Бозон Хиггса. Альманах научного общества Гимназии 1517. Выпуск 10 (12/2013)

 

Embed or link this publication

Description

Бозон Хиггса. Альманах научного общества Гимназии 1517. Выпуск 10 (12/2013)

Popular Pages


p. 1

The popular scientific journal of the High school students’ scientific organization “Astrum Incognitum” H g s B so i g o n Show issue 1 December 2013

[close]

p. 2

Scientia Unescamus International scientific-practical conference Scientia UneScamUS II Международная научнопрактическая конференция Конкурс проектно-исcледовательских работ “Объединяемся знаниями” Фестиваль детского короткометражного кино “ГимКинФест-1517” Москва, 2014 Moscow, April 18th,19-21 апреля 2013 г. www.conference.gym1517.ru

[close]

p. 3

7 Contens Editor's letter 4 Parting word 5 Issue theme Correlation of science and busines (BETT) 6 Means of Manipulating of Political Conscience of People via Virtual reality (Internet) 8 Interview with Michael Leontyev 11 23 27 12 Interview with interesting people 12 Scientific student community Learning and Teaching strategies with a focus on 2L2 and Thinking Skills 13 The problem of waste sorting in modern cities Methodological and scientific communication session “VASILE ŢIFUI MEMORIAL” 21 Technical solutions for cleaning and beautification of the river Ucha, Mytischy area 22 GREENFINGERS 24 32 38 47 25 Yield to science International Festival of “Mathematics and Computer Science” in Piatra-Neamţ (Romania) 26 Forward to the future: at the international exhibition of IT-technologies and education BETT-2013 in London 28 Sightseeing tour Science - it is… art actual German education system SOS Water 34 32 18 New-York 38 Hedphones 40 Mysterious God Particle 41 modern Science news 42 eternal Philosophical letters 44 First effort Antoni Gaudí 45 Time machine Community The Mensheviks tragedy 46 Road safety in modern megalopolises 47 45 29 13 3

[close]

p. 4

Editor’s letter Maria Zyuzyukova Innovation is the key to success and creativity fuels innovation James Goodnight As I was told at my introduction to innovations lesson, an innovator’s working for three reasons: a superprofit, an opportunity of self-realization and an aspiration to make the world better. This all is possible on the joint of science and business, because innovations are behind their combination. And on Boson’s pages our authors offer you their personal various innovation experiences. c journal o lar scientifi The popu f th ool stude e High sch nts’ scienti fic n “Astrum organizatio Incognitum ” Created by: Maria Zyuzyukova Editor-in-Chief Elena Davydova-Martynova Editorial director Anna Levina Bild editor, disigner-imposer Political Editor Dmitry Birger Competition Editor Vera Pustynnikova Editor of the column “Education Abroad” Marina Zamsheva Editor of the column “Interview” Arseniy Belousov Photo Department Evgeniya Shostak Translators Natalia Sidyakina Irina Bragina Corrector Anna Levina Regular Reporters Vladimir Khokhlov Evgeniya Abisheva Vadim Turenkov Anastasia Glushenko Ekaterina Konoplina Nikolai Ponomarenko Project’s adviser Anna Vahneeva Cover Photo by Timofey Mayko Printed in High School #1517 publising house Circulation: 900 copies 4

[close]

p. 5

Parting word Ruben Flores, PhD Assistant Professor of Sociology National Research University Higher School of Economics In April 2013, I had the opportunity to be a judge at the conference “Scientia Unescamus”, which took place at Gymnasium #1517. I was very impressed by the vibrancy, dynamism and creativity of the conference’s participants and organisers. The students’ enthusiasm was very charming and inspiring. This enthusiasm is also reflected on the Higgs Boson. Along with conferences, popular science magazines, journals and newspapers are a useful mode of engagement with science and the larger world of knowledge. Reading them is good enough. However, producing them is really laudable: it is a good step in the direction of scientific and aca- demic creation. And, in matters of science, it is a good idea to start young. It is, then, my pleasure to introduce this issue of the Higgs Boson. This issue’s topic — science and business — is one of great importance for socio-economic development. However, the commercial use of scientific knowledge raises ethical and political questions that call for reflection and debate in order to understand not only ‘what is’, but also ‘what could be’: the possibilities of channeling the use of scientific and technological innovations into ethical directions. This issue of the Higgs Boson could be a good starting point for a conversation on these and related questions. 5

[close]

p. 6

Correlation of science and business (BETT) Nikolai Ponomarenko In our world, in the world of IT-technologies, the concepts of science and business are closely linked. They complete each other and have a lot in common. We all know that without financial support, science simply cannot develop. And at the same time, if science is not developing, business would not be developing too, because it is primarily dependent on how quickly innovations and new technologies can be employed. These technologies of course are created with the help of science. The correlation of business and science was demonstrated in London at the end of January – beginning of February this year at the BETT exhibition, where the delegation from our school participated. This exhibition was devoted to new technologies in the field of education, rather, making new programs that will be useful for training pupils. This exhibition opens doors for everybody in the world who’s got latest developments in ITtechnologies. Dozens of stands presenting new gadgets were placed all over this huge exhibition, Could they be created without financing from the government or private companies? The answer is obvious - of course not. We can say that now business is performing the role of soil for science to grow on. In their turn, the fruits of science, falling on the ground, make it better and richer. This process is endless and correlative. Walking through the long corridors of the exhibition, you meet teachers and students who are interested primarily why this or that program is useful and if it is interesting for studying. On the other hand, you can see many businessmen who are interested in the commercial value of these projects. It was interesting to watch how these two groups share a lot of new, amazing and useful things. Walking along the pavilions of BETT exhibition, you notice huge fluid-lit signs, displays, advertising products, robots that were created for training purposes. Only here you clearly see how far scientific progress goes. Carried away by absolutely new characteristics of the product, you suddenly catch yourself thinking that you start to forget that behind the creation of all these robots there is a huge amount of money got through business. And it seems completely unimportant because the main issue is that it is technical progress! In fact, the exhibition had several rooms for making deals and, as a rule, they were always full of businessmen. Business insensibly is getting closer and closer to us. It is interesting to note that without good advertising, proper 6

[close]

p. 7

promotion of scientific achievements which had being created for many years, they will simply be not well known, and, therefore, will be not demanded. And advertising business helps to promote new products and increase the demand for them. After visiting this wonderful exhibition, I discovered a new correlation between science and business, better understood commercial side of scientific progress. This exhibition helped me to understand that all aspects of life are closely connected and they cooperate with each other. This is life and this is how its laws work. 7

[close]

p. 8

Means of Manipulating of Political Conscience of People via Virtual reality (Internet) The article lightens diff erent aspects of this subject – where are so called “dark” and “twilight” sections of Internet and how dangerous are they? How conscience of each of us can be infl uenced via Internet? Why there is no home Internet in Cuba and no free access to it in Belarus? Th e subject of the article is currently of big interest, and we hope for follow-up discussions in our journal. Elena Davydova-Martynova 8 The rapid and uncontrolled development of Internet helped it to become free and unrestrained environment for realization of many political, cultural, economic and information projects. Now for many young people the Web is the main source of information about political leaders, parties and movements, their tasks and programs. Modern facilities of Web are based on new highly-developed technologies. The main Internet providers support several alternative zones. Besides, there are many so called “dark” and “twilight” zones, which are invisible for most users, but they embrace now more than 100.000.000 addresses that corresponds to 5% of all Web users. Usually these zones cover sites of the USA military and defense organizations with .mil extension. “Twilight” zones are partly abandoned and often used by hackers. “Twilight” zones together with “spoofing” technologies are widely used in Internet wars. There is an opinion that we live now in transition period from centralized power to Web world. And the question of power and property is transformed now into a question of property for producing public opinion. There are no doubts that Internet gives the possibilities to manipulate the conscience of people. The word “manipulation” origins from Latin “manus” (arm) and ”ple” (to fill) – in this aspect it means artful managing of people. Political manipulation concerns first of all technologies of creation and presentation of political news. People often see, hear or read about “special events” that are presented as the most important instead of really important for the society news and ideas. Journalists often create false or imaginary sensations. Sometimes political leaders emphasis certain events trying to gain people’s sympathy, and mass media support them. For example, understanding and caring face of President Putin during his meeting with the students doesn’t mean that the students’ position will rapidly change to the best, but TV was trying to show and save this symbol in public’s mind. Such attractive symbols are introduced in public’s conscience. In brief, the scheme of manipulation technology is as follows: 1) fabrication of facts. Very often during pre-election campaigns some information goes first to the “dark” site, from where it is spread by other sites, and then by radio and TV; 2) next step – this piece of infor-

[close]

p. 9

mation is presented as a sensational and outstanding with the help of headlines; 3) manipulators provide pictures (often assembled) with their comments. Talking about mass media, we should also note so called “political asymmetry”. Any news is temporary information asymmetry. After it is wide-spread, fresh news takes its place, so information asymmetry remains. This can explain mass media’s interest in emergency events. On one hand, the emergency events rapidly delete previous news from our memory, on the other hand, they reflect asymmetry as they cannot be predicted which is essential point for the news. The role of mass media in creation of positive or negative image of this or that political leader considerably increases during pre-election campaign. For example, leader of Communist party G.Zyuganov is often presented negatively, and this image is saved in public conscience. On the contrary, mass media do their best to create attractive images of V.Putin or D.Medvedev. So, we can make a conclusion that information asymmetry is not only important but integral part of political manipulation. And technologies of manipulation are constantly in the process of development. A part of it is so called “information blockade” aiming at preventing a person to get full and true information. Virtual policy is one of the means of administrative manipulation of public opinion via mass media. The problem is especially acute nowadays when children from early age spend a lot of time in Internet and can get access to any sites including extremist. Even not advanced user can get information unavailable in real world, like drug-smuggling, explosive instructions, Nazi slogans, etc. Using of the Web by extremist and terrorist organizations is one of the key problems of modern world. They can easily communicate via Internet, share their plans and ideas despite geographical disunity. Cyber-space cells of different countries do not practically have any other barriers but language. Of course, we mean here the situation in democratic states. Totalitarian regimes do not have problems of this kind. For example, the government of Iran uses censor to protect all attempts of the population to get information which is officially forbidden. On September 17, 2007 they blocked access to Google sites and mail. And they are not alone in their attempts. In Cuba, there is no home Internet, and you can get access to it only in specialized Internet-cafes. In Northern Korea, the population but several high-ranking officials doesn’t either have access to the Web. In Republic of Belarus all means of telecommunication are controlled by the government, and the access to opposite Web sites is blocked. During the presidential election on December 18-19, 2011 the President’s analytical center limited access to Facebook, Twitter, YouTube; Google Gmail and Google Talk were disconnected. Doing this the authorities tried to impede actions of the opposition. The people in Belarus didn’t have any possibility to use social web sites, there was no access to LiveJournal and most of mail servers. On the central square where the unrest took place, the mobile Internet was switched off. In Belarus, there is the only Internet provider –“Beltelecom”. 9

[close]

p. 10

Free access to the sites of other candidates and political parties was also blocked. Belarus is known now as a country with one of the highest levels of Internet-blockade. Identification of users when getting to Internet or wide application of technical filtration is assumed to be normal practice there. The cult of violence and cruelty promoted by many Internet sites, leads to the teenagers’ aspiration to imitate it, to implement it in their behavior and way of life. It often guides their political activity against the society, to the field of extremism, nationalism and fascism. The events that took place on Manezhnaya square in Moscow on December 11, 2010 can prove it. Interethnic fight started with beating of Caucasus immigrants on Manezhnaya during the action of protest organized by football fans and Russian nationalists as a response to the murder of the fan Egor Sviridov who was killed on December 6, 2010. Next day after his murder 1000 of football fans marched along Leningradsky prospect and practically blocked it. On December 11, 2010 3000 of fans marched to the place of his murder on Kronshtadsky boulevard, supported by bikers and other fans. By 3 p.m. that day the crowd of 6000 people went towards Manezhnaya square. As a result two Armenian teenagers were brutally beaten by the crowd of radical extremists, and their friends – two Russian, one Georgian and one Azerbaijan boys – were injured. They were lucky to be saved by specialized police troops. The Internet sites were widely used in preparation and organization of this and the follow-up political actions. The leaders of these events used different Internet services: forums, blogs, chats, e-mails, social networks, flash-mob technologies for spreading the information among the participants. The research in Internet done on the eve of December 15, 2010 revealed many calls for organizing another action bigger than the previous one near shopping mall “Evropeisky” next to Kievsky railway station. Due to early information the authorities could prevent and avoid new unrest. So, we can make a conclusion that information spread via Internet influences in many cases the political conscience and behavior of people, can stimulate their political activity. The content of Web sites resources depending on which interests they present can influence political fight, propaganda and interpretation of governmental policy. There is no solution to the problem of influencing the political conscience of people via Internet yet. Two groups of proposals can be selected: 1) to provide strict control of Internet access from the authorities; 2) to keep Internet as a free information space. Whatever solution is found, all of us should take care of information and cultural level, have mature and realistic social and political position, and should not forget about human values. Or you can suddenly find yourself among aggressive and desperate people who do not even suspect that they are skillfully operated from virtual world. 10

[close]

p. 11

Interview with... Vera Vasenina V: Among readers of the magazine “Higgs boson” there are students of high school and senior school pupils. How can young people take part in the political life of the country? What does the participation of the youth in politics depend on? ML: Positive youth participation in politics is defined by possession of brains, education and experience. As a matter of fact, as young people possess much less brains, education and experience than adults, they’d better not participate in politics at all. From political point of view, youthfulness is like a disease over time it’ll pass inevitably. And our task is to give a chance for them to recover without having done much harm to themselves in their native country. V: What do you think why politics is so popular with all layers of population in Russia? There are countries where people can’t even call a name of their President. ML: Politics isn’t always popular. Even within our short history. Politics is becoming popular in Russia and elsewhere when there’s something wrong in the country. Political commentator and analyst, publicist, TV reporter of programme "Odnako", Michael Leontyev, 1-st channel, Russia. V: There’s a judgment that mass media (TV, for example) via Internet is controlled by government authorities. What’s your opinion on this issue? ML: Internet isn’t like massmedia, it’s a big chaotic environment but authorities are trying to gain a control of it as well. All massmedia is controlled and in the first turn it’s controlled by its owners. If the owner is a government they are obliged to control it. If you don’t control, for example, your dog you are an idiot. V: In our upper secondary school many pupils are making researches on different socially significant issues. What issues of research comprehensible to school age could you advice? ML: I can advice issues of my interest but the point is if they will be interesting for researchers. For example, it would be interesting for me to investigate seriously the fact how some politicians or some political slogans are taken and perceived by population. Here we have the most difficult problem: we should in such a way to formulate a task and be sure that this audience will find it extremely clear and easy to understand. V: And in your opinion what’s the aim of the agiotage round a “doomsday” issue? And Does this agiotage have any political implication? ML: The matter is that this “doomsday” agiotage arises periodically from the very start. Now they connect it allegedly with Maya calendar. In fact this agiotage is connected with belief decline and misunderstanding of Christianity essence because a “doomsday” for a Christian (that’s Apocalypse) means the approach of the Last Judgement day and revival of the dead. Meeting with the God is an inevitable and desirable event, it’s not a subject for the agiotage. 11

[close]

p. 12

Great Hopes for the Future Arseniy Belousov Arseniy Belousov: Would you tell me about business projects realized on the basis your institute designs. Uri Okatov: Our institute is one of scientific research institutes of airspace field and we make research in aviation and space technologies. We take part in extensive governmental programs. A.B.: Who takes the lead in scientific design developments? U.O.: manufacturing enterprise, that is business, takes the lead and the task of the enterprise is to find funds. Department of Education also invests a curtain sum of money. The enterprise invests 20% and Department of Education invests 80%. The enterprise obtains a big resource for creating innovative products which will give both the enterprise and the institute a possibility to earn money. Scientific designs of our institute developed earlier are very important. Students who will come to our institute will also take part of these programs because both students and stuff of institute participate in all these projects. A.B.: Could you give an example of such a scientific Today we interview Uri Okatov, the general director of scientific production complex of computer science, candidate of technical science and head of a chair in Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI). project being developed for business at your institute? U.O.: Recently faculty of airspace engineering has won a tender and was allotted 170 million for building a lander vehicle, a kind of space capsule. A.B.: Tell our readers what are you working on now? Are there any interesting projects? U.O.: We are working in several directions. There is an airspace direction and there is a secondary direction of work. But all these directions are based on aviation. Foe example, a very big department is working on medical diagnostic equipment on the basis of our instrument engineering chair. The head of this department is a person who deals with control boards, i.e. means of information display. He graduated from MAI and his approach to the problems is based on aviation. For example, the triple backup used in his work is designed in the same way as in aviation. For instance, there was a task to make a controller for artificial heart algorithms. We made all the equipment and software with triple backup. And ones there was a con- tingency: an experimental calf got free and broke off this unit. It fell down and the half stamped it with its hoof a couple of times. One of three controllers was damaged but the unit continued working. It is an example of a right approach to designing of medical instruments. By this approach we obtained extraordinary results. Our projects are exhibited not only at Russian shows but also at international ones. A.B.: What is the main difficulty in realization of such projects? Is it financing, lack of scientific potential or something else? U.O.: The main problem for the institute and for the state is the high-quality training of specialists. There is a big gap between generations and the quality of education suffered greatly since school program does not prepare students for entering higher institutions. That is why we lay great hopes on a new generation who will have better school training and feel the gap. 12

[close]

p. 13

Learning and Teaching strategies with a focus on L2L and Thinking Skills Nikolai Ponomarenko The High school #1517 scientific organization members’ reports at the British-Russian scientificpractical conference "Learning and Teaching strategies with a focus on L2L and Thinking Skills" Educational activities in out-of-school hours, their swings and roundabouts for a modern student. The subject of my project is "Educational activities in out-of-school hours, their swings and roundabouts for a modern student." I decided to research the pros and cons of out-of-class activities. I have several activities after school (swimming, music, English lessons), and I know problems that can arise. It was interesting for me to find out how much extra-curriculum activities help to develop the creative potential of students? Don’t they harm our study? The purpose of the work is to study the pros and cons of out-of-school education for pupils, as well as to find out what clubs and sections are most popular with teenagers, whether the children are satisfied with their progress, what problems they have combining school and out-ofclass activities. I put forward several hypothesis: 1) most students of our school are involved in extra-curriculum activities; 2) many of them have more than one kind of activity (sports or arts), and they are quite busy; 3) in general out-of-class activities do more good than harm. Studying this problem, I learned that the main difference between the basic school and out-of-school education is their aims. School education aims mastering school subjects, and out-of-doors activities are develop the personality and individuality of the child. If you look at this table, you can see the difference between school education and out-of-class activities. Nowadays, out-of-school activities include a number of spheres, such as: • arts; • music; • science and technology; • sports; • tourism; • military-patriotic. This list can be continued. Thus, we can define positive and negative aspects of out-of-class activities. You can see them at the table below. Conclusion: I believe that taking part in out-of school activities gives teenagers a new life experience, helps them to get a creative approach, patience, and many other good qualities. A survey was held in our school. I made up some charts and diagrams based on their answers. The first chart shows that most students are involved in different societies and clubs (more than 80%). Deep knowledge Creative activity More informal communication (comparing to school) Increasing of self-esteem Forming of social and civil activity + Lack of time to do homework Lack of time for recreation, entertainment, friends Tiredness, overwork, stress, decrease of immunity Not always a good teacher (coach) capable to awake interest in smth., to develop the child’s potential Psychologically – Fear of failure 13 –

[close]

p. 14

Their fields of interest are sports, music, foreign languages, dancing and other. 81% said that extra activities did not harm their study. We can state that most children successfully combine school and out-of-class activities. It is interesting that for the vast majority (88%) the location of the club is not very important. It is important that 85% choose the activity themselves, only 5% say their parents influence their choice, 10% of students state they agree with their parents. This table shows clearly the students’ attitude to out-of-school activities. The study proved the first hypothesis is the most of students who took part in the survey are engaged in out-ofclass activities. Most students find these kinds of activities very useful – it provides new interests, skills, that also proves the hypothesis. We were also pleased to learn that most children attend clubs according to their interest and enjoy it. Attending clubs or sections Distribution by sections Interfering with school education Does it help? Desire to attend Frequency of lessons (times per week) Number of sections attended by one student Have you been attending any sections before The reason you left the section Majority (%) Attend (88) Sports (24) music (18 ) Does not interfere (81) Helps (84) At their own accord (85) 3-4 times per week (44) 4 and more (34) Yes, I have (66) Lack of time (24) Minority (%) Do not attend (12 ) Chinese language, batik, macrame Interfere (4) Does not help (16) At the request of parents (5) 1-2 times per week (25) 2 (16) No, I haven’t (34) Overtiredness, overwork (4) One of the main conclusions of our research is that in modern life more attention should be paid to out-of-school activities of children and teenagers. I suggest that the institutions providing out-of-school activities should survey to find out: – What fields major interest of children are; – Educational level; – Attitude to the teachers (coaches); – Time variability, the possibility to attend sections on weekends, etc. It is important that clubs are located close to home or school. Every school should have at least several different after-class clubs. Men and women image in modern teenagers’ view Stereotypes of image of men and women have been made for centuries. We have got interested, what teenagers think about typical qualities of men and women in modern society. There are a lot of contradictions in this difficult subject and we decided to research it. This subject is very important nowadays, because male and female features are becoming less and less apparent. It can be a great disaster if man behaves like a woman and vice versa. Our research aimed: to study teenagers' view of men and women. It is impossible to deny the fact, that there are only two genders exists. All people are born either a man or a woman. They are born neither professions nor cleaners, neither rich nor poor, and they have only gender. We analyzed the “conceptions” femininity (womanhood) and masculinity (manhood). Psychologies sort out three groups of gender stereotypes. Males are considered to be active and creative; females are considered to be passive and depended. Maxim Borovkov Vladimir Khokhlov Social (professional and family) distribution. Women keep the house. Men are responsible for supporting family. Peculiarity of labor. 72 students of our gymnasium took part in the social survey made in October-January 2009 - 2010. Their average age is about 14 years old. A typical male image includes the following qualities. Men are clever, strong. They have professional competence; rational thinking; active lifestyle; good physical form. Women are sociable; communicative; considerate; caring; emotional. 14

[close]

p. 15

Aggressive Enterprising Dominating Independent Reserved Likes math and physics Ambitious Self-sufficient Typical man Calm Considerate Tender Helpless Talkative Religious Fussy about her appearance Values arts and literatures Typical woman We’ve come to the following conclusion. 1) Teenagers state, that strong wills, responsibility, reliability, are main qualities of men. Women are tender, wise, kind, caring, and helpful. This idea coincides with gender stereotypes in psychology. 2) According to our survey women are responsible for family and men – for professional carrier. 3) The most teenagers suppose that men and women should have equal rights. First of all in families and then in carrier. But personally we are sure that politics and handlabor aren’t for women. Equal rights in all aspects of life aren’t quite right. Thus we can draw a conclusion that changing of traditions stereotypes in modern society have a great influence on teenagers behavior a psychic set up. Nowadays we have more and more spheres where women and men can be equal and ever replace each other. Psychologists say that such flexibility is more convenient than firm traditionality. But it still disputable and problematic. Top qualities in teenagers image Will power strength, responsibility, reliability Social role Supporting family Equal rights Majority opinion: equal rights in family Minority opinion: equal rights in sport Profession occupation Builder, driver, doctor girls' opinion) Profession occupation Loader, lawyer, programmer, pilot (boys' opinion) Male Kindness, mildness, beauty Making family Female Secretary, teacher, stewardess, actress Secretary, teacher, stewardess 15

[close]

Comments

no comments yet