Uranium mining Tanzania

 

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African countries currently provide about 18% of the international uranium production.1 Tanzania is intending to become the 3rd biggest exporter of the continent. Nigeria, Ghana, Senegal, Kenya, Uganda and Namibia are actively considering to follow...

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URANIUM MINING TANZANIA Field-Report Oct. 2013 Jonathan Happ & Jean-Jacques Schwenzfeier African countries currently provide about 18% of the international uranium production.1 Tanzania is intending to become the 3rd biggest exporter of the continent. Nigeria, Ghana, Senegal, Kenya, Uganda and Namibia are actively considering to follow the South African example with own nuclear power programs. 1 ChartsBin.com, “Current Worldwide Uranium Production”; wikipedia.org, “List of Countries by Uranium Production”; World Nuclear Association, “World Uranium Mining 2012”; World Nuclear Association, “Uranium Mining Overview.”

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Abstract Do we want a technology that makes a few years of revenues, but leaves million years of destruction? Do we want that decision being made in secrecy, while few are gaining and the majority looses? The mining of uranium is the starting point of the nuclear chain. Working successfully against the mining means working successfully against the whole nuclear industry. In October 2013 the Conference ‘Uranium Mining: Impact on Health and Environment’ took place in Tanzania. Physicians, government representatives, NGO’s and people who had suffered from uranium mining impacts joined the conference. The status quo involves populations longing for information, misinformed by their governments and multinationals; in Tanzania a government in favour of uranium mining; a government that never has been transparent about the issue, but seemed to be afraid by all the attention and information given to the people; a local resisting population demanding advice to get organized and condemning the mining of uranium; Uranium mining not yet started, but prospected to start in 2016; the threats accompanying nuclear technologies far from being solved, on the contrary rather growing on international level. What are Conclusions on how to proceed in engaging and empowering the existing or growing movements for a democratic and open discourse that involves all stakeholders? International networking is key. Needs of local NGO’s can easily be helped by providing basic campaign material, e.g. print outs in local languages. Information should be provided in understandable terms. Research should put an eye on an industry that is not represented enough in the public view. Not enough to enable those who are threatened, nor those who (unknowledgeable) benefit from these technologies to actively answer questions in need to be answered.

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Donors The following organisations helped to finance the Uran-Conference 2012 in Bamako (Mali) and 2013 in Dodoma / Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) ÄrztInnen für soziale Verantwortung und zur Verhütung eines Atomkrieges (PSR / IPPNW Schweiz) http://www.ippnw.ch/ Internationale Ärzte für die Verhütung des Atomkrieges, Ärzte in sozialer Verantwortung e.V. IPPNW Deutschland http://www.ippnw.de SES Schweizerische Energie-Stiftung http://www.energiestiftung.ch/ Rosa Luxemburg Foundation, East African Regional Office, Dar es Salaam http://www.rosalux.de Greenpeace Schweiz http://www.greenpeace.ch Brot für die Welt, Deutschland http://www.brot-fuer-die-welt.de MISEREOR, Aachen http://www.misereor.org Stiftung Umverteilen, Berlin http://www.umverteilen.de PLAGE - Plattform gegen Atomanlagen, Salzburg / Österreich http://www.plage.cc/ Bürgerinitiative Lüchow-Dannenberg http://www.bi-luechow-dannenberg.de/

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URANIUM MINING TANZANIA | Field-Report Oct. 2013 Jonathan Happ & Jean-Jacques Schwenzfeier Contents Facts ............................................................................................................................................................. 3 Approach..................................................................................................................................................... 4 Sites ............................................................................................................................................................. 5 Governmental position on uranium mining ....................................................................................... 6 Field Trip, Summit and Conference........................................................................................................ 7 Recommendations .................................................................................................................................. 10 Appendix ................................................................................................................................................... 12 Jonathan Happ, M.A. Cultural Geography, Journalism & Media Development e-mail: mail@happ.org fon: +491724057864 Jean-Jacques Schwenzfeier International Research and Logistics. Actions Coordination and Management. e-mail: mail@mapoubelle.de fon: +491631625171 5

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Map of exploration sites in Tanzania Sites 1. Kyela 2. Bahi North 3. Bahi/Manyoni/Itigi 4. Mkuju 5. Mkuju River 6. Mkuju East Coordinates 4°53’13.53”S, 35°18’49.64”E 5°37’5.65”S, 35°26’40.95”E 5°54’54.79”S, 35°18’13.13”E 9°32’55.87”S, 37° 4’43.27”E 10° 8’9.39”S, 36°30’49.73”E unknown Google maps Link http://goo.gl/maps/HyEFT http://goo.gl/maps/BSUyi http://goo.gl/maps/JRkaA http://goo.gl/maps/F2VgI http://goo.gl/maps/A3iYA Facts • Tanzania is currently not mining Uranium, but wishes to become Africa’s 3rd biggest exporter. The government has a clear prouranium position. • 3-4 main exploration sites. • With Mkuju River Project as the first project to start mining prospected in 2016. • Though Minister of Health and Social Welfare Dr. Hussein Mwinyi claims to put Health before revenues.2 • Apart from common risks and dangers related to uranium mining Tanzania doesn’t seem to have legal, regulatory and policy frameworks in place to even approximately deal with it.3 • Main international players conducting explorations and holding concessions or shares:Mantra • In Tanzania general elections are going to Resources Tanzania Ltd (AU), Uranex Tanzania Ltd be held in 2015, presenting a good milestone for NGO’s to work towards, by influencing (AU), Uranium One / ARMZ (CA/AU).1 parties on the subject. • Population of affected areas is not or misinformed by government agencies Ministry • Population (mainly in Bahi region) motivated of Energy and Minerals (MEM), the National and engaged to fight against Uranium mining, Environmental Management Council (NEMC) 2 Mwalongo, “Minister Says on Uranium: Health before Revenues.” and companies likewise. 3 Tanzania Episcopal Conference, National Muslim 1 Further concessions have been granted to a wide list of companies. See Appendix ‘Uranium mining liceses Tanzania’ Council of Tanzania, and Christian Council of Tanzania, “URANIUM MINING IN TANZANIA: Are We Ready?”. 6

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URANIUM MINING TANZANIA | Field-Report Oct. 2013 Jonathan Happ & Jean-Jacques Schwenzfeier after having been informed about the risks and consequences of U-Mining, due to the powerful presence of local NGO CESOPE, while population in Mkuju river still lacks even basic information and education. • Various sites of uranium mining in different African countries (Niger, South Africa) show • Thus huge responsibility and chances to the huge destructive impacts on health and make a difference lies also among non-african environment it has already. countries and regions such as Europe and • Almost when not all african countries are in Australia. a highly demand for new energy sources, while renewables are not developing fast enough to meet the demand. This pushes different countries like Kenya to think about investing money in classical fossil power plants.4 • Uranium being at the root of the nuclear trade chain of nuclear energy and weapons is interlinked with international companies and foreign interests as most of the mined uranium is not being used in Africa nor in the places where it is mined. • Much is at stake, but many chances exist to engage against uranium mining and nuclear power in Africa, considering the growing opposition, the need and demand for information, education and • Government of South Africa is mobilizing empowerment of civil societies and for new nuclear power plants and pushes for populations facing the consequences of further uranium mining with plans to build uranium mining, such as the alternatives around 6 new reactors (9600MW), while the like solar power and other renewables. country is suffering of huge areas destructed and intoxicated by tailings of uranium mining.5 • Broad movement all over Africa against uranium mining, new organizations being founded: African (anti) uranium alliance, Tsunami, IPPNW regional offices, ARACF (Falea21), CRIIRAD, ROTAB, Greenpeace, etc., with populations mobilized and protesting already (Niger, Mali for example).6 • Conference “Uranium Mining: Impact on Health and Environment” made a good impact with stakeholders from all over Africa and outside. The conference is intended to be regularly hold in different places around Africa with it’s first meeting held in Mali last year with the intention to inform and educate the public about the risks and dangers associated with the mining of uranium and subsequent technologies. 4 5 6 Obiero, “Is Kenya Turning Away from Renewable Energy?”. Liefferink, “Uranium Mining in South Africa: Environment and Human Rights.” AFP, “Niger : Thousands of Anti-Areva on the Streets in the North”; Fig, “Uranium a Minefield for Malians”; AFP, “Thousands Protest Against Areva in Niger”; Todd, “French Special Forces ‘to Protect’ Niger Uranium Mines,” 24; Elliott-Cooper, “Blood for Uranium.” Approach type: Field Visit,Visiting ‘Uranium-Mining Impact on Health and Environment’ – Conference, Interviews with stakeholders and participants, Desktop research dates: October 1st – October 6th, 2013 (Tanzania), October 22nd – 30th (wrap up) 7

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Sites Sites officially listed are: 1. Kyela, which is owned by Arco Resources. Exact Location unknown. It used to be called Atomic Minerals. Unlikely to be developed further.7 2. Bahi North, owned by Mantra Resources. Mantra’s exploration targets at the Bahi North Project are calcrete-hosted uranium mineralisation in the surficial environment and sandstonehosted deposits within buried fluvial channel systems. The exploration work program comprises an initial phase of geological mapping, ground radiometrics and trenching covering both the Kisalalo and Makanda anomalies, as a prelude to target definition and shallow drilling. Geophysical (electromagnetic) methods will be used to map buried palaeochannels and define suitable trap sites. Areas of defined prospectivity within the palaeochannels will then be systematically tested by drilling.8 3. Bahi/Manyoni, owned by Uranex.This includes the Itigi, Manyoni and Bahi deposits, likely to be mined in a one-plant many-sources setup and being part of Uranex’ Manyoni project.9 4. Mkuju, owned by Uranex.10 Uranex lists the Mkuju project on their website and describes the project as follows : “The Mkuju Uranium Project (100% owned by Uranex) is located in Southern Tanzania and comprises 11 granted licences plus applications combined, covering a total area of over 3000km2. Extensive uranium anomalism, striking approximately 69km in total, have been identified within five separate prospect areas including Likuyu North (5km), Likuyu South (18km) Mteramwahi South (19 km), Mteramwahi North (17 km) and Matemanga (10 km). All anomalies are interpreted to occur within Karoo sandstone hosted environment. The Company is targeting sedimentary uranium type deposits that typically form as tabular and roll-front bodies hosted by coarse sandstones. Examples of sandstone hosted tabular deposits include the Uranium One owned (previously Mantra Resources Limited) Nyota deposit in Southern Tanzania (101.4M lbs @ 422ppm U3O8)”.11 5. Mkuju River, owned by Uranium One. The project lies within the Selous Game reserve, a UNESCO heritage site, although mining activity has been allowed this far. A UN decision has allowed the Mkuju project to continue. The project was previously developed by Mantra Resources until it was taken over by Uranium One.12 6. Mkuju East, owned by Lake Victoria Mining. Exact location unknown.13 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 mining-atlas.com, “Kyela Uranium Project (Mine).” mining-atlas.com, “Bahi North Uranium Project (Mine).” mining-atlas.com, “Bahi Uranium Project (Mine)”; Uranex, “Uranex Ltd. - Projects: Manyoni.” mining-atlas.com, “Mkuju Uranium Project (Mine).” Uranex, “Uranex Ltd. - Projects: Mkuju.” mining-atlas.com, “Mkuju River Uranium Project (Mine).” mining-atlas.com, “Mkuju East Uranium Project (Mine).” 8

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URANIUM MINING TANZANIA | Field-Report Oct. 2013 Jonathan Happ & Jean-Jacques Schwenzfeier Governmental position on uranium mining The Tanzanian government advocates a clear pro-uranium-mining position, which is based on three published arguments. These arguments are clearly contradicting the position and knowledge of many NGO’s and scientists: 1. The country is supossed to earn a high amount of revenues. Jobs and infrastructure would be created.14 2. Uranium-mining itself is considered to be relatively harmless. Only the processing of the yellow-cake, which would be done in other countries, is told to be of danger for the environment and the inhabitants.15 3. The Tanzanian government claims, that they will put suitable laws and offices in charge which would ensure transparency. The mining would be conducted under their control and all necessary safety measures will be implemented. With the end of the mining the nature would be reconstructed.16 14 Jimmy, “Uranium Will Add USD 603 Million to Revenues - Ministry”; Daily News, “Tanzania.” 15 Jimmy, “Uranium Will Add USD 603 Million to Revenues - Ministry”; Mwalongo, “How Will Uranium Extraction Affect Tanzanians?”. 16 Jimmy, “Uranium Will Add USD 603 Million to Revenues - Ministry.” Hussein Ali Mwinyi, the Minister of Health and Social Welfare attended the conference and claimed, that every necessary step to protect the people will be fulfilled. 9

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Field Trip, Summit and Conference The conference ‘Uranium-mining: Impact on Health and Environment’ took place in Bahi, Dodoma and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Organizing organizations were the IPPNW, LHRC, NaCUM, Uranium Network, African Uranium Alliance (AUA), CESOPE and the Rosa-Luxemburg-Foundation, while donors were Rosa-LuxemburgFoundation, Misereor, IPPNW, civique forum, Umverteilen!, Schweizerische Energie Stiftung (SES) and Greenpeace CH. It consisted of field trips, a community summit in Dodoma and a conference in Dar es Salaam. GPS-Track of the field trip. The field trips were conducted to Bahi and Manyoni where exploration drillings had taken place and people where suffering from Health issues following the drillings such as skin problems and deteriorating eye-sight. The cause for the irritations couldn’t be identified, but chemicals used for the drillings were suspected. Following the field trips a summit had been held with the affected communities from Bahi and Manyoni. Here scientists, physicians, researchers, members of affected communities from other countries and even a member of parliament,Tundu Lissu from the Tanzanian opposition party Chadema were giving presentations and speeches on the risks of uranium-mining, radiation, their impacts on health, the environment, the politics of big multi-national companies, their alliances with governments and what the people of affected areas can do about it. The community meeting was encouraging the communities to inform themselves, to stand up for their opinion and make use of their right to civil protest. On the community summit in Dodoma many villagers declared they were afraid of uranium mining in their areas and would want to take up the fight against it. They also declared to be lacking support and help from experienced organizations and individuals in this regard. So far, they have not been informed by the government, nor by the drilling operators or mining companies of the undertaken operations, plans and contracts made. Many said they were afraid of governmental and police forces. Even Anthony Lyamunda of CESOPE, one of the local NGO’s engaging against Uranium-Mining said he was afraid of police abducting him, taking him to somewhere and torture him. He said he was receiving threat calls by unknown person urging him to stop engaging against uranium mining. 10

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URANIUM MINING TANZANIA | Field-Report Oct. 2013 Jonathan Happ & Jean-Jacques Schwenzfeier After one of the field trips, where our group of participants visited drilling sites, without any trespassing or similar actions done, our convoy was stopped by police and requested to follow to the police station. Here Anthony was interrogated and forced to sign a statement, describing what we had done in the fields, although the authorities had been well informed by CESOPE about the event weeks before. After signing Anthony and the convoy was released. When not very far from the Police station we suddenly received a call, Anthony had been arrested. The convoy returned. It turned out the district commissioner Dr Rehema Nchimbi had personally called and demanded from the police to arrest him. Thanks to our presence and the intervention by Tundu Lissu, who happened to be the lawyer of CESOPE, Anthony was released after some hours of negotiations and the issue had been resolved. Anyhow the incident shows what political engagement can lead to in Tanzania, but also shows how very small steps can create a big stir and suddenly move government officials from their usually ignoring and quiet positions. The impacts of the field trips could be felt at the community summit and the following Conference in Dar es Salaam. About 500 villagers appeared at the community meeting and sent representatives to the conference in Dar es Salaam. The government released several official statements through the media. Government officials had been invited to the conference 3-4 month ago, but never even took the time to answer the invitations. Following the incident with local police forces in Bahi Madoshi Makene from the NEMC and Dr Hussein Mwinyi, Minister of Health and Social Welfare suddenly declared they would come to the conference and discuss with its participants. The Acting Commissioner for Minerals Ally Samaje, who had been invited, still refused to come, but later agreed on a meeting in his office. The conference brought together stakeholders from all over Africa. Experiences good and bad were shared and the uranium trade and its impacts enlightened. Impressive pictures were drawn of catastrophic mining impacts such as the south African Witwaterstrand basin, close to Johannesburg, where slum dwellers live amongst radioactive leakages from the mines tailings and build their homes using radioactive soil. National media showed big interest in the conference with various critical publications questioning the political decisions being made in regard to Uranium mining.17 Community summit in Dodoma. Field trip to Bahi and Manyoni. Conference in Dar es Salaam. 17 Mwalongo, “How Will Uranium Extraction Affect Tanzanians?”; Kisanga, “Experts Still Concerned on Dangers of Uranium Mining”; by Editor, “Uranium Mining Dangers Are Vivid, but Best Practices Exist”; Deutsche Welle, “Uranium Ore Tempts Tanzania to Dig Dangerously.” 11

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A joined statement has been issued and released by the conference. The African Uranium Alliance had a parallel meeting with many of its participants being present in both the conference and the meeting. The AUA changed it’s name to the African Anti Uranium Alliance and composed a constitution with it’s head office going to set up in Namibia. On the conference it has been decided to organize an activity in support of the cause, that consists of climbing Mount Kilimanjaro in june or july 2014 as a symbol of African nations, which is internationally recognized as such. Here a press conference is going to be hold, the IPPNW Tanzania will celebrate its launch and IPPNW and ICAN in a joined effort will create a symbol against uranium mining and associated nuclear weapons. The activity is still in preparation and other NGO’s are welcome to join the project. Seeing recent acknowledgements by the UK and French EDF to build a new nuclear power station, which most likely will be fuelled by African uranium, companies such as Areva and Uramin Inc., working all over Africa with subsidiaries in Senegal, CAR, South Africa, Namibia, Niger and Mali, facing the 6 new reactors being planned to build in South Africa and new uranium mining projects emerging all over Africa, it shows that nuclear energy and nuclear weapons and the related dangers are far from being resolved. On the other hand news such as Mongolia abandoning nuclear waste storage plans, African populations standing up against the ecological devastation of their homelands by uranium mining gives hope to change. It strengthens the demand to international NGO’s and stakeholders to support the fight against nuclear energy and weapons where it starts: at the mining sites. Solli Ramatou (GREN, Niger) presenting their experiences with Uranium Mining in Akokan and Arlit. Local community representative taking part in conference. 12

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URANIUM MINING TANZANIA | Field-Report Oct. 2013 Jonathan Happ & Jean-Jacques Schwenzfeier Recommendations Generally speaking we consider the uranium-mining issue and its related aspects of health and environmental impacts as yet another big and convincing reason against nuclear energy and of course nuclear weapons. Mostly uranium mining in African countries is conducted by multinational companies, with no usage for the mined uranium in the countries of origin further than gaining some income from its export. Examples are Areva, Cogema, Uranex, Uranium One, Rockgate Capital Corp. Some African countries (among other countries worldwide) are actively considering nuclear power programs though18. To further investigate on sites and exploit the potential of raising public adaptable material to enhance campaigns against nuclear development we consider as feasible. After being on the ground and gaining access to contacts, networks and information related to the cause we are very much interested in further work on the subject.The reasons for that lay in the good contacts we made, the existing networks that can be made use of and the already existing sites where massive destruction and serious impacts of uranium mining can be shown. International NGO’s are currently underrepresented in the region, but as the problems related to uranium mining are benefiting mainly nuclear programs abroad, a responsibility to engage for such NGO’s emerges. As potential projects and options to engage we see the following: Support local NGO’s/CBO’s and movements by • providing educative/informative print campaign material in local languages. On the spot we found and were told about a lack of adequate information material, such as handouts, leaflets, posters, accessible information for not highly educated persons in particular • providing evidence/footage in High Res quality useable for campaigns (video, foto) and media purposes • assisting in creating and designing leaflets etc. using information given by experts translated in to local languages • giving training in: media, security, communication, campaign-strategy • etc. Support local NGO’s, international NGO’s and movements by • carrying out precise researches on the current landuse of all possible minig areas. (How many people are living since how long there, type of landuse, mapping of water-wells and gravesites, etc.) The Information is needed for having good arguments in the campagn aswell as showing landgrabbing and for reclaiming compensations. • cooperations in campaigns and activities (such as Kilimanjaro project) • technical and logistical support (such as Kilimanjaro project) • sharing campaign strategies, knowledge and material (providing standards and modern presentation methods) • developing and offering project proposals and initiatives supporting the cause. Examples: • Inviting local media to joint journalist trips to global hotspots. The radio, in particular, is the media of choice in African countries, that is said to have the most outreach. One project could be to invite local media representatives to join a tour around international sites where uranium is mined or has been mined. Places of nuclear catastrophes should also be visited. The local media will have a weekly show in which the journey is covered. Tanzania for example disposes of such a program. • Introduction and Provision of renewable energy solutions for example making a village such as Bahi or Manyoni energy independent by providing windmill, solar power and the knowledge to maintain it. Following the example of Kalbult Solar PV in Kimberley, South Africa.19 18 World Nuclear Association, “Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries | New Nuclear Build Countries.” 19 Mhlanga, “The Day South Africa Got Renewable Energy on the Grid.” 13

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Africa wide research, investigation and development of campaign material Visiting uranium mining exploration, drilling and operational sites and investigate on issues such as: • Did promises that have been made to the communities in terms of improvements of job situation, infrastructure, better education, low environmental impact realize? • Existing good governance in place? • Reported cases of misinformation? • Corruption? • Land grabbing? • Cover ups of health and environmental issues? • Human rights abuses? • Workers safety? Uranium mining in Africa • Are the mining operations following best http://uranium-network.org/index.php/africalink practice models? • Coorporational responsibility? • Information policies? • Security policies in place in regard to exclusion of radioactive materials and tailings sites, transport of material, PPE’s, etc.? • What are the impacts on site? • Environmental? • Cultural, social? • Cases of cancer, leukaemia, tuberculosis, lupus? By carrying out such an investigation we are positive about bringing up a good bundle of negative cases and deeper knowledge and footage about these. By collecting these cases one would enable the creation of a multinational picture of how uranium mining is being conducted, its impacts and further on relations and links to international companies and demand for uranium mining could be demonstrated. The research should be based on a standardized approach that will be academically useable and credible. The outcome of the research will be presented and can be used in various ways, online, offline. It is most important and recommendable that all outcomes will be publically accessible. Existing documentaries often are restricted by copyright regulations or ownership and such do not fulfil their educational potential. By providing credible and accessible information on existing projects and impacts in a broad range of countries we believe to be able to strengthen existing and potential campaign work against the further promotion of nuclear technology worldwide. We imagine to be supporting international efforts in african and non-african countries being conducted on behalf of sustainable energy solutions by such an investigation and its results. Global research, investigation and development of campaign material As a further enhancement of the above described approach we can imagine to investigate on international level on similar sites and collecting data internationally will further add to the picture of world wide impacts of nuclear technology and consequently help to support the cause of renewables and alternative energy solutions. 14

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URANIUM MINING TANZANIA | Field-Report Oct. 2013 Jonathan Happ & Jean-Jacques Schwenzfeier Appendix Joint Statement by participants of the Conference The joined statement of the conferences participants reads as follows: “[08.10.2013] We representatives of civil society organisations gathered here in a multi–stakeholder conference under the theme “Uranium Mining – Impact on Health and Environment” in Dar - es – Salaam have prepared a statement highlighting our concerns on the uranium industry. We stress that uranium is a toxic heavy metal and together with its decay products emits radioactivity. We recognise that, uranium may do harm to the health of people living close to its presence even if it is left in the ground. We further recognize that, whenever and however it is brought to the surface to be used it poses a great danger to human beings, the land and future generations. We note that uranium has to be left in the ground, because once on the surface it is spread in the soil, water, air and the human body. We also note that once the uranium mining is over, the land is destroyed and can never be fully rehabilitated We are also concerned that uranium mining is technically very difficult, even in technologically and highly developed countries like the USA, Canada, Australia and Germany. We are further concerned that the whole destructive nuclear fuel chain damages human health, affects communities and contaminates the environment. We observe that uranium mining does not deliver the fruits of development but instead sets back national development through saddling governments with the costs of waste disposal, environmental rehabilitation, compensation, and the health of its people. We recall that there is a long history of extracting resources from colonies, indigenous people and occupied countries. We recognise that the revenues go to the exploiting countries and companies and the burden of waste and destruction is left to the exploited. Uranium mining sets back sustainable development. Therefore we recommend that: Governments reject uranium mining and instead insist on the need for fair trading conditions with fair prices and technological support for renewable energies and sustainable production. The issue of energy is important in most African countries. Even in those countries where uranium is exploited, solar energy is a much better option than uranium! Governments should recognise that the use of uranium to build weapons is no way to guarantee the safety of a state. Good diplomatic relations with other countries, the use of civil conflict resolution and social justice make a country a safer place to live. The Government of Tanzania should critically review the issuing of licenses and stop the extraction of uranium in the country, and lay down sustainable development strategies relying on renewable energy sources for a better ecological and economic future! Signed in Dar-es-Salaam, 5 October 2013”20 20 Uranium Network, “Joint Statement of the Participants of the Conference on ‘Uranium Mining - Impact on Health and Environment’ in Dar-Es-Salaam.” 15

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