Infographics: Monetary Payments for Civilian Harm

 

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These infographics map payments offered to victims of violence around the world.

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Monetary PayMents for Civilian HarM in international and national PraCtiCe While it is impossible to put a price on life, there is an important conversation to be had around the various levels of payment offered to victims of violence in response to their losses. Various programs have been implemented in settings of armed conflict and in response to terrorism and human rights violations. These programs include practices of amends, victims assistance, and reparations for grave human rights violations. The aim is not to “set a price” on civilian losses, but rather to evaluate the trends of current practice in providing monetary payments-- both the amounts and the methodology used by the entity offering the payment. Why are monetary payments given? Transitional Justice To provide redress for human rights abuses Ethical Obligation To do the “right” thing Legal Obligation To provide a legal remedy to unlawful harm Solidarity To show solidarity with the victims Strategic Advantage To create goodwill within the civilian population How are payment amounts determined? Payment Method Based on a Calculus of Losses Payment is determined through a mathematical calculus that can take into account factors such as lifetime earning potential or severity of harm based on research of specific kinds of injuries. The total budget is divided by the number of victims eligible. Claims are then divided into categories, with each category assigned a maximum total payout. Payment is based on harm’s severity and permanence on a case-by-case basis. To ensure consistency, claimants with comparable injuries are compared so that they receive similar awards. Payment Method Based on Budget Considerations What harm is compensated? Civilians who have suffered physical harm, including loss of life or limb. Victims who have experienced damage of property, loss of earnings and earning potential, loss of profit, and economic opportunities. Individuals who have sustained non-physical and non-economic damage, such as pain, grief, suffering, loss of enjoyment of life, and harm to reputation or dignity. Death and Personal Injury Economic Damages Payment Method Determined on Case-by-Case Basis Payment Method Set Arbitrarily Immaterial Damage Payment is an expression of recognition for loss and not meant to provide full compensation. Such payments can be token or ex-gratia. Source: “Monetary Payments for Civilian Harm in International and National Practice” published by the Amsterdam International Law Clinic at the University of Amsterdam with the Center for Civilians in Conflict in Washington DC

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moNETARy PAymENTS FoR CIvILIAN HARm IN INTERNATIoNAL AND NATIoNAL PRACTICE ARmED CoNFLICT Afghanistan/Iraq/US: United States Solatia and Condolence Programs Situation: US military’s condolence and solatia payments for incidental death, injury, property damage during combat operations. Afghanistan: ISAF Troop Contributing Nations Situation: Ex gratia compensation payments from ISAF contributing nations to civilians for incidental harm during military operations. Afghanistan: Code 99 Fund and moLSAmD Situation: Code 99 is a discretionary presidential fund to assist conflict victims for harm. MoLSAMD provides monthly payment to families for conflict-related death and injuries. Germany: German Forced Labour Compensation Program Situation: To resolve claims of former Nazi victims for slave and forced labor, personal injury, and lost property. Eritrea/Ethiopia: Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission Situation: Addresses claims of death, damage or injury during the 1998-2000 war between Eritrea and Ethiopia. Germany/Switzerland: Situation: Compensation to victims of slave labor in several categories or for refugees who were either denied entry into Switzerland or were granted entry only to be detained and mistreated as refugees in Switzerland during the war. Bosnia and Herzegovina: Commission for Real Property Claims of Displaced Persons and Refugees Situation: Addresses property claims relating to the 1992–1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Source: “Monetary Payments for Civilian Harm in International and National Practice” published by the Amsterdam International Law Clinic at the University of Amsterdam with the Center for Civilians in Conflict in Washington DC

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moNETARy PAymENTS FoR CIvILIAN HARm IN INTERNATIoNAL AND NATIoNAL PRACTICE ARmED CoNFLICT United States: Foreign Claims Act (FCA) Situation: Allows for (ex gratia) monetary payments to civilians harmed by “negligent or wrongful act[s]” committed by uniformed personnel or civilian employees of the Department of Defense, except for harm resulting directly or indirectly from a combat act. vietnam: Agent orange Central Payments Program Situation: Vietnam’s assistance program for persons exposed to Agent Orange chemical used by the US military during the Vietnam war. Iraq: National Compensation Law Situation: To compensate victims that were killed or wounded by terrorist attacks and military errors and operations since March 20, 2003. Kuwait: United Nations Compensation Commission Situation: Mandate is to process claims and pay compensation for losses and damage suffered as a direct result of Iraq’s unlawful invasion and occupation of Kuwait. Kosovo: Housing and Property Claims Commission Situation: Addresses claims arising out of discriminatory measures affecting property rights taken by the Government of Yugoslavia in Kosovo. Established to settle disputes concerning noncommercial residential property. Nepal: Interim Relief Program Situation: The program was created with World Bank funds to assist families of the deceased and disappeared during the 1996-2006 armed conflict. Source: “Monetary Payments for Civilian Harm in International and National Practice” published by the Amsterdam International Law Clinic at the University of Amsterdam with the Center for Civilians in Conflict in Washington DC

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MONETARY PAYMENTS: PROGRAMS RELATED TO ARMED CONFLICT Parties Involved: Afghanistan, Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canada, Croatia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Germany, Iraq, Israel, Kosovo, Kuwait, Nepal, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, Vietnam, Yugoslavia W H O PROGRAM Afghanistan: ISAF Troop Contributing Nations Personal Injury C A N S U B M I T Family A C L A I M ? Community Not eligible Individual UK: In cases of death, amounts awarded range from USD 210 to USD 7,000, in cases of injury payment usually ranges from USD 25 to USD 14,500 Canada: max. in field award USD 1,960 Australia: unknown Poland: max. USD 2,500 No fixed amount UK: payments for property damage usually range from USD 25 TO USD 14,500 Netherlands: Property damage claims range from USD 500 to USD 1,500 No fixed amount Economic Damage No fixed amount No fixed amount Not eligible Not eligible R E M E D I E D Immaterial Damage H A R M Afghanistan/ Iraq/US: United States Solatia and Condolence Programs Personal Injury Information not Solatia payments: Cap of USD 2,000 in case of death, USD 400 for available serious injury, USD 200 for nonserious injury Condolence payments: cap USD 2,500 Battle damage: serious harm or death cap at USD 1,600, non-serious injury USD 600 Information not available Solatia payments: Serious property damage does not have a defined monetary payment amount under the solatia program. Cap of USD 200 for non-serious property damage Condolence payments: serious property damage cap of USD 2,200, non-serious damage cap of USD 200 Code 99: AFN 50,000 (USD 1,000) injuires MoLSAMD: Serious Injury AFN 1,500 (30 USD) per month Code 99: AFN 100,000 (USD 2,000) per death MoLSAMD: Death: AFN 1,500 (USD 30) per month Information not available Information not available Information not available O F Economic Damage Immaterial Damage Information not available Information not available T Y P E S Afghanistan: Code 99 Fund and MoLSAMD Personal Injury Information not available Information not available Not eligible Economic Damage Not eligible Source: “Monetary Payments for Civilian Harm in International and National Practice” published by the Amsterdam International Law Clinic at the University of Amsterdam with the Center for Civilians in Conflict in Washington DC

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MONETARY PAYMENTS: PROGRAMS RELATED TO ARMED CONFLICT W H O PROGRAM Bosnia and Herzegovina: Commission for Real Property Claims of Displaced Persona and Refugees Eritrea/Ethiopia: Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission Personal Injury Economic Damage Immaterial Damage C A N S U B M I T Family A C L A I M ? Community Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Individual Not eligible Not eligible No monetary payments due to insuf- Not eligible ficient funds Not eligible Not eligible Personal Injury Economic Damage Immaterial Damage Fixed-sums of USD 500 and USD 1500 Fixed-sums of USD 500 and USD 1500 Fixed-sums of USD 500 and USD 1500 Not eligible No fixed amount Slave labour I: USD 500-1,450 Slave labour II: USD 500-1,450; Refugees: USD 1,250-3,625. Refugees detained in Switzerland: USD 250-725 Up to USD 8,241 No fixed amount Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Information not available Information not available Information not available Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible R E M E D I E D Germany/ Switzerland/US: Personal Injury Economic Damage Immaterial Damage H A R M Germany: German Forced Labour Compensation Program Personal Injury Economic Damage Immaterial Damage O F Information not available Information not available Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Information not Claims of forced labor in industry available were awarded USD 1,574 Claims by former slave laborers in agriculture were awarded up to USD 3,148 Claims by former slave laborers held in concentration camps, ghettos or other places of confinement, and claims by former forced laborers were awarded up to USD 9,448 Security service men receive USD 4,310 for death, USD 4,310 for 75%100% incapacitation, 2,155 to USD 3,879 for 50%-74%, USD 1,724 for less than 50% Civilians receive USD 3,223 for death, USD 3,223 for 75%-100% incapacitation, USD 1,724 to USD 2,577 for 50%-74%, and USD 1,505 for less than 50% Heirs of security service men and civilians receive similar amounts T Y P E S Iraq: National Compensation Law Personal Injury Not eligible Source: “Monetary Payments for Civilian Harm in International and National Practice” published by the Amsterdam International Law Clinic at the University of Amsterdam with the Center for Civilians in Conflict in Washington DC

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MONETARY PAYMENTS: PROGRAMS RELATED TO ARMED CONFLICT W H O PROGRAM Economic Damage Immaterial Damage C A N S U B M I T Family A C L A I M ? Community Not eligible Not eligible Individual Information not available Information not available Information not available Heirs of security service men and civilians receive similar amounts Not eligible market value Information not available USD 5,000 Category C claim: No fixed amount Category C claim: No fixed amount NPS 100,000 (USD 1,570) for death Information not available Kosovo: Housing and Property Claims Commission Personal Injury Economic Damage Immaterial Damage Personal Injury Economic Damage Not eligible market value Information not available Category A+B: USD 2,500 Category C: up to USD 100,000 Category C claim: No fixed amount Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible USD 10,000 No fixed amount R E M E D I E D Kuwait: United Nations Compensation Commission Immaterial Damage Category C claim: up to USD 10,000 No fixed sum category D, E, F claim: Damages over USD 100,000 Not eligible No fixed amount H A R M Nepal: Interim Relief Program Personal Injury Information not available USD 3.22 million for capacity building of institutional structures Information not available Economic Damage Not eligible O F T Y P E S Immaterial Damage United States: Foreign Claims Act (FCA) Personal Injury NPS 3,000 (USD 48) per month for confinement in cantonments Average payment for loss of life is slightly more than USD 4,200 Cap USD 100,000 Information not available Cap USD 100,000 From USD 3 up to USD 7 per month Information not available Cap USD 100,000 Not eligible Economic Damage Immaterial Damage Vietnam: Agent Orange Central Payments Program Personal Injury Cap USD 100,000 Not eligible Information not available USD 0.38 per month for orphans USD 0.38 per month for orphans Information not available Not eligible Not eligible Economic Damage From USD 3 up to USD 7 Not eligible Immaterial Damage Information not available Not eligible *For ease of comparison, all local currencies were converted to USD on September 5, 2012, using the web tool xe.com.

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MONETARY PAYMENTS FOR CIVILIAN HARM IN INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL PRACTICE VIOLATION OF LAW United States: Civil Liberties Act of 1988 Columbia: Situation: The Inter-American Court of Human Rights awarded compensation to victims in the Pueblo Bello and Mapiripan massacre cases. Situation: Redress for the internment of 120,000 innocent Japanese Americans by the US government, as well as monetary payments for the Aleut people of Alaska who were relocated from their homes after the Japanese invasion. Hungary: National Compensation Laws Situation: Provided compensation for human rights violations during the Soviet occupation of Hungary. Iran/United States: Iran- United States Claims Tribunal Situation: Addresses claims of debts, contracts, property arising out of the 1979 US embassy hostage crisis in Tehran. South Africa: Truth and Reconciliation Commission Situation: Addressing claims of victims or their families and dependents, of gross human rights violations during the Apartheid regime. Chile: Program of Reparations for the Families of Victims of Political Violence Situation: Redress for families of disappeared detainees and victims of human rights violations committed during the military dictatorship in Chile. United States: Marshall Islands Nuclear Claims Tribunal Situation: Awarded damages to nationals of the Marshall Islands due to injuries caused by nuclear testing. Argentina: Reparations Policy for Grave Human Rights Violations Situation: Addressed grave human rights violations during military dictatorship between 1976-83. International Criminal Court: Trust Fund for Victims Situation: The fund works alongside the ICC and implements reparations and victims assistance to victims and their families. Source: “Monetary Payments for Civilian Harm in International and National Practice” published by the Amsterdam International Law Clinic at the University of Amsterdam with the Center for Civilians in Conflict in Washington DC

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MONETARY PAYMENTS: PROGRAMS RESPONDING TO VIOLATION OF LAW Parties Involved: Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Hungary, Iran, Republic of the Marshall Islands, South-Africa, United States W H O PROGRAM Argentina: Reparations Policy for Grave Human Rights Violations Personal Injury C A N S U B M I T Family A C L A I M ? Community Not eligible Individual Information not available Forced disappearance and assassination: ARS 224,000 (USD 48,500) Death caused by identity substitution: ARS 448,000 (USD 97,000) Death caused by other crimes: ARS 142,576 (USD 31,000) Not eligible Economic Damage Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible R E M E D I E D Immaterial Damage T Y P E S Detention: ARS 27 (USD 6) Information not available per victim for each day Severe injury: ARS 27 (USD 6) plus ARS 35 (USD 8) Arbitrary detention: ARS 74 (USD 16) for each day plus ARS 136, 255 (USD 29,500) Severe injury in detention: ARS 27 (USD 6) each day plus additional ARS 94,490 (USD 20,500) Forced disappearance or assassination: ARS 224,000 (USD 48,500) Minors victim of identity substitution: ARS 224,400 (USD 48,500) Victims of other criminal acts of state terrorism: ARS 71,288 (USD 15, 400) Monthly reparations pension of 140,000 Chilean pesos (CLP) USD 372 Surviving spouse receives 40 % of the pension Parent of the victim or the victim’s children receive 15 % of the pension Additional onetime lump sum payment equivalent to 12 months of pension Not eligible Not eligible O F H A R M Chile: Program of Reparations for the Families of Victims of Political Violence Personal Injury Not eligible Economic Damage Immaterial Damage Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Source: “Monetary Payments for Civilian Harm in International and National Practice” published by the Amsterdam International Law Clinic at the University of Amsterdam with the Center for Civilians in Conflict in Washington DC

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MONETARY PAYMENTS: PROGRAMS RESPONDING TO VIOLATION OF LAW W H O PROGRAM Hungary: National Compensation Laws Personal Injury C A N S U B M I T Family A C L A I M ? Community Not eligible Individual Information not available Heirs of victims killed for political reasons were initially to receive a lump sum payment of HUF 1 million (USD 4,500) Information not available Economic Damage R E M E D I E D Losses under HUF 310,000 (USD 1,400): HUF 200,000 (USD 900) plus 50% of the excess up to HUF 300,000 (USD 1,350); HUF 250,000 (USD 1,120) plus 30% of the excess up to HUF 300,000 (USD1,350) Losses over HUF 310,000 (USD 1,400): plus 10% of amount in excess of HUF 500,000 (USD 2,250) Maximum award: HUF 5 million (USD 22,500). Up to six months detention: Lump sum payment of HUF 11,000 (USD 50) per two months Longer than six months: an amount was calculated by dividing the duration of the detention by an official life expectancy schedule and multiplying by HUF 11,000 (USD 50) Not eligible No fixed amount Not eligible Not eligible Maparipan case: between USD 35,000 and 350,000 Pueblo Bello case: between USD 32,300 and 84,800 Not eligible Immaterial Damage Information not available Not eligible O F H A R M T Y P E S Iran/United Sates: IranUnited States Claims Tribunal Colombia: Personal Injury Economic Damage Immaterial Damage Personal Injury Economic Damage Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Maparipan case: USD 20,000 for displacement and loss of land Pueblo Bello case: USD 5,000 funeral expenses NB: in both cases the compensation awarded to the individuals killed was divided among the relatives Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Source: “Monetary Payments for Civilian Harm in International and National Practice” published by the Amsterdam International Law Clinic at the University of Amsterdam with the Center for Civilians in Conflict in Washington DC

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MONETARY PAYMENTS: PROGRAMS RESPONDING TO VIOLATION OF LAW W H O PROGRAM Immaterial Damage C A N S U B M I T Family A C L A I M ? Community Individual Maparipan case: between USD 80,000-90,000 Pueblo Bello case: between USD 30,000 and 35,000 Maparipan: USD 8,500 Not eligible for siblings and 50,000 for partners, parents or children Pueblo Bello case: USD 8,000- 10,000 for partners, parents or children and USD 5,000 for siblings Information not available Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible R E M E D I E D International Criminal Court: Trust Fund for Victims South Africa: Truth and Reconciliation Commission Personal Injury Economic Damage Immaterial Damage Personal Injury Information not available Not eligible Information not available Information not available Not eligible Not eligible Economic Damage Not eligible One-time reparation payments in the amount of ZAR 30,000 (USD 3,600) Interim payments with no dependents: of USD 250 With two dependents: USD 469 With three dependents: USD 566 With four dependents: USD 651 With five or more dependents: USD 713 Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Surviving internees: fixed amount of USD 20,000 Interned Aleuts: USD 12,000 USD 12,500 up to USD 125,000 USD 12,000 Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible H A R M Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible O F Immaterial Damage United States: Civil liberties Act of 1988 Personal Injury Economic Damage Immaterial Damage T Y P E S Heirs of internees: fixed Not eligible amount of USD 20,000 Heirs of Aleuts: USD 12,000 Not eligible Not eligible Information not available Enewatak Atoll received USD 341 million Bikini Atoll received USD 563.3 million Utrik received USD 307.3 million Rongelap Atoll received USD 1 billion United States: Marshall Islands Nuclear Claims Tribunal Personal Injury Economic Damage Immaterial Damage Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible *For ease of comparison, all local currencies were converted to USD on September 5, 2012, using the web tool xe.com.

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MONETARY PAYMENTS FOR CIVILIAN HARM IN INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL PRACTICE TERRORIST ATTACKS AND SERIOUS CRIMES United States: Victim Compensation Fund of September 11, 2001 Situation: The Victim Compensation Fund was established to provide compensation to any individual (or relatives of a deceased individual) who was physically injured or killed as a result of the September 11th attacks in the United States. Russia: Federal Law on Counteraction Against Terrorism Situation: Compensation for victims of terrorism in Russia which provides general rules for compensation. United Kingdom: The British Red Cross Relief Fund for the Victims of Terrorism Abroad Situation: Since 2006 the British Red Cross has administered a relief fund for UK victims of terrorism abroad. This fund was set up as an interim measure in 2006 at the request of the government to assist victims of terrorist attacks overseas. United Kingdom: Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme Situation: The Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme provides compensation for victims of violent crimes, including terrorist attacks. Predecessor of 2008 provided compensation for the London bombings of 7/7. United States: Teheran Hostages Compensation Fund Situation: After the Embassy Hostage Crisis in Teheran, the US government passed two statutes to provide compensation for the victims of the crisis. United Kingdom: Northern Ireland Criminal Compensation Scheme 2009 Situation: The Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme 2009 provides compensation to victims of violence, including terrorism, in Northern Ireland who have been physically and/or mentally injured or who are a dependent or relative of a deceased victim. Spain: Victims of Terrorism Solidarity Act Situation: Government funded compensation and assistance for the victims of terrorism, among others for victims of ETA Terrorism. Israel: Benefits for Victims of Hostilities Law Situation: The Victims of Hostile Action (Pensions) Law, 1970 provides compensation for bodily injuries suffered in terrorist attacks, as well as compensating family members of deceased victims. Israel: Property Tax and Compensation Fund Law Situation: The Property Tax and Compensation Fund Law of 1961 provides compensation for property damage caused by terrorism. Source: “Monetary Payments for Civilian Harm in International and National Practice” published by the Amsterdam International Law Clinic at the University of Amsterdam with the Center for Civilians in Conflict in Washington DC

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MONETARY PAYMENTS: PROGRAMS RESPONDING TO TERRORIST ATTACKS AND SERIOUS CRIMES Parties Involved: Iran, Israel, Northern Ireland, Russia, Spain, United Kingdom, United States W H O PROGRAM Israel: Benefits for Victims of Hostilities Law Personal Injury C A N S U B M I T Family A C L A I M ? Community Not eligible Individual The amount of compensation calculated by multiplying the rate of disability by 105.1% of the salary of a government employee Less than 20% disabled: a lump sum 20% or more disabled: monthly disability benefits Information not available Not eligible Not eligible Amounts unknown The ‘real damage’ is compensated: the value of the asset before the damage occurred and the market value of the asset after the damage occurred, or the cost of restoring the asset to its prior condition Not eligible People who become disabled: USD 9,292 People who are wounded but not disabled: USD 3,097 Not eligible Not eligible Total invalidity: EUR 390,658 (USD 516,267) Total incapacity to work: EUR 96,162 (USD 127,071) For partial incapacity: EUR 48,081 (USD 63,542) For temporal incapacity: EUR 36,061 (USD 47,656) In case of permanent disability or death, victims or surviving relatives are entitled to a special pension Not eligible Partners, parents and children of deceased victims: regular monthly benefit expressed as a percentage of the salary of a government employee, determined according to age and family situation Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Economic Damage Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible R E M E D I E D Immaterial Damage Israel: Property Tax and Compensation Fund Law Personal Injury Economic Damage H A R M Immaterial Damage Russia: Federal Law on Counteraction Against Terrorism Personal Injury Not eligible Relatives of a deceased victim: USD 18,585 Not eligible Information not available O F Economic Damage Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible T Y P E S Spain: Victims of Terrorism Solidarity Act Immaterial Damage Personal Injury In case of permanent Not eligible disability or death, victims or surviving relatives are entitled to a special pension Economic Damage In case of death, EUR Not eligible 138,233 (USD 182,679) is granted to the surviving relatives of the deceased Not eligible Not eligible Immaterial Damage Source: “Monetary Payments for Civilian Harm in International and National Practice” published by the Amsterdam International Law Clinic at the University of Amsterdam with the Center for Civilians in Conflict in Washington DC

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MONETARY PAYMENTS: PROGRAMS RESPONDING TO TERRORIST ATTACKS AND SERIOUS CRIMES W H O PROGRAM United Kingdom: Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme Personal Injury C A N S U B M I T Family No fixed amount A C L A I M ? Community Not eligible Individual Ranging between GBP 1,000 (USD 1,545) and GBP 250,000 (USD 386,428) Maximum amount (in case of multiple injuries) is GBP 500,000 (USD 772,857) No fixed amounts Calculation is based on victim’s earnings, likely future earnings and statistical data such as life expectancy Maximum amount for loss of earnings is GBP 31,000 (USD 47,791) yearly No fixed amount Economic Damage Funeral expenses are compensated Not eligible R E M E D I E D Immaterial Damage H A R M United Kingdom: Northern Ireland Criminal Compensation Scheme 2009 Personal Injury Ranging between GBP 1,000 (USD 1,545) and GBP 250,000 (USD 386,428) No maximum amount in case of multiple injuries Bereavement award, Not eligible ranging from from GBP 5,500 (USD 8,503) to GBP 11,000 (USD 17,006) Information not available Not eligible Economic Damage Immaterial Damage T Y P E S No fixed amounts Funeral expenses are Not eligible Calculation is based on vic- compensated tim’s earnings, likely future earnings and statistical data such as life expectancy Bereavement award, No fixed amounts Not eligible ranging from from GBP 5,500 (USD 8,503) to GBP 11,000 (USD 17,006) First payment of GBP 3,000 (USD 4,639) Second payment of GBP 12,000 (USD 18,552) First payment of GBP 3,000 (USD 4,639) Second payment of GBP 12,000 (USD 18,552) Not eligible First payment of GBP 3,000 (USD 4,639) Second payment of GBP 12,000 (USD 18,552) First payment of GBP 3,000 (USD 4,639) Second payment of GBP 12,000 (USD 18,552) Not eligible Not eligible O F United Kingdom: The British Red Cross Relief Fund for Victims of Terrorism Abroad Personal Injury Economic Damage Not eligible Immaterial Damage Not eligible Source: “Monetary Payments for Civilian Harm in International and National Practice” published by the Amsterdam International Law Clinic at the University of Amsterdam with the Center for Civilians in Conflict in Washington DC

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MONETARY PAYMENTS: PROGRAMS RESPONDING TO TERRORIST ATTACKS AND SERIOUS CRIMES W H O TYPES OF HARM REMEDIED PROGRAM United States: Tehran Hostages Compensation Fund United States: Victim Compensation Fund of September 11, 2001 Personal Injury Economic Damage Immaterial Damage Personal Injury Economic Damage Immaterial Damage C A N S U B M I T Family A C L A I M ? Community Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Not eligible Individual Amounts unknown Amounts unknown USD 50 for each day in captivity No fixed amounts Case-by-case basis No fixed amounts Case-by-case basis Not eligible Amounts unknown Amounts unknown Amounts unknown No fixed amounts Case-by-case basis No fixed amounts Case-by-case basis USD 250,000 for the death of the victim and USD 100,000 for each surviving spouse and dependent *For ease of comparison, all local currencies were converted to USD on September 5, 2012, using the web tool xe.com.

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