Socrates Almanac 2013

 

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Socrates Almanac 2013

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Socrates Almanac 2013-2014

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ISSN 2053-4736.(Print) Socrates Almanac Publisher: Europe Business Assembly Europe Business Assembly 2 Woodin’s Way Oxford OX1 1HF Tel: +44 (0) 1865 251 122 Fax: +44 (0) 1865 251 122 http://www.еbaoxford.co.uк Text copyright Europe Business Assembly or as otherwise stated. Reproduction in whole or in part of any content contained in this publication without prior permission is strictly prohibited. ISSN 2053-4736.(Print) The information contained in this publication has been published in good faith and the opinions expressed here are those of the authors and not of Europe Business Assembly. Europe Business Assembly cannot take responsibility for any error or misinterpretation based on this information and neither endorses any products advertised herein. References to materials used in creating this publication are included.

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Socrates Almanac

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UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION The United Nations Organization for Education, Science and Culture (UNESCO) was founded on 16 November 1945. UNESCO has 195 Members and 8 Associate Members. It is governed by the General Conference and the Executive Board. The Secretariat, headed by the Director-General, implements the decisions of these two bodies. The Organisation has over 50 field offices globally. Its headquarters are located at Place de Fontenoy in Paris (France), in an outstanding modernist building. Inaugurated in 1958, the building has recently been renovated. Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo 4 Socrates Almanac ‘Science and Education. Oxford Review’

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United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Cook Islands Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Democratic Republic of the Congo Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Socrates Almanac ‘Science and Education. Oxford Review’ 5

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United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Republic of Korea Republic of Moldova Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Thailand The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Timor-Leste Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine 6 Socrates Almanac ‘Science and Education. Oxford Review’

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United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization United Arab Emirates United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland United Republic of Tanzania United States of America Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

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BOLOGNA PROCESS The Bologna Process currently has 47 participating countries. While the European Commission is an important contributor to the Bologna Process, the Lisbon Recognition Convention was prepared by the Council of Europe and members of the Europe Region of UNESCO. Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom England Vatican City 8 Socrates Almanac ‘Science and Education. Oxford Review’

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United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

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ARTICLES ON PIONEERING FIGURES IN THE FIELD OF SCIENCE AND EDUCATION Confucius [551–479 BC, Zou, Lu state] By three methods we may learn wisdom: First, by reflection, which is noblest; second, by imitation, which is the easiest; and third by experience, which is the bitterest. Socrates [c. 469 / 470 BC – 399 BC, Athens, Greece] There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance. 10 Socrates Almanac ‘Science and Education. Oxford Review’

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Entire ignorance is not so terrible or extreme an evil, and is far from being the greatest of all; accumulation of poorly assimilated knowledge is even worse. The really bad person is not the one who doesn’t know anything, but the one who doesn’t want to know. Because two vices combine in him. Plato [c. 428-427 BC – c. 348-347 BC, Athens, Greece] Education is an ornament in prosperity and a refuge in adversity. Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all. The educated differ from the uneducated as much as the living differ from the dead. Aristotle [384 BC – 322 BC, Stagira, Chalcidice] Cultivation to the mind is as necessary Marcus Tullius as food to the body. Studies are a spur to the young, a delight Cicero to the old, an ornament in prosperity, a consoling refuge in adversity, they are [106 BC – 43 BC, pleasure for us at home, and no burden abroad, they stay up with us at night, they Arpinum, Roman Republic] accompany us when we travel, they are with us in our country visits. Leisure without books is death, and burial of a man alive. Lucius Annaeus Seneca [c. 4 BC – 65 AD, Cordoba in Hispania] Socrates Almanac ‘Science and Education. Oxford Review’ 11

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Articles on pioneering figures in the field of science and education Gaius Petronius Arbiter [c. 27 – 66 AD, ancient Marseille] Education is a treasure and culture never dies. Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus [61 / 62 – 113, Como] Joy and consolation are both in education. Kai Kaus [11th century] Education is the face of the mind . Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci [1452 – 1519, Republic of Florence] Wisdom is the daughter of experience. Intellectual passion drives our sensuality. 12 Socrates Almanac ‘Science and Education. Oxford Review’

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Everything that comes is transient and only science is eternal. Sebastian Brant [1458 – 1521, Strasbourg, France] Education is the best way to make human’s spirit to be heroic. Giordano Bruno [1548 – 1600, Nola, Kingdom of Naples, Italy] Education is nothing but a reflection of reality. Sir Francis Bacon [1561 – 1626, London, England] All the sciences are connected with each other in such a way that it is easier to study all of them at once than only one of them individually. Rene Descartes [1596 – 1650, La Haye en Touraine, Kingdom of France] Socrates Almanac ‘Science and Education. Oxford Review’ 13

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