CA Fourth Grade Common Core Standards

 

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a look at in california public schools and the common core state standards fourth grade curriculum frameworks and instructional resources division instruction and learning support branch california department of education october 2011 edition

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contents page fourth-grade curriculum 4.1 english language arts 4.2 overview 4.2 what fourth-grade students should know 4.2 what students learn in fourth grade 4.3 reading 4.3 writing 4.5 speaking and listening 4.5 language 4.6 extra support for struggling readers 4.7 support for english learners 4.8 the standards 4.14 mathematics 4.22 overview 4.22 what fourth-grade students should know 4.22 what students learn in fourth grade 4.23 operations and algebraic thinking 4.23 number and operations in base ten 4.23 number and operations fractions 4.24 measurement and data 4.24 geometry 4.25 support for english learners 4.25 use of calculators 4.26 the standards 4.26 ccss domains 4.31 history­social science 4.32 overview 4.32 what fourth-grade students should know 4.33 i

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what students learn in fourth grade 4.33 physical and human geographic features that define california 4.33 pre-columbian settlements and people 4.33 european exploration and colonial history 4.33 missions ranchos and the mexican war for independence 4.34 the gold rush and statehood 4.34 california as an agricultural and industrial power 4.35 modern california immigration technology and cities 4.36 local state and federal governments 4.37 the education and the environment initiative 4.37 support for english learners 4.38 the standards 4.38 science 4.43 overview 4.43 what fourth-grade students should know 4.43 what students learn in fourth grade 4.44 physical sciences 4.44 life sciences standard set 2 4.44 life sciences standard set 3 4.45 earth sciences rocks and minerals 4.45 earth sciences waves wind water and ice 4.45 investigation and experimentation 4.45 the education and the environment initiative 4.46 science across the content areas 4.46 support for english learners 4.47 the standards 4.47 visual and performing arts 4.50 overview 4.50 what fourth-grade students should know 4.50 what students learn in fourth grade 4.50 dance 4.50 music 4.50 theatre 4.51 ii

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visual arts 4.51 the standards 4.51 key content standards 4.52 health 4.60 overview 4.60 what fourth-grade students should know 4.60 what students learn in fourth grade 4.61 nutrition and physical activity 4.61 injury prevention and safety 4.61 alcohol tobacco and other drugs 4.62 support for english learners 4.62 the standards 4.63 physical education 4.69 overview 4.69 what fourth-grade students should know 4.69 what students learn in fourth grade 4.70 overarching standard 1 students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities 4.70 overarching standard 2 students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts principles and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities 4.70 overarching standard 3 students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance 4.71 overarching standard 4 students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts principles and strategies to improve health and performance 4.71 overarching standard 5 students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts principles and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity 4.71 support for english learners 4.72 support for students with special needs 4.72 the standards 4.73 world languages 4.77 overview 4.77 what fourth-grade students should know 4.77 what students learn in fourth grade 4.77 iii

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organization of the standards 4.78 content 4.78 communication 4.78 cultures 4.79 structures 4.79 settings 4.79 stages of proficiency 4.79 the standards 4.80 school library 4.82 overview 4.82 what fourth-grade students should know 4.82 what students learn in fourth grade 4.83 the standards 4.84 iv

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fourth-grade curriculum what will my child learn in fourth grade i ve been teaching first grade and this year i ve been reassigned to fourth grade what does the fourth-grade curriculum look like i m the principal of a small private elementary school and i want to be sure my students are meeting the state s standards how can i find out what students are expected to learn at each grade in august 2010 the state adopted the common core state standards for english language arts and mathematics how will the new standards enhance fourth-grade curriculum this chapter is organized by sections for each subject describing what students should know and be able to do by the end of fourth grade each section includes a brief overview of what the student should have learned before entering fourth grade followed by a description of the fourth-grade standards each subject concludes with a list of the fourth-grade standards for that content area the english language arts and mathematics sections include the new common core state standards ccss with california additions for a more in-depth discussion of each subject please consult the state-adopted curriculum frameworks for kindergarten through grade twelve the frameworks are posted on the cde curriculum and instruction web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cr/cf/allfwks.asp 4.1 october 2011 edition

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english language arts overview students in fourth grade are in a new stage of reading and learning traditionally fourth traditionally fourth grade marks the transition from learning to read in grade marks the kindergarten through grade three to reading to learn in grade four and beyond transition from learning this stage can be categorized as reading and learning for life a stage in which to read in kindergarten students begin to acquire and apply a full and complex range of lifelong language through grade three to and literacy skills from fourth grade on students must be able to recognize reading to learn in increasingly complex words accurately and automatically in grade-level text and grade four and beyond materials ranging from classical literature to online information they must also develop their vocabulary knowledge and skills in more sophisticated ways including through their own research and by reading informational texts in fourth-grade content areas standards-based instruction is critical to developing students literacy and proficiency in english language arts the standards describe what students are expected to know and be able to do by the end of the school year in 2010 california adopted new standards in english language arts the ccss with california additions the ccss integrate the strands of english language arts reading writing speaking and listening and language the new standards will be implemented gradually over the next several years as curriculum frameworks instructional materials and assessments based on the ccss are adopted there are many similarities between the ccss and the 1997 california english language arts standards but there are some notable differences for instance in the ccss the standards in kindergarten through grade six are divided into strands reading writing speaking and listening and language the 1997 california english language arts standards are organized around domains reading writing written and oral english language conventions and listening and speaking the ccss often extend or enhance the content of the 1997 california english language arts standards for example the ccss focus more on informational text textanalysis skills for reading comprehension opinion pieces and informative/explanatory compositions and collaborative discussions about grade-level texts and topics this section provides an overview of the new ccss for fourth-grade english language arts it includes a review of the important english language arts skills and concepts from third grade prerequisite skills and guidance to ensure success for struggling readers including english learners a complete list of the fourthgrade ccss for english language arts with california additions can be found at the end of this section a complete list of the fourth-grade 1997 california english language arts standards is located on the cde content standards web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/documents/elacontentstnds.pdf what fourth-grade students should know instruction in third grade emphasized vocabulary acquisition comprehension strategies text analysis language conventions and writing by the end of third grade instruction in phonics was no longer a focal point of the formal curriculum students learned foundational decoding skills and basic features of language and applied their knowledge to reading literature and informational text students who mastered the skills and strategies taught in kindergarten through third grade are able to read fluently effortlessly and independently in third grade students learned to use context as an independent vocabulary development strategy they referred to information in the text when asking and answering questions about text they read and applied text4.2 october 2011 edition

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analysis strategies to determine the theme or central message of text they learned about subject and verb agreement and verb tenses and used that knowledge to write and speak in correct complete sentences as students learned more english language conventions and acquired new vocabulary they used this knowledge in their writing assignments and discussions about grade-level topics what students learn in fourth grade students in fourth grade read a wide range of literature in different genres and reflecting different cultures and times they study the structural elements of poems prose and dramas than in previous years and learn to summarize text in a concise manner as they analyze informational text students consider its overall structure and organization the differences between first and secondhand accounts and how the author uses evidence to support points in the text there is more focus on academic language and domain-specific vocabulary which supports reading and listening comprehension writing and speaking students learn and practice a range of strategies for acquiring vocabulary independently in their writing students learn to create organizational structures that support their purpose write longer detailed informational/explanatory texts with headings illustrations definitions and quotations and write narratives that orient the reader to the situation and unfold in a natural sequence of events they learn to use technology to find information interact and collaborate with others and produce and publish writing students participate in collaborative discussions on fourth-grade topics and texts paraphrase information presented in diverse media and formats and deliver formal narrative presentations they learn conventions of standard english grammar and usage capitalization punctuation and spelling to support their writing and speaking these conventions include the use of prepositional phrases and progressive verb tenses recognition and correction of fragments and run-ons and appropriate use of commas and quotation marks to indicate direct speech reading the following section is organized according to three major areas reading standards for literature for informational text and in foundational skills reading standards for literature in fourth grade students read and analyze stories dramas and poems as they become more proficient readers they appreciate the richness and complexity of the materials they read in both the 1997 california english language arts standards and the ccss reading comprehension is based on students understanding and analysis of the structures and elements of literary works students in fourth grade deepen their learning about the elements of narratives e.g plot setting characters theme and describe them in more depth than in previous grades students explore a character s thoughts and motivations to determine the reasons for that character s actions they learn the definitions of figurative language e.g simile metaphor and to recognize its use in literature students use a compare-and-contrast strategy to find similarities between stories from different cultures and to comprehend the connection between their themes the ccss introduce additional skills and strategies for analyzing and comprehending literature for example one 1997 california english language arts standard calls for students to describe the structural differences of various forms of imaginative literature e.g myths legends fairy tales a comparable standard 4.3 october 2011 edition

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from the ccss builds on this analysis skill by asking students to explain the major differences between poems dramas and prose and refer to the structural elements of poems e.g verse meter and dramas e.g cast of characters stage directions in their speaking and writing under the ccss students learn the difference between first and third-person narrations they use their understanding of these differences to compare and contrast the point of view from which stories are narrated students also make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the same story or drama identifying where the specific descriptions in the presentation reflect the text reading standards for informational text comprehension of grade-level informational text focuses on the structure of informational text and using facts details and examples from the text to understand its content at this new students read more stage of reading to learn students read more informational text in english language informational text in arts and other grade-level subject areas than in earlier grades and become more english language arts independent readers as students read more across the content areas reading and other grade-level comprehension plays an essential role in their academic success subject areas than in under both the 1997 california english language arts standards and the ccss earlier grades and are students talk and write about informational text in terms of its overall structure becoming more e.g compare and contrast cause and effect chronology they build on their independent readers knowledge of comprehension skills and strategies from previous grades such as identifying the main idea and significant details reading for different purposes distinguishing between cause and effect and comparing information on the same topic in two or more texts the 1997 california english language arts standards also call for students to distinguish between fact and opinion in informational expository text and to evaluate new information and hypotheses by testing them against known information and ideas a related ccss asks students to explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text the ccss incorporate analytical skills and strategies not found in the 1997 california english language arts standards for example students compare and contrast a first and a secondhand account of the same event and describe the differences in focus and the information provided students also learn to integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak more knowledgeably they learn to interpret information presented in charts graphs diagrams timelines animations and interactive elements on web pages they also learn and can explain how this kind of information which is presented visually orally or quantitatively contributes to their understanding of the text reading standards in foundational skills in fourth grade students who are fluent and accurate readers make the transition from learning to read to reading to learn in subject-matter content both the1997 california english language arts standards and the ccss call for students to be able to decode words fluently and accurately students in fourth grade decode words by using their knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences syllabication patterns affixes and root words fluency expectations continue as students learn to read grade-level narrative prose poetry and informational text with accuracy appropriate pacing and expression the ccss expand on these expectations by also calling for students to read with purpose and understanding and use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding 4.4 october 2011 edition

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writing students in fourth grade use all stages of the writing process prewriting drafting revising and editing to produce clear coherent writing suited to the purpose and audience students develop proficiency in each form of writing by having opportunities to practice their writing and by receiving prompt feedback from their teacher they learn about the links between reading different types of text structures and writing using those same structures drawing on what they have read as examples of how to write the 1997 california english language arts standards and the ccss call for students in fourth grade to write multiparagraph texts with a central idea supporting details and a concluding paragraph students learn to use the organizational structure e.g cause and effect chronological order that best fits the purpose of their composition they learn and use keyboarding and other basic computer skills to produce and publish at least one page of writing in a single sitting students learn to draw evidence from literary and informational texts to support their main idea with facts details and explanations they use multiple sources of information including online resources they also learn to quote and paraphrase relevant information and cite the source of information correctly differences between the 1997 california english language arts standards and the ccss in fourth grade are primarily due to the emphasis on different genres under the 1997 california english language arts standards students write narratives responses to literature and reports in which they frame a central question about an issue or situation under the ccss students write opinion pieces informative/explanatory texts and narratives they also conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic the expectations for students writing are explicitly delineated in the ccss for example students learn to write informational/explanatory texts in which they group related information into paragraphs and use formatting e.g headings illustrations and multimedia to aid comprehension they learn how to link ideas within categories of information using words or phrases such as another because and for example they use domain-specific vocabulary to explain or provide information about a topic as well as how to use precise language in their informational/explanatory writing students practice taking notes paraphrasing and categorizing the information they gather from print and digital sources they also learn how to develop a list of their resources through the school year students write routinely over both extended time frames several days or weeks with time for research reflection revision and shorter time frames a single sitting or a day or two they write for a range of discipline-specific tasks purposes and audiences on topics and texts in all fourth-grade subjects speaking and listening fourth-grade students listen critically to speakers and media presentations summarize what they have heard make narrative presentations and ask and answer questions with appropriate elaboration they learn to recognize that the structures used in making oral presentations e.g reporting on a topic or text telling a story are the same ones found in the literature and informational text they read and in their own writing in their oral presentations they see how a central idea or theme is supported by facts descriptive details or observations in the same manner that a central idea or theme is supported in their writing students correctly use the same conventions of standard english when speaking and writing both the 1997 california english language arts standards and the ccss focus on students listening and comprehension skills and their formal oral-presentations skills students learn to ask thoughtful questions about the topic or text being discussed and to respond to questions with relevant information they learn to paraphrase the major ideas and supporting evidence of a text read aloud to them or in a formal presentation students also 4.5 october 2011 edition

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learn to plan and deliver narrative presentations that relate ideas observations or recollections the presentations also provide a clear context and insight into why an event or experience is memorable students report on a topic or text tell a story or recount an experience in an organized manner using facts and details to support main ideas or themes students practice speaking clearly with pacing that supports understanding the 1997 california english language arts standards emphasize skills related to the delivery of oral presentations for example students learn to use volume pitch phrasing pace modulation and gestures to enhance meaning they also learn to emphasize significant points in ways that help the listener to follow and understand the important concepts students practice using clear diction tempo volume and phrasing when reciting brief poems soliloquies or dramatic dialogues under the 1997 california english language arts standards students also learn to give precise directions and instructions they also learn how language usage e.g sayings and expressions reflects regions and cultures the ccss emphasize collaborative discussions on fourth-grade topics and texts with diverse partners and in different groupings one-on-one in groups or teacher-led students learn and they build on others practice both speaking and listening skills in collaborative conversations they ideas and express their build on others ideas and express their own ideas clearly and they learn how to own ideas clearly and explicitly draw on materials they have read or studied to explore the topic or ideas they learn how to under discussion students demonstrate their understanding of the importance of explicitly draw on each person s contribution to the group discussion by following agreed-on rules materials they have read and carrying out their assigned roles they learn to make comments that or studied to explore the contribute to the conversation and link to the remarks of others and can also topic or ideas under identify the key ideas expressed during the discussion and explain their own ideas discussion to others the ccss also call for students to learn how and when it is appropriate to use audio recordings and visual displays to enhance the development of the main ideas or themes of a presentation they learn to paraphrase information presented in diverse media and formats including visually quantitatively and orally students also learn to differentiate between situations that call for formal english e.g presenting ideas and those where informal discourse is appropriate e.g small-group discussion language students are expected to demonstrate in their writing and speech a command of the conventions of standard english grammar and usage spelling capitalization punctuation and spelling appropriate to their grade level they demonstrate their knowledge in their writing and speaking they also should write fluidly and legibly in cursive or joined italics students in fourth grade learn new rules for grammar and usage capitalization punctuation and spelling though the specific rules they learn vary between the 1997 california english language arts standards and the ccss for example under the 1997 california english language arts standards students learn to use simple and compound sentences in writing and speaking students not only learn to produce complete sentences but also to recognize and correct inappropriate fragments and run-ons there are more standards for english language conventions in the ccss than in the 1997 california english language arts standards and they cover a broader range of conventions in grammar and usage capitalization punctuation and spelling students learn how to use interrogative relative pronouns who whose whom which that relative adverbs where when why and progressive verb tenses e.g i was walking i am walking i will be walking they learn the conventional patterns for the order of adjectives in sentences e.g a small red bag rather than a red small bag students learn to use commas and quotation marks to indicate direct speech and quotations from a text they consult references to help them spell grade-level words correctly students use their knowledge of language conventions when writing speaking reading and listening they can use punctuation for effect and choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely they also learn to 4.6 october 2011 edition

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recognize frequently confused words e.g to too two and to select the correct word when writing as students learn the conventions of standard english they also learn when to use formal english and when informal discourse is appropriate understanding academic language and domain-specific vocabulary takes on a new importance in fourth grade as students read to learn students read more independently than in previous extensive independent grades and may be reading in a broader range of subjects extensive independent reading is a primary means for increasing students vocabulary in fourth grade and reading is a primary means for increasing beyond to comprehend grade-level literature and informational texts across the students vocabulary content areas students need strategies to understand the words they read and hear in the 1997 california english language arts standards vocabulary development in fourth grade and beyond standards are found in the reading strand in the ccss standards for vocabulary acquisition and use are found in the language strand both the 1997 california english language arts standards and the ccss cover a range of strategies for vocabulary acquisition students learn and use common greek and latin roots as clues to the meaning of complex words e.g telegraph photograph autograph they use a thesaurus to determine the meaning of related words and concepts and expand their knowledge of similes and metaphors to understand and explain words and phrases in context e.g pretty as a picture students also learn to recognize and to explain the meaning of common idioms they learn to apply their knowledge of antonyms and synonyms to understand words by relating them to opposites or to words with similar meanings the ccss focus more on the use of reference materials in addition to using a thesaurus to determine the meaning of related words and concepts students learn to use dictionaries and glossaries both print and digital to find the pronunciation of key words and phrases and to identify alternate word choices in all content areas students also expand their use of context clues e.g definitions examples restatements in text to determine the meaning of words and phrases they accurately incorporate words and phrases that signal precise actions e.g quizzed whined stammered emotions or states of being they also learn and use words that are basic to fourth-grade topics and texts for example in a discussion about rocks and minerals students use words such as igneous sedimentary metamorphic calcite and feldspar extra support for struggling readers by the end of fourth grade students are expected to be fluent independent readers reading with accuracy that supports their comprehension of literature and informational text students who are not proficient in wordanalysis skills are likely to experience academic difficulties early screening and intervention address specific weaknesses in a timely manner struggling readers any students experiencing difficulty learning to read which may include those who use nonstandard english english learners and students with disabilities need additional support to participate in daily lessons with their peers and to ensure they become proficient in fourthgrade reading skills instructional support for students should include flexible groupings for differentiated instruction opportunities to preteach key skills strategies and concepts intensive explicit instruction in decoding and word-recognition skills which may include materials at the reading level of students preteaching and extended correct practice with prefixes and suffixes 4.7 october 2011 edition

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preteaching and extended correct practice with greek and latin roots direct explicit instruction in language development to address accurate use of grammatical structures of oral and written standard english vocabulary instruction embedded in context including academic language building of background knowledge reinforcement and extension of the regular classroom program for those students whose reading achievement is two or more years below grade level placement in an intensive intervention program in reading/language arts should be considered these stand-alone intensive accelerated programs are designed to address the instructional needs of students in grades four through eight whose reading achievement is two or more years below grade level for additional information on stateadopted intensive intervention programs see chapter 9 of the reading/language arts framework for california public schools [california department of education 2007b and the list of adopted instructional materials on the cde reading/language arts web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/ci/rl/im/rlaadoptedlist.asp support for english learners english-language development eld is a critical component of the language arts program for english learners and comes with direct explicit and systematic instruction in reading and writing instructional programs for english learners should be planned according to the students assessed level of literacy reading and writing in english and their primary language as well as their proficiency in english listening speaking reading and writing students with strong literacy skills in their primary language have an advantage they can concentrate on acquiring and learning english rather than on receiving initial instruction in reading and writing the transition from learning to read to reading to learn subject-matter content calls for students to use and understand more sophisticated academic and content-specific vocabulary and language structures english learners should receive intensive instruction in vocabulary development and academic english learners language to succeed in language arts and other subjects at their grade level english benefit from teachers learners benefit from teachers preteaching concepts vocabulary and the pre-teaching concepts grammatical features of key vocabulary and opportunities to use new vocabulary in vocabulary and the reading speaking and writing assignments english learners also benefit from grammatical features explicit writing instruction on how to write cohesive text by using transition phrases of key vocabulary e.g first second next therefore in conclusion and combining sentences students practice and learn to use grammatical structures such as relative clauses e.g i like the girl who lives on the corner conditional statements e.g if i were you i would not do that and subordinate clauses e.g she received good grades because she worked hard because english learners are still developing proficiency in english students benefit from teacher feedback on their writing and on their grammar usage and so forth peer editing and revision require special planning considerations english learners develop oral and written language through formal linguistic instruction they learn common phrases idiomatic expressions and language patterns as well as phonological morphological syntactical and semantic structures of english as students learn the rules of english grammar and the functions of relative pronouns adverbs and prepositional phrases they benefit from opportunities to practice speaking and writing and from teacher feedback for a more extensive list of the conventions of grammar refer to the 4.8 october 2011 edition

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transition to the common core state standards with california additions planning eld instruction chart that follows for those students whose academic achievement is two or more years below grade level placement in an intensive intervention program for english learners should be considered these intensive stand-alone accelerated programs are designed for english learners in grades four through eight whose academic achievement is two or more years below grade level for additional information on state-adopted intensive intervention programs for english learners see chapter 9 of the reading/language arts framework for california public schools [california department of education 2007b and the list of adopted instructional materials on the cde reading/language arts web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/ci/rl/im/rlaadoptedlist.asp specially designed academic instruction in english sdaie is one instructional strategy to meet the needs of english learners for additional resources to support the teaching of english learners please visit the cde english learners web page http www.cde.ca.gov/sp/el the cde has published an excellent resource improving education for english learners research-based approaches 2010b that provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date strategies to serve english learners guidelines for using eld and sdaie strategies are provided as well as recommended instructional practices information on the publication is available at the cde press web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/rc english learners need additional time for appropriate instructional support the ccss set rigorous expectations for student learning and eld instruction must accommodate these enhanced expectations the following chart illustrates the enhancements in the ccss for english language arts that may affect eld instruction this chart provides teachers with initial guidance in planning effective eld instruction transition to the common core state standards with california additions planning eld instruction fourth grade reading standards for literature 4 determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology e.g herculean see grade 4 language standards 4-6 for additional expectations make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics e.g opposition of good and evil and patterns of events e.g the quest in stories myths and traditional literature from different cultures by the end of the year read and comprehend literature including stories dramas and poetry in the grades 4­5 text complexity band proficiently with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range explain events procedures ideas or concepts in a historical scientific or technical text including what happened and why based on specific information in the text compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic describe the differences in focus and the information provided 4.9 october 2011 edition 7 9 10 reading standards for informational text 3 6.

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7 interpret information presented visually orally or quantitatively e.g in charts graphs diagrams time lines animations or interactive elements on web pages and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably by the end of year read and comprehend informational texts including history/social studies science and technical texts in the grades 4­5 text complexity band proficiently with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range 9 10 reading standards foundational skills 4 read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension a read on-level text with purpose and understanding b read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy appropriate rate and expression on successive readings c use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding rereading as necessary writing standards 1 write opinion pieces on topics or texts supporting a point of view with reasons and information a introduce a topic or text clearly state an opinion and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer s purpose b provide reasons that are supported by facts and details c link opinion and reasons using words and phrases e.g for instance in order to in addition d provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented 2 write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly a introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections include formatting e.g headings illustrations and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension b develop the topic with facts definitions concrete details quotations or other information and examples related to the topic 4.10 october 2011 edition

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