Jeremy Dettmer Doctoral Dissertation


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distributions in utilizng leisure skills and positive experiences as a component of treatment progress in men who are civilly committed sexual offenders by jeremy l dettmer nancy a piotrowski phd faculty mentor and chair justin anderson phd committee member richard van haveren phd committee member david chapman psyd dean harold abel school of social and behavioral sciences a dissertation presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree doctor of philosophy capella university november 2010


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© jeremy dettmer 2010


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abstract the study investigated two components of leisure for a sample of n=20 men who had been civilly committed for sexual offending participants completed the leisure experience questionnaire leq which measured two components of leisure typology and experience the leq included the three questions where with whom and type of activity that determined typology to determine the degree of positive experience the leq included the flow state scale ­ 2 fss ­ 2 jackson eklund 2004 the fss-2 a 36-item instrument described by jackson eklund 2004 the flow scales manual assessed the nine dimensions of flow csikszentmihalyi 1990 a total of twelve phase 2 and eight phase 3 and phase 4 participants were recruited provided informed consent and completed data collection study protocol required each participant to be signaled twice during the same 3-hour block of time the 3-hour block of time between 5:30 till 8:30 pm was chosen because participants were virtually free from external demands on their time a review of the literature suggested a relationship may have existed between reports of leisure typology and treatment phase contrary to theoretical expectations the data failed to support the hypothesis that a relationship existed between leisure typology and treatment phase x2 .888 df 2 p .64 in fact participants reported nearly identical percentages of leisure typology regardless of treatment phase despite the lack of a significant relationship between treatment phase and typology the data produced significant relationship between treatment phase and reports of experience x2 6.038 df 2 p .049 the relationships demonstrated by the data from this study confirmed the need for a cognitive behavioral treatment programs to place an emphasis on the development of pro-social leisure skills that lead to self-fulfilling existential experiences.


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dedication i must begin by thanking the members of my dissertation committee for their support and patience during this arduous process i would especially like to thank dr nancy piotrowski for edifying me with the skills and knowledge to complete the dissertation process most importantly i must thank my wife amy the past several years brought several significant changes to our lives and the completion of this dissertation will be a welcomed end to another chapter in our lives it was her sense patience and support that enabled me to continue on even when i wanted to quit to my children madison brayden and reece i dedicate the completion of this dissertation to you as a case of never settling for others expectations of you and actively seeking experiences and challenges that lie outside the ordinary iii


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acknowledgments it is essential i salute the men who participated in this study they willingly allowed me to observe and examine their routines thoughts and feelings during treatment i hope the participants of this study gained some degree of additional insight into their habits and the emotional consequences of their behavior iv


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table of contents acknowledgments list of tables list of figures chapter 1 introduction introduction to the problem statement of problem purpose of the study research questions significance of the study definition of terms assumptions limitations leisure typologies organization of the remainder of the study chapter 2 literature review introduction to the problem civil commitment for involuntary treatment forensic leisure science search terms orientating paragraph summary of literature review civil commitment for men whom committed sexual offenses v iv ix x 1 1 2 3 4 5 5 10 12 14 15 16 16 16 17 17 18 18 19


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cognitive behavioral therapy critique of cognitive behavioral therapy treatment goals used by the civil commitment unit sexual offenders leisure typology nature of flow time use time use and sexual offending theoretical orientation to the study experience sampling methodology time use in specific populations experience of time in a forensic treatment facility review of experience sampling method research experience sampling method and clinical populations review of research utilizing flow scales synthesis of research findings summary chapter 3 methodology restatement of purpose research design target population selection of participants variables measures vi 27 33 39 42 43 45 50 53 58 65 69 71 79 82 84 85 87 87 87 91 92 93 93


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procedures null hypotheses data analyses research questions expected findings chapter 4 data collection and analysis overall recruitment results research questions and hypotheses results analyses of power chapter 5 results conclusions and recommendations introduction summary of results new findings summary of current study discussion of results limitations of current study recommendations for further study conclusion references appendix a leisure type coding matrix appendix b flyer posted ­ informational meeting appendix c letter eligibility to participate vii 98 105 105 106 108 111 111 112 114 119 120 120 120 122 124 125 131 134 144 146 161 162 163


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appendix d consent form appendix e letter of permission from site ­ content appendix f letter of permission ­ copy of signed copy appendix g letter to jason smith 10-27-07 appendix h e-mail to jason smith 07-16-08 appendix i letter of preliminary approval capella appendix j letter attorney general s suggestions appendix k letter of approval attorney general s office appendix l update to attorney general s office 162 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 viii


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list of tables table 1 schedule of sampling trials for repeated measures table 2 schedule of sampling trials for repeated measures half week table 3 diagram for repeated measures pre-experimental design table 4 diagram for repeated measures pre-experimental design half week table 5 diagram of nonrandomized repeated measures design table 6 diagram for assessment of internal validity table 7 two by three crosstabulation of typology and treatment phase table 8 two by three crosstabulation of typology and experience table 9 two by three crosstabulation of experience and treatment phase table 10 correlation matrix of experience and half week 88 89 90 91 90 91 115 116 117 118 ix


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list of figures figure 1 sexual assault cycle 52 x


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chapter 1 introduction introduction to the problem recidivism rates high-profile offenses against young children and public pressure led to sixteen states mandating involuntary treatment for a small subset of men who have committed sexual offenses lafond 2005 one goal of sexual offending treatment programs was to promote the development of solitary interactive leisure skills pastimes and meaningful personal goals that will enable patients to fulfill their existential needs in socially acceptable ways department of human services 2006 p.8 the development of practical pro-social leisure skills was an overlooked part of many treatment programs williams 2006 proposed forensic leisure science p 92 as a valid new niche to investigate and study the antecedents to sexual offending farnworth 1998 2000 and passmore 1998 substantiated william s claim by observing a relationship between leisure typology and general mental health in addition these studies established a link between purposeful leisure and the promotion of pro-social values and skills inherent in a productive citizen the civil commitment unit for sex offenders ccuso developed a two-tiered treatment program that targeted general and unique psychosocial deficits of the client the first tier of goals focused on the psychosocial deficits specific to the client the second tier of treatment goals was based on the common psychosocial deficits common in sexual offenders collaboration between the treatment team produced an individualized treatment plan for each client dhs 2006 the general treatment goals were aligned with the ten treatment goals 1


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recognized to be best practices by the association for the treatment of sexual abuses atsa all research questions were based o the fifth of the ten atsa treatment goals used by ccuso in the 90-day evaluation the fifth goal assessed the degree to which the client demonstrated acceptable health hygiene practices and developed significant personal goals leisure skills and activities that will meet his existential needs ccuso 2007 p 7 an emphasis on the development and utilization of pro social leisure skills inside a secure forensic treatment facility created an opportunity to substantiate forensic leisure science as an alternate method for theorizing and treating men who have committed sexual offenses the treatment model used at ccuso assumed a client entering treatment lacked the skills to develop a balanced and varied repertoire of leisure pursuits it was hypothesized clients participated in passive and solitary leisure typologies that lacked the necessary challenge to develop complex pro-social behaviors the lack of balance and uniformity in leisure limited the client s opportunity to develop complex interpersonal relationships that produced meaningful experiences that met their dhs 2006 as a result progress was determined by demonstrating balanced complex and an increasing number of positive experiences statement of the problem williams 2005 theorized a relationship existed between leisure typology experience and the sexual assault cycle as a result the client and therapist must document deficits in leisure typology participation and the types of experiences associated with each typology clients who reported increased scores within the leisure domain should be more 2


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likely to display balanced representations in leisure typology and report positive experiences more often a limitation at ccuso was third-party reports of leisure that only documented participation off the client s living unit reports of leisure also lacked an experiential component as well as detail regarding the specifics of the activity quantitative measures of leisure typology and experience improved the ability of therapists to make data based decisions regarding the course of treatment and client s level of risk this study investigated the potential differences in the development of balance in leisure typology by comparing the results of clients recruiting clients who had achieved either phase 2 or phase 3 and phase 4 within the treatment program participation was limited to phase 2 or phase 3 and phase 4 clients due to the increased expectations of behavior and relapse prevention skills clients achieved phase 3 by maintaining scores of at least 3 out of 10 for each treatment goals on the client s 90-day evaluation regulation of leisure being one dhs 2006 purpose of the study every 90 days a client s therapist determined the degree of participation in leisure typology previous measurements of leisure were somewhat subjective dependent upon third party reports by staff or therapists recommendations the goal of the study was to begin developing a quantitative measure for development of skills that led to varied participation in leisure second limited data existed measuring the experiences of leisure during treatment in a secure forensic facility third this study investigated if the data derived from this facility is similar to that of previous research conducted utilizing the esm williams 2005 as a result this study s purpose was to develop descriptive data that 3


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quantifies the relationship between leisure activities treatment progress and subjective emotional experiences research questions this study investigated the relationship between leisure typology and degree of positive experience associated with leisure the data set resulted from 20 participants who were sampled twice between the hours of 5:30 and 8:30 p.m for no more than seven consecutive days the guidepost for all research questions were how do men who have been civilly committed for committing sexual offenses structure and experience their unstructured time the research questions were 1 2 3 4 5 6 for this type of male sexual-offender how was participation in achievement social and time-out leisure activities distributed are the distributions for achievement social and time-out leisure activities related to or a component of treatment progress for each phase of treatment for this type of male sexual-offender what are the frequencies and types of leisure activities that elicit positive experiences are the distributions of positive experiences associated with achievement social and time-out leisure activities related to or a component of for each phase of treatment are the relationships between achievement social and time-out leisure activities and leisure experience predictive of each phase of treatment are the distributions of achievement social time-out leisure activities and leisure experience reported during the first three days of the week similar to the last four days of the week 4



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