,    and  the  Hunts  Point  Slave   Burial  Ground  Project.    Marsha  is  a  graduate  of  NY  City  public  schools  and  Brooklyn   College.    Her  husband  is  a  retired  NY  City  school  teacher,  her  son  practices  law  and  her   daughter  is  a  network  administrator  in  the  Bronx.           Philip  Panaritis:  Phil  is  the  Project  Director  of  a  TAH  Grant  in  the  Bronx.    He  began   working  as  a  HS  social  studies  teacher  in  Manhattan  in  1985.    In  1991  he  became  a  staff   developer  for  social  studies  in  the  Bronx  HS  Superintendency.    He  worked  there  until   that  office  was  dissolved,  and  then  became  a  RIS  in  Region  2,  where  he  was  in  charge  of   social  studies,  Mentoring,  the  MSP  Grant,  and  grant-­‐writing.    In  2008,  he  began  working   full-­‐time  on  TAH  grants.    This  is  the  final  TAH  Grant  after  11  previous  three-­‐year   competitive  grants  ($33  million)  that  Mr.  Panaritis  presented,  wrote  and  supervised.       Lou  Ianniello  graduated  from  Fordham  Preparatory  School  in  1984  and  Fordham   University  in  1988  with  a  BA  in  Communications.  He  earned  a  Master’s  Degree  in   Learning  Technology  from  Mercy  College,  as  well  as  a  School  Building  Leader  certificate   from  the  College  of  St.  Rose.    He  has  been  a  New  York  City  public  school  teacher  for  22   years  and  has  lived  his  entire  life  in  both  the  Pelham  Bay  and  Pelham  Parkway  areas  of   the  Bronx.    Lou's  work    for  the  city  has  ranged  from  working  with  autistic  adolescents,   fourth  grade,  science  and  history  education,  and  leading  professional  development   workshops  on  a  variety  of  topics.  Lou  continues  to  develop  hands-­‐on  curricula  for   students  in  history  and  science.       Curriculum  Writers  and  Project  Administrators   4

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Debra  Sukupa  has  worked  as  a  4th  grade  teacher  for  the  NYC  Department  of  Education   since  2006.  For  over  20  years,  she  worked  as  an  architect  and  interior  designer  on   numerous  residential  and  public  and  private  school  projects.  She  learned  that  teamwork   and  collaboration  were  essential  attributes  for  success  in  any  career,  and  credits  her   experiences  in  transitioning  into  education.  While  teaching,  Debra  has  gained  a  special   interest  in  history  and  has  participated  in  the  Teaching  American  History  and  Picturing   America  grants.       Jessyka  Calzolaio  graduated  from  NYU  in  2004  with  a  BA  in  Media.  After  a  year  of   working  in  client  relations,  she  found  her  true  calling  in  the  classroom.  She  has  spent  the   past  8  years  in  the  Bronx  teaching  both  special  education  and  general  education   youngsters.  While  teaching  she  found  a  passion  for  social  studies  and  has  participated  in   many  Teaching  America  History  grants  to  enhance  her  knowledge  of  the  city  and  bring   NYC  into  the  classroom.  She  also  works  with  mentoring  new  teachers  for  New  York  City.     Today,  she  is  pursuing  a  second  Master's  Degree  in  Education  Administration.  She   resides  in  New  Rochelle,  New  York  with  her  husband  and  daughter  Lilliana.     Brian  Carlin  grew  up  and  still  resides  in  Brooklyn.  He  has  been  working  for  the  NYCDOE   for  the  past  twenty  years  as  a  social  studies  teacher,  a  staff  developer  and  as  a   supervisor.  He  has  served  as  project  director  on  four  Teaching  American  History  grants   and  has  been  involved  with  the  writing  and  supporting  of  several  more.  Brian  co-­‐ directed  a  NEH  Picturing  America  grant  and  has  presented  professional  development   workshops  at  national  conferences  in  Omaha,  San  Diego,  Kansas  City  and  many  more.   Brian  works  with  teachers  to  infuse  history  and  technology  together.  His  three  children   attend  NYC  public  schools.             5

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Artifact  Kit  3  –  The  Collection  (Teacher  Copy)   Bones  Shells  Horns   B1  Chicken  Bone B4  Goat  Bone B2    Clam  Shell B5    Oyster  Shell B3    Cow  Bone B6  Umbrella  Finial       B7  Pig  Bone Porcelain  and  Ceramic   P1  Spittoon P5    Bisque  Doll     P2    A  Eddy  Root  Beer  Bottle   P6  Ceramic  Teacup   P3  Curtain  Finial   P7  Strainer       P4  Pipe  Stem                                                                                                 Photos  by  Louis  Ianniello  and  Gary  Carlin   Writers:  Gary  Carlin,  Jessyka  Calzolaio,  Louis  Ianniello,   and  Debra  Sukupa.   Sponsored  by  Bronx  TAH  Grants   Brian  Carlin,  Marsha  Green  and  Philip  Panaritis   6  

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Artifact  Kit  3  –  The  Collection  (Teacher  Copy)   Material  -­‐  Metal   M1  Bicycle  Bell   M5  Toy  Tea  Set     M2  Double-­‐Wick   Burner     M6  Pocket  Watch  Holder     M3  Thimble   M7  Trivet       M4  Toy  Bank   M8  Perfume  Ball     M9  Lorillard  Sign     G1  Lager  Bottle     Glass   G4  Perfume  Bottle     G2  Ketchup  Bottle   G5  Light  Bulb     G3  Malted  Milk  Bottle     G6  Medicated  Beer  Bottle         7

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Samples of Common Core State Standards alignment Pre-­‐500  A.D.   500-­‐1400  A.D.   1400-­‐1600     1600-­‐1800   Toy  History  Timeline   1800-­‐1920   1920-­‐1950   1950-­‐Present                         Carved  Jade   Whale  bone  top   Bilboquet   Delft  Noah’s   Bisque   Nesting  Dolls   Lone  Ranger   Alice  in   Dollhouse   1950’s  “Ray   1960’s  Ideal     Elephant     Ark  Animals   Doll   Chalk  Ware   Wonderland  doll   Tea  Set   Gun”   action  figure   The  Toy  History  Timeline  above  shows  the  evolution  of  toys  from  simple  carved  figures  into  more  elaborate,  mechanical  items  with  greater  detail.  What  is  very  important  to  understand  is  how  the   type  of  material  used  for  toys  evolved  as  well.  As  mentioned  above,  early  toys  were  made  from  materials  that  were  readily  available  in  nature,  such  as  stone,  wood,  or  minerals.  As  technology   improved,  materials  such  as  ceramic,  porcelain,  and  metal  were  employed  to  produce  toys  (and  many  other  items).  Plastic,  manufactured  in  the  twentieth  century,  allowed  toymakers  to  be  as   creative  as  their  imaginations  allowed.  Electronics  have  also  played  a  large  role  in  toys  today,  with  many  containing  robotic,  remote-­‐controlled  elements.  What  do  you  think  will  be  next?   CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.4.3a Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4.3 Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4.8 Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text. 8

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Kit # 3/Object # 8 ARTIFACTS FROM APPENDIX C – ARTIFACT INVENTORY Description Beg Date - End Date Note Root Beer, Stoneware - 19th Century Style Bottle 1820-1910 Impressed "A. EDDY" one pint Vocabulary: Root Beer ngredients: Sassafras: Traditional recipes used a. sturdy - strong, durable, tough. The principal "root" in old time natural ingredients like root beer, sassafras is native to b. temperance - movement to ban and sassafras root, hops America. Its root bark has the flowers, juniper berries, abstain from (not consume) alcohol. birch bark, molasses spicy flavor. c. vendor - seller; a person or company (sweetness and color), http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/DLDecArts.Am burdock root, licorice, with things for others to buy. erMedv1 http://www.flickr.com/photos/missioncontrol/3652609596/sizes/l/in/photostream/ wintergreen leaf and yeast. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4.4 Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.5 Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. 9

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How  to  Read  the  Ar2facts  Cards Kit$#$3/Object$#309$$$$$ARTIFACTS$FROM$APPENDIX$C$–$ARTIFACT$INVENTORY$ A        Each  ar'fact  has  a   number  assigned   B  Name  of  ar'fact  (in  yellow  for   easy  iden'fica'on),  size,  color,   date  of  crea'on  and  other   descrip've  items  for  each   ar'fact  as  recorded  by   archeologists.  1 C  Photo  of  actual  ar'fact   D    Vocabulary  words  for   classroom  use  selected  from   text  (in  bold  print)  and   defined  by  Bronx  TAH  Grants   team.     Description$ Height$ Beg$Date$I$End$Date$ Note$ Ketchup$Bottle$ 8$inches$ 1882I1905$ Embossed$“PAT.$MAR.$14$1882”$around$“HEINZ/7”$ APPENDIX$D$–$Minimum$Number$of$Vessels$ Manufacturing$Technique$ Motif$ Color$ Maker’s$Mark$ Brand$ Piece%mold%–%two%part%with%separate%base% Partial%ribs% Clear,%colorless% Embossed%“PAT.%MAR.%14%1882”%around%“HEINZ/7”% H.J.%Heinz%Co.% Vocabulary:$ To$be$US$Grade$A$Ketchup,$it$must$have:$ Food$Facts:$$$$ a.$condiment%–%a%seasoning%to%enhance%the%flavor%of%food,%such%% cooked%and%strained%tomato%sauce,%salt,% Ketchup%or%catsup%derived%from%the% $$$$as%salt,%sugar,%mustard,%ketchup,%mayonnaise,%chutney.% vinegar,%sugar,%onion%or%garlic%flavorings% word%ke#tsiap,%a%pickled%fish%sauce% and%spices%such%as%cinnamon,%cloves,% from%China.%It%was%brought%back%to% b.%keystone%–%a%wedgePshaped%stone%at%the%top%of%an%arch%% %%%%which%locks%it%in%place.%The%other%stones%push%against%it.% mace,%allspice,%nutmeg,%ginger%and% Europe%by%early%18th%century%explorers.% cayenne.%It%must%also%ooze%onePthree% In%1837,%New%England%farmer,%Jonas% c.%verdigris%–%a%green%coating%or%crust%of%copper%salt%formed%on%% Yerkes,%was%the%first%American%to% %%%%copper,%brass,%or%bronze%when%exposed%to%salt%or%acetic%acid.$ inches%(3P7%centimeters)%in%30%seconds.% make%tomato%ketchup.%% % Mamma's&Favorites ,) Shopping$Tips:$ History:$$$$Henry%John%Heinz%was% You$can$call$it$ Fun$Facts:$$$ Ad%Card,%1905% Between%1890sP1900,% born%(1844P1919)%to%German% ketchup&or:)) PHeinz%%Co.%sells%650%million%bottles%of%ketchup%per%% The)Brooklyn)Daily)Eagle% immigrants.%They%settled%in% catsup,)catsip,) %%year%and%more%than%4,000%different%products%% newspaper%featured%ads% Sharpsburg,%PA.%In%1869,%Heinz% catchup,) %%all%over%the%world.% for%ketchup%by%grocers% began%manufacturing%prepared% cotsup,)) PTap%the%57%on%the%label%and%the%ketchup%will%flow%%% such%as%Adams%Dry% horseradish,%a%condiment,%which% catsoup,) %%faster%from%the%‘classic’%1890s%%glass%bottle.% Goods%&%Co.,%Joseph%H.% was%distributed%from%the%family% cackchop,) PIn%1896,%Henry%Heinz%saw%an%ad%for%“21%styles%of% Bauland%&%Co.,%and% farmhouse.%By%1876,%the%company% catchpuck,% shoes”%while%riding%the%elevated%train%in%NYC.%He%% Abraham%and%Straus.%A% manufactured%tomato%ketchup,% cornchop,) %felt%57%would%be%a%lucky%number%for%his%company%% ½%pint%bottle%of%tomato% pickles,%vinegar%and%sauerkraut,% cotpock,) %logo.%The%Heinz%Co.%trademarked%the%57)Varieties%% ketchup%cost%about%12¢P Then%they%began%making%products% katshoup,) %with%the%keystone%(Pennsylvania’s%state%symbol).% 19¢.%Cookbook%authors,% such%as%red%and%green%pepper% ketsup,)) PThe%largest%electric%sign%in%NY%City%in%1898%was%the%%% food%editors%and%chefs% sauce,%apple%butter,%chili%sauce,% kotchup,) %%Heinz%pickle%with%1200%bulbs.% encouraged%making% and%baked%beans.%In%1890,%the% katsock,) PIn%1920,%Heinz%Co.%sold%convenient%“picnic%size”%% homePmade%ketchup.%A% octagonal%glass%bottle,%with%the% kitsip,) %condiment%jars.% 24%quart%tin%boiling%pot% Heinz%57%label,%was%introduced.%% kotpock,) PKetchup%was%declared%a%vegetable%by%the%U.S.% cost%about%95¢.% It%is%still%popular%today.%% kutpuck.) %Government%for%school%lunch%menus%in%1980.$ http://www.lib.msu.edu/exhi A&Few&Of&Heinz&57&Good& %%%%%Sniders%and%Blue%Label%were%just% bits/sliker/detail.jsp?id=4497$ Health$Fact:%% Heinz$Condiment$Bottles%and%Samples,%1885P1920% two%of%the%hundreds%of%ketchup% Things&For&The&Table,& % Blue$Label$Ketchup,% In%the%1800s,%illness% Ad%Card,%1900% companies%at%the%time.%%%%%%%% and%other%health%risks% Advertising,1898% %%%%%During%the%1893%Chicago%World’s% were%associated%with% Fair,%thousands%of%visitors%lined%up% fermentation,% at%the%Heinz’s%product%booth.% spoilage%and% Henry%attracted%the%most%attention% contamination%in% by%handing%out%small%picklePshaped% many%types%of% souvenir%pins%to%hang%from%pocket% ketchup.%Many% % watch%chains.% manufacturers%used% http://www.antiquetrader.com/antiques/antiquesP %%%%%In%Atlantic%City,%NJ,%vacationers% copper%kettles%for% americana/soldPvaluesPofPantiquePandPvintagePbottles%%% (Reprint%permission%from%Antique%Traders)% would%stroll%on%the%boardwalk%and% cooking,%but%when% % visit%the%Heinz%Ocean%Pier%(1898P they%came%in%contact% $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$Heinz$Pickle$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$Souvenir$Pin,%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 1944).%They%could%rest,%write%Heinz% with%acids%like%vinegar% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%1893%% souvenir%postcards%or%view%the% (acetic%acid),%it% http://commons.wikimedia.o %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%actual%size:%1%¼%inches%% % many%famous%artworks%on%display% rg/wiki/File:Blue_Label_Ketc produced%verdigris,%a% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% http://www.lib.msu.edu/exhibits/ hup,_1898.jpg% in%the%pavilions.%% poisonous%substance.% sliker/detail.jsp?id=4494$ E  Background  Informa'on  text  selected  or  wriKen  by  Bronx   TAH  Grants  team.    Follow  cita'on  links  for  more  info.  and   see  flash  drive  for  folders  with  supplemental  informa'on   on  many  ar'facts  and  life  in  Brooklyn  150  years  ago. F    Addi'onal  Background  Informa'on,   photographs  or  diagrams  selected  by  Bronx   TAH  Grants  team.    See  flash  drive  for  folders   with  supplemental  informa'on  on  many   ar'facts  and  life  in  the  19th  century    including   large  versions  of  photographs  and  other   illustra'ons. 10 1 Jamaica  Avenue  School       Cypress  Hills,  Brooklyn,  Kings  County,  New  York Phase  1B   Archaeological  Survey

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Artifact  Card  Table  of  Contents     An  artifact  card  for  each  artifact  in  the  kit  is  found  on  the  page  numbers  listed  below.  On  the   corresponding  page  next  to  each  card  is  an  enlarged  image  from  the  actual  card  that  could  be   used  in  the  classroom.             Oyster.............................................42   Root  Beer  Stoneware………………......12       Perfume  Ball...................................44   Frozen  Charlie  Doll..........................14       Perfume  Bottle...............................46   Chicken...........................................  16       Pig  or  Hog.......................................48   Clam................................................18       Pipe  Stem........................................50   Cow.................................................20       Spittoon  .........................................52   Curtain  Finial...................................22       Glazed  Ceramic  Strainer.................54   Bicycle  Bell  Top................................24       Hard  Paste  Porcelain  Tea  Cup.........56   Kerosene  Lamp  Part.........................26       Thimble...........................................58   Goat  ................................................28       Coin  Bank........................................60   Ketchup  Bottle.................................30       Toy/Tea  Dinner  Set.........................62   Larger  Bottle....................................32       Trivet...............................................64   Lamp  Bulb........................................34       Handle.............................................66   Chewing  Tobacco  Sign.....................36       Watch  Holder..................................68   Malted  Milk  Bottle...........................38           Medicated  Beer................................40                  

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  Note   Impressed  "A.  EDDY"  one  pint    Sassafras:                                                 The  principal  "root"  in  old  time  root   beer,  sassafras  is  native  to  America.   Its  root  bark  has  the  spicy  flavor.     http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/DLDecArts.AmerMedv1   http://www.flickr.com/photos/missioncontrol/3652609596/sizes/l/in/photostream/   Kit  #  3/Object  #  8          ARTIFACTS  FROM  APPENDIX  C  –  ARTIFACT  INVENTORY   Description   Beg  Date  -­‐  End  Date   Root  Beer,  Stoneware  -­‐  19th  Century  Style  Bottle   1820-­‐1910   Weight    Vocabulary:          Root  Beer  Ingredients:     Traditional  recipes  used   a.  sturdy  -­‐  strong,  durable,  tough.   natural  ingredients  like   b.  temperance  -­‐  movement  to  ban  and     sassafras  root,  hops  flowers,            abstain  from  (not  consume)  alcohol.       juniper  berries,  birch  bark,   molasses  (sweetness  and   c.  vendor  -­‐  seller;  a  person  or  company       color),  burdock  root,  licorice,            with  things  for  others  to  buy.   wintergreen  leaf  and  yeast.                       http://www.nyhistory.org/node/19113                    Top:  The  Mead,  Ginger  and  Root  Beer  Cart                              Below:    Root  Beer  Seller,  "3  cents  per  glass"     12 Background  Information                   Root  beer  is  100%  American.  It  dates  back  to  the  colonial  era  and  was  America's  first  soda  long  before  cola   and  lemon-­‐flavored  carbonated  drinks  became  popular.    By  the  19th  c.,  there  were  2,000  commercial   brands  in  the  U.S.    Millions  of  gallons  were  also  brewed  at  home  and  later  around  1900,  simply  mixed  with   seltzer  water  (carbonation)  from  small  bottles  of  extract.    Real  old  time  root  beer  was  brewed  from  roots,   leaves  and  flowers.    Some  people  still  brew  that  kind  of  root  beer  at  home,  but  most  of  today's  product  is   flavored  and  colored  with  artificial  ingredients  like  vanillin,  a  substance  that  smells  and  tastes  like  vanilla.     Like  punch  or  coquito,  there  has  never  been  just  one  recipe  for  root  beer.  Today  it  usually  has  sassafras  root   flavor  (artificial)  and  sugar.    Cassava  root  (yuca)  is  often  added  as  a  foaming  agent  to  produce  that  layer  on   top  of  the  glass  called  a  "head"  in  both  root  beer  and  real  alcoholic  beer.    In  the  mid  19th  c.,  the  carbonation   (carbon  dioxide,  or  fizz)  was  produced  by  yeast,  which  eats  sugar  and  changes  it  to  alcohol  and  CO2.     Compared  to  beer  with  about  five  percent  (5%)  alcohol,  it  wasn't  very  powerful,  but  traditional  root  beer   did  have  half  a  percent  (.5%)  alcohol.    You  would  have  to  drink  gallons  of  it  to  get  drunk  though.         Speaking  of  beer,  this  type  of  bottle  was  also  used  for  beers  called  ales  and  porters,  and  it  took  a  while  to   prove  it  actually  held  root  beer  instead.  The  bottle  is  a  type  of  inexpensive  ceramic  (pottery)  called   earthenware.    It  is  very  sturdy  and  keeps  out  light,  which  spoils  beer.    In  the  end  this  type  of  container  was   just  too  heavy  and  big.    It's  blob  top  provided  a  large  lip  that  made  it  easy  to  secure  or  stopper  with  thin   wires  that  held  in  a  cork.    A  similar  method  is  still  used  today  to  stopper  champagne.      This  bottle  was  found   together  with  several  others  in  what  may  have  been  a  case  of  empties  awaiting  return.    "A.  Eddy"  does  not   appear  in  census  records  or  Brooklyn  directories,  but  maybe  it  was  from  a  local  grocery  store  or  saloon.   Root  Beer,  the  Temperance  Beer   Root  Beer   Retailing  Root  Beer   Root  Beer  was  a  popular  beverage  In   In  1895,  Rev.  Hamilton  of  the   Ad,  1892   19th  c.  NY  and  Brooklyn.    In  the  two   Andrews  M.E.  Church,  just  down   Say,   watercolors  on  the  right  by  Italian-­‐ the  block  from  the  excavation,   Mama,     born  American  artist  Nicolino  Calyo   organized  a  temperance  crusade   can  I  have   (1799-­‐1884),  we  see  two  ways  root   beer  was  sold.    On  top,  the  vendor   to  shut  down  nearby  saloons.  Root   another   earthenware  returnable   beer,  like  beer,  is  cold,   glass  ...?"   carries   bottles  of  root  beer  and  two  other   carbonated,  and  drunk  from  mugs   http://www.li carbonated  drinks  to  supply  grocery   with  a  head  of  foam.    It  was  served   b.msu.edu/ex stores,  bars,  and  restaurants.  The   man  below  sells  glasses  of  "Knicker-­‐   at  temperance  meetings  and   hibits/sliker/d considered  an  alternative  to  real   etail.jsp?id=35 bocker"  root  beer  on  the  street  from   a  barrel  and  spigot  on  his  pushcart.     beer.  The  Hires  Co.  promoted  it  as   30                 He  wipes  the  used  glasses  off  with  a   such  at  the  1876  Philadelphia  Fair.   cloth.    Can  you  spot  the  cart  driver?     http://www.nyhistory.org/node/45283  

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Kit  #  3/Object  #  61          ARTIFACTS  FROM  APPENDIX  C  –  ARTIFACT  INVENTORY   Description   Beg  Date  -­‐  End  Date   Note     Frozen  Charlie  Doll   1850-­‐1930    2.25  inches  tall   APPENDIX  D  –  Minimum  Number  of  Vessels   Part  -­‐  complete   Crandall  Toy  Store  Trading   Card,  c.1893,  This  Brooklyn  toy   store  used  this  trading  card  as  a   form  of  advertising  to  attract   customers.       Form  –  miniature  ceramic  figurine   Motif  –  molded  body   Color  -­‐  white   Vocabulary:   Group  of  Bisque  and  Porcelain   a.  porcelain  -­‐  a  hard,  white,  translucent  ceramic  made  by  firing  a  clay     Dolls,  c.  late  19th-­‐early  20th  C.          mixture,  and  then  coated  with  a  non-­‐porous  glaze.  It  is  also  known  as  china.   Approx.  size:  2  -­‐17  inches   b.  bisque  -­‐  a  hard  white  unglazed  ceramic  made  by  firing  a  clay  mixture  that     Doll  parts,  such  as  heads,  arms          absorbs  water  and  is  commonly  used  to  make  figurines  and  small  statues.     and  legs,  were  attached  to  cloth   c.  mass-­‐produced  -­‐  the  manufacture  of  goods  in  large  quantities,  often     bodies  stuffed  with  sawdust  or          using  standardized  designs  and  assembly  line  techniques.   cotton.  The  clothes  reflect  the   fashion  of  the  time  period.     14 Background  Information:              Early  19th  century  dolls  were  mainly  made  of  wood,  porcelain  or  bisque.  German   porcelain  manufacturers  of  dishes,  vases  and  figurines  exported  the  first  female  doll   heads  in  1840s.  They  were  mass-­‐produced  and  imported  throughout  the  world.  These   miniature  one-­‐piece  dolls,  made  of  white  bisque,  were  popular  during  the  1850s  to   1930s.  The  figures  range  from  two  to  15  inches  tall.    Various  body  types  included  slender,   full-­‐figured,  clothed  or  nude,  and  heads  with  without  hair.    All  these  dolls  were  molded   as  one  piece.  After  the  firing  process,  delicate  details  such  as  the  hair  color  and  facial   features  were  painted  during  the  final  manufacturing  stage.    It  was  customary  to  bake   these  tiny  dolls  in  children’s  birthday  cakes  or  puddings.  While  eating  the  dessert,  the   dolls  would  be  found  and  prized  as  a  party  favor.                            Jointed  dolls  with  separate  movable  limbs,  Frozen  Charlie  and  Frozen  Charlotte  dolls   and  doll  parts  were  commonly  sold  at  toy  stores.  The  bodies  would  be  sewn  of  cloth,   stuffed,  and  attached  to  the  parts.  Young  girls  would  practice  their  sewing  skills  by   making  clothes  for  their  dolls.  These  “play  things”  helped  teach  girls  to  role-­‐play   http://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/150967 mothering  skills.   48_assorted-­‐bisque-­‐and-­‐china-­‐dolls-­‐12   http://fulton.brooklynpubliclibrary.org/enla          Dolls  have  been  in  existence  since  ancient  times.  In  many  cultures,  dolls  were  used  in   Image  courtesy  of  Case  Antiques,  Inc.  Auctions   rge.asp?card   &  Appraisals   spiritual  rituals  and  offerings.     Price  Facts:                                                   First  Person  Narrative:   Literature  Connection:     Back  in  the  late  1890s,  The            I  turned  up  the  light  of  the  kerosene  lamp  as  I  got  ready.  Mother            The  names  of  these  dolls,  Frozen  Charlotte  and  Frozen   Great  Republic  Toy  Store   combed   m y   h air   w ith   h er   s pecial,   s ilver   e dged   c omb.   S he   l et   m e   w ear   Charlie ,  were  derived  from  a  poem  and  song,  Story  of  Fair   and  Wechsler  &  Bros.   her   f avorite   h air   c omb   a nd   p ut   a   l ittle   d ab   o f   p erfume   o n   m y   n eck.   Charlotte ,  by  Seba  Smith,  an  American  writer.  It  was  first   placed  ads  in  the  Brooklyn   th Today   w as   m y   1 1 published   in  The  Rover,  a  Maine  newspaper  on  Dec.  28,     b irthday   a nd   I   w as   g etting   r eady   f or   t he   Daily  Eagle  newspaper  for   1843,   u nder   the  title  A  Corpse  Going  To  The  Ball.  It  was   celebration.   M other   s aid   I   c ould   i nvite   t wo   f riends   f rom   s chool.   T hat   toys.  A  fine  jointed  bisque   based   o n   a n   article  Smith  read  in  the  New  York  Observer   was   h ard   b ecause   s o   m any   s tudents   w ere   s ick   w ith   s carlet   f ever   o r   doll,  14  inches  long  cost   on   F eb.   8 ,   1 840.   It  was  about  a  young  girl  who  froze  to   diphtheria.   T he   p rincipal   a lmost   s hut   o ur   s chool.   L uckily   m y   b est   f riends   29¢  and  a  finely  dressed   death   o n   h er   w ay   to  a  ball  on  the  eve  of  Jan.  1840.  Thus   and   c lassmates,   D orothy,   a nd   J ohn   P ratt,   d idn’t   g et   s ick.   J ohn   l ived   doll  ,  13  inches  long  cost   Smith   w rote   h is   c autionary   tale  about  a  young  girl,   down   t he   b lock   a t   6 94   J amaica   A venue.   M y   b rothers,   M ilton   a nd   H arry   39¢.  A  taller  dressed  doll   Charlotte,  who  was  in  a  sleigh  with  her  beau,  Charles,  on   with  moveable  eyes  would   go  to  his  house  to  play  marbles.  “Happy  birthday  Marie!”  everyone   shouted  as  I  entered  the  kitchen.  My  family  and  friends  were  crowded   their  way  to  a  New  Year’s  Eve  ball.  Ignoring  her  mother’s   cost  about  $1.39.  At  the   around  the  table,  which  was  set  with  our  porcelain  tea  set  and  plates.   warnings  to  wrap  herself  against  the  cold,  Charlotte  froze   time,  cheese  cost  12¢  a   to  death.  Tragedy  followed  as  Charles  was  grief-­‐stricken,   As  Mother  began  to  cut  the  cake,  I  was  growing  more  anxious  every   pound  and  cuts  of  beef   died  and  was  laid  to  rest  in  Charlotte’s  tomb.   second.   W as   t he   F rozen   C harlotte   d oll   h idden   a way   i n   m y   p iece   o f   cost  10¢  per  pound.     cake?    

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