CA Second Grade Common Core Standards

 

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a look at second grade in california public schools and the common core state standards curriculum frameworks and instructional resources division instruction and learning support branch california department of education october 2011 edition

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contents page second-grade curriculum 2.1 english language arts 2.2 overview 2.2 what second-grade students should know 2.2 what students learn in second grade 2.3 reading 2.3 writing 2.5 speaking and listening 2.5 language 2.6 extra support for struggling readers 2.6 support for english learners 2.7 the standards 2.12 mathematics 2.18 overview 2.18 what second-grade students should know 2.18 what students learn in second grade 2.19 operations and algebraic thinking 2.19 number and operations in base ten 2.19 measurement and data 2.20 geometry 2.20 support for english learners 2.20 transition to the common core state standards 2.21 the standards 2.25 ccss domains 2.29 history­social science 2.30 overview 2.30 what second-grade students should know 2.30 what students learn in second grade 2.30 i

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families today and in the past 2.30 geography and mapping skills people places and environments 2.31 government institutions and practices 2.31 economics people who supply our goods and services 2.31 biographies people who made a difference 2.32 the education and the environment initiative 2.32 support for english learners 2.33 the standards 2.34 science 2.37 overview 2.37 what second-grade students should know 2.37 what students learn in second grade 2.38 physical sciences 2.38 life sciences 2.38 earth sciences 2.39 investigation and experimentation 2.39 the education and the environment initiative 2.39 science across the content areas 2.41 support for english learners 2.41 the standards 2.42 visual and performing arts 2.44 overview 2.44 what second-grade students should know 2.44 what students learn in second grade 2.44 dance 2.44 music 2.44 theatre 2.45 visual arts 2.45 the standards 2.45 key content standards 2.45 health 2.52 overview 2.52 what second-grade students should know 2.52 ii

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what students learn in second grade 2.53 nutrition and physical activity 2.53 alcohol tobacco and other drugs 2.53 mental emotional and social health 2.54 support for english learners 2.54 the standards 2.55 physical education 2.60 overview 2.60 what second-grade students should know 2.60 what students learn in second grade 2.60 overarching standard 1 students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities 2.61 overarching standard 2 students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts principles and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities 2.61 overarching standard 3 students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance 2.61 overarching standard 4 students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts principles and strategies to improve health and performance 2.62 overarching standard 5 students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts principles and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity 2.62 support for english learners 2.62 support for students with special needs 2.63 the standards 2.63 world languages 2.68 overview 2.68 what second-grade students should know 2.68 what students learn in second grade 2.68 organization of the standards 2.69 content 2.69 communication 2.69 cultures 2.69 structures 2.70 settings 2.70 iii

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stages of proficiency 2.70 the standards 2.71 school library 2.73 overview 2.73 what second-grade students should know 2.73 what students learn in second grade 2.73 the standards 2.75 iv

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second-grade curriculum what will my child learn in second grade i ve been teaching fifth grade and this year i ve been reassigned to second grade what does the second-grade curriculum look like i m the principal of a small private elementary school and i want to be sure my students are meeting the state s standards how can i find out what students are expected to learn at each grade in august 2010 the state adopted the common core state standards for english language arts and mathematics how will the new standards enhance second-grade curriculum this chapter is organized by sections for each subject describing what students should know and be able to do by the end of second grade each section includes a brief overview of what the student should have learned before entering second grade followed by a description of the second-grade standards each subject concludes with a list of the second-grade standards for that content area the english language arts and mathematics sections include the new common core state standards ccss with california additions for a more in-depth discussion of each subject please consult the state-adopted curriculum frameworks for kindergarten through grade twelve the frameworks are posted on the cde curriculum and instruction web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cr/cf/allfwks.asp 2.1 october 2011 edition

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english language arts overview for students in second grade instruction focuses on developing literacy and proficiency in language arts with the goal that all students become lifelong readers competent writers and effective communicators literacy is critical to academic success and is the key to becoming an independent learner in all other disciplines students need to be competent in reading and english language arts to by the end of second be able to obtain information in all content areas and communicate to others what grade students should they have learned by the end of second grade students should be able to read with be able to read with accuracy and fluency to support their comprehension of literature and informational accuracy and fluency text their oral reading skills should be developed to the point that they can read to support their grade-level text orally with expression comprehension of standards-based instruction is critical to developing students literacy and literature and proficiency in english language arts the standards describe what students are informational text expected to know and be able to do by the end of the school year in 2010 california adopted new standards in english language arts the ccss with california additions the ccss integrate the strands of english language arts reading writing speaking and listening and language the new standards will be implemented over the next several years as curriculum frameworks instructional materials and assessments based on the ccss are adopted there are many similarities between the ccss and the 1997 california english language arts standards but there are some notable differences for instance in the ccss the standards in kindergarten through grade six are divided into strands reading writing speaking and listening and language the 1997 california english language arts standards are organized around domains reading writing written and oral english language conventions and listening and speaking the ccss often extend or enhance the content of the 1997 california english language arts standards for example the ccss focus more on informational text textanalysis skills for reading comprehension opinion pieces informational/explanatory compositions and collaborative conversations about grade-level texts and topics this section provides an overview of the new ccss for second-grade english language arts it includes a review of the important english language arts skills and concepts from first grade prerequisite skills and guidance to ensure success for struggling readers including english learners a complete list of the secondgrade ccss for english language arts with california additions can be found at the end of this section a complete list of the second-grade ccss for english language arts with california additions can be found at the end of this section the 1997 california english language arts standards for kindergarten through grade twelve are located on the cde content standards web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/documents/elacontentstnds.pdf what second-grade students should know in first grade students learned skills that enable them to read and write with a degree of independence they should be able to read common sight words and produce the sounds for consonants consonant blends and long and short vowels students who mastered the first-grade standards have the ability to decode increasingly complex words they can read first-grade texts accurately and with purpose and understanding they have read or had 2.2 october 2011 edition

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read aloud to them a variety of literature and informational texts and know how to ask clarifying questions about these texts in addition students have expanded their reading-comprehension strategies for both narrative and informational text they are able to retell the main idea of a narrative or expository text and respond to clarifying questions in expository text in first grade students learned new academic and content-specific vocabulary by using context clues identifying familiar root words in words with affixes reading and being read aloud to and in-depth conversations about first grade texts and topics students learned to write simple compositions in which they applied their knowledge of language conventions including correctly using singular and plural nouns capitalizing the first word of a sentence and using the appropriate ending punctuation to complete sentences what students learn in second grade in second grade fluency comprehension and analysis are the focus of reading instruction students apply their knowledge of the basic features of reading to achieve fluency in oral and silent reading students ask and answer clarifying questions about text e.g who what why use the features of text e.g headings bold type to locate information in expository text and consider the author s purpose as they in second grade analyze informational text students use these strategies to better comprehend their students learn readings in all content areas in second grade students learn more sophisticated more strategies to analyze literature for example they compare and contrast different sophisticated versions of the same story from different cultures strategies to students write compositions by using correct english conventions they learn to analyze literature use reference materials to locate information for their written compositions and oral reports their written products become longer and students pay more attention to the organization of their compositions students develop initial skills in editing and revising text at this grade level students in second grade learn to give and follow multiple-step directions provide descriptive details when telling stories or recounting events and structure their oral presentations in a logical sequence students learn new vocabulary and academic language as they read and speak about grade-level texts and topics they learn to use dictionaries and glossaries to clarify the meaning of words and to check and correct their spelling they use their knowledge of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words they also use their knowledge of prefixes to determine the meaning of a new word formed when a prefix is added to a known word reading the following section is organized according to three major areas reading standards for literature for informational text and in foundational skills reading standards for literature in second grade students read and comprehend a wide variety of significant works of children s literature including stories and poetry both the 1997 california english language arts standards and the ccss incorporate text-analysis skills and strategies that lead to students fuller comprehension of the literature they read students analyze the elements of narrative text the characters plot and setting students learn about rhythm rhyme and alliteration and how those techniques add meaning to a story or poem they compare and contrast elements within and among texts students read comparing and contrasting versions of stories written by different authors or from different cultures 2.3 october 2011 edition

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the text-analysis skills for second-grade students in the ccss go beyond those in the 1997 california english language arts standards with emphases on the message or lesson of the text the differences between a story s characters and the structure of stories students read and recount stories fables and folktales from diverse cultures and determine the central message lesson or moral students learn to perceive and describe how the characters in a story respond to major events and challenges they recognize the different points of view of characters in a story and how those differences are expressed in dialogue students demonstrate this understanding by using different voices for each character when reading dialogue aloud students also learn about the overall structure of stories they understand and can describe how the story is introduced in the beginning and how the action is concluded this understanding not only helps students to better comprehend stories it also supports their narrative writing and speaking both of which call for a conclusion or sense of closure reading standards for informational text reading and comprehending informational text are critical for students achievement in all content areas both the 1997 california english language arts standards and the ccss reflect the importance of comprehension and analysis skills and strategies for students academic success students ask clarifying questions e.g who why how about the essential elements or key details of informational text they learn to use text features such as headings to locate information or key facts in text they learn how to identify the main purpose of the text including what the author wants to explain or describe and then use their knowledge of the author s purpose to comprehend the text students learn to interpret information from diagrams charts and graphs the ccss support a deeper analysis of informational text students learn to identify not only the main topic of a multiparagraph text but also the focus of each paragraph in the text building on this identification of key ideas students learn to recognize and later describe how the author supports specific points in the text with reasons students also compare and contrast the most important points in two texts on the same topic they learn to recognize and then describe connections between a series of historical events scientific ideas or steps in technical procedures in a text to locate key facts and information students use not only the features of printed text but also electronic menus and icons in electronic media by the end of second grade students read grade-level informational texts and are able to use a variety of text-analysis and comprehension strategies to understand what they read reading standards in foundational skills the ccss and the 1997 california english language arts standards maintain word-recognition skills as the focal point systematically building on skills learned in kindergarten and first grade students learn new wordanalysis skills that are introduced sequentially and systematically students who lack proficiency in the prerequisite skills must be taught those skills before they are presented with more complex words in second grade students learn to recognize and distinguish students read spelling-sound correspondences such as long and short vowels students typically multisyllabic words by make great strides in reading fluency as they apply their newly acquired decoding breaking the word into and word recognition skills students read multisyllabic words by breaking the syllables and use their word into syllables and use their knowledge of prefixes and suffixes to determine knowledge of prefixes the word s meaning and suffixes to the 1997 california english language arts standards set expectations for determine the word s second-grade students to be fluent in silent and oral reading capable of reading meaning grade-level material aloud accurately in a manner that sounds like natural speech the ccss extend these reading-fluency expectations by also requiring students to read with purpose and understanding students use context to confirm or self-correct their word recognition and understanding of text by rereading when necessary in this way the ccss emphasize the link between students fluency and comprehension 2.4 october 2011 edition

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writing high-quality literature and informational text serve as models for students writing and as such reinforce the reciprocal relationship between reading vocabulary development and writing much of what students learn about analyzing the texts they read supports the writing skills they learn and practice in second grade for example students apply their knowledge of the structure of the stories they read how stories begin and end and how events are sequenced in order to compose their own stories in a logical sequence the academic language they learn in discussions about texts e.g evidence plot main idea key details provides students with words to use when speaking about their writing students use the vocabulary they learn through reading grade-level texts to describe events and characters in their compositions they write with a command of english conventions appropriate to second grade which have been modeled in texts they read or heard in grade two the 1997 california english language arts standards and the ccss for writing differ in several ways the 1997 california english language arts standards emphasize the stages of students learn to the writing process prewriting drafting revising editing successive versions write opinion pieces students writing includes friendly letters and brief narratives that move through a that introduce a sequence of events and describe the setting characters objects and events in detail topic state an in comparison the ccss call for students to write opinion pieces and opinion supply informative/explanatory texts in addition to writing narratives and are explicit about reasons to support the expected quality of students compositions students learn to write opinion pieces the opinion use that introduce a topic state an opinion supply reasons to support the opinion use linking words to linking words to connect their opinion and reasons and provide a concluding connect their opinion statement in their informative/explanatory texts students learn to use facts and and reasons and definitions to develop their points students describe thoughts and feelings in provide a concluding addition to events and use words to signal event order in their narratives the ccss statement emphasize writing in different time frames over several days at a single sitting and writing for specific tasks and purposes including content-specific tasks e.g lab and history reports students also learn to conduct shared research and writing projects and to use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing speaking and listening students proficiency in speaking and listening expands in second grade students are responsible for comprehending larger amounts of information presented orally e.g three to four-step instructions and for communicating their ideas with increased attention to detail and substance e.g reporting on an event with supportive facts and descriptive details students practice the strategy of organizing both narrative and expository texts chronologically they ask questions for clarification additional information or further explanation with practice they learn to speak with appropriate volume and in coherent complete sentences the 1997 california english language arts standards focus on students giving individual oral presentations including recounting experiences telling stories or reporting on a topic with facts and details drawn from several sources of information the ccss bring two important additions to that focus collaborative conversations and audio recordings students participate in collaborative conversations about grade-level texts and topics doing so with peers and adults in diverse groups of variable sizes they follow agreed-upon rules and build on others talk by linking their comments to the remarks of others in these conversations students learn and practice communication skills in addition collaborative conversations provide students with opportunities to use academic language from other subjects and new vocabulary learned through their reading in second grade students begin to use electronic media to record their speaking tasks students create audio recordings of their presentations of stories or poems when students listen to the recordings of their own 2.5 october 2011 edition

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presentations they can evaluate the quality of their presentations and use that information to improve their speaking skills language in second grade students are expected to write and speak with a command of many of the conventions of english although students produce some writing electronically they primarily create readable documents with legible writing they learn to identify and correctly use parts of speech e.g nouns verbs and pronouns in writing and speaking they learn more rules for capitalization comma use and spelling though the specific rules they learn vary between the 1997 california english language arts standards and the ccss under the ccss students learn to use collective nouns frequently occurring irregular plural nouns e.g feet mice and reflexive pronouns e.g myself ourselves they learn to form and use the past tense of commonly used irregular verbs and they learn to correctly use adjectives and adverbs they apply rules for capitalizing holidays product names and geographic names students learn to use apostrophes correctly to form contractions and possessives their knowledge of spelling patterns allows them to generalize when writing new words but they also learn to use reference materials including beginning dictionaries to check and correct their spelling second-graders compare formal and informal uses of language as students have learned language conventions and academic vocabulary they may have realized that the language they use in school is different from the language they use on the playground and at home or from what they hear on television now they learn the terms formal and informal and when it is appropriate to use formal or informal language sometimes referred to as code switching vocabulary development is an ongoing task for students throughout the school year grade-level texts and topics introduce students to new words or alternate meanings of known words in all subject areas writing activities and speaking tasks especially collaborative conversations provide students with opportunities to use newly acquired vocabulary and academic language in the 1997 california english language arts standards vocabulary development standards are found in the reading strand in the ccss standards for vocabulary acquisition and use are found in the language strand both the 1997 california english language arts standards and the ccss cover basic strategies for determining the meaning of words students learn to use their knowledge of the meanings of prefixes and suffixes to determine the meaning of new words formed by them they also learn to predict the meaning of compound words by using their knowledge of the meanings of the individual words that form them the ccss present two additional strategies for students to learn and practice students learn to use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word they also use glossaries and beginning dictionaries both digital and print to determine or clarify the meaning of words in all subject areas in addition the ccss emphasize the richness of language in particular word relationships and nuances in word meanings students identify real-life connections between words and their use e.g describe animals that are furry or scaly students also learn to distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs and adjectives extra support for struggling readers by the end of second grade students are expected to read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension students who are not proficient in phonics and word-recognition skills are likely to experience 2.6 october 2011 edition

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academic difficulties early screening can identify specific areas of instructional need that can be addressed in a timely manner struggling readers any students experiencing difficulty learning to read which may include those who use nonstandard english english learners and students with disabilities need additional support to participate in daily lessons with their peers and to ensure they become proficient in second-grade reading skills instructional support for students should include flexible grouping for differentiated instruction opportunities to preteach key skills strategies and concepts explicit phonics instruction of vowel patterns by teaching the patterns in isolation then in words and controlled text and finally in regular trade books direct explicit instruction in language development to address grammatical structures of oral and written standard english vocabulary instruction embedded in context including academic language building of background knowledge reinforcement and extension of the regular classroom program support for english learners english-language development eld is a critical component of the language arts program for english learners and comes with direct explicit and systematic instruction in reading and writing instructional programs for english learners should be planned according to the students assessed level of literacy reading and writing in english and their primary language as well as their proficiency in english listening speaking reading and writing students with strong literacy english learners should skills in their primary language have an advantage they can concentrate on receive intensive learning english rather than on receiving initial instruction in reading and writing instruction in vocabulary students who enter second grade with little prior schooling and limited english development and skills must learn to read and write while learning english academic language to english learners should receive intensive instruction in vocabulary succeed in language arts development and academic language to succeed in language arts and other content and other content areas areas at their grade level english learners encounter difficulty when reading at their grade level unknown vocabulary in stories english learners can develop their vocabulary when teachers provide explicit vocabulary instruction that preteaches vocabulary model the pronunciation of words use scaffolds e.g summary sheets charts visuals encourage students to use the key vocabulary from stories and informational texts in class discussions and writing assignments english learners who have limited academic experience and language skills require intensive systematic instruction in oral and written language that emphasizes the rules of grammar such as the use of collective 2.7 october 2011 edition

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nouns reflexive pronouns and adjectives and adverbs for a more extensive list of the conventions of grammar refer to the transition to the common core state standards with california additions planning eld instruction chart that follows instruction for english learners includes attention to the phonological morphological syntactical and semantic structures of english explicit instruction in vocabulary strategies can teach students to use morphological knowledge of prefixes suffixes and root words to determine the meaning of unknown words and increase their reading comprehension texts selected for english learners should be authentic when possible simplified texts should be used only with students who need intensive english-language instruction to enable them to catch up with their peers specially designed academic instruction in english sdaie is one instructional strategy to meet the needs of english learners for additional resources to support the teaching of english learners please visit the cde english learners web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/sp/el the cde has published an excellent resource improving education for english learners research-based approaches 2010b that provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date strategies to serve english learners guidelines for using eld and sdaie strategies are provided as well as recommended instructional practices information on the publication is available at the cde press web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/rc english learners need additional time for appropriate instructional support the ccss set rigorous expectations for student learning and eld instruction must accommodate these enhanced expectations the following chart illustrates the enhancements in the ccss for english language arts that may affect eld instruction this chart provides teachers with initial guidance in planning effective eld instruction transition to the common core state standards with california additions planning eld instruction second grade reading standards for literature 2 3 6 7 9 recount stories including fables and folktales from diverse cultures and determine their central message lesson or moral describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters setting or plot compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story e.g cinderella stories by different authors or from different cultures 10 by the end of the year read and comprehend literature including stories and poetry in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range reading standards for informational text 3 6 describe the connection between a series of historical events scientific ideas or concepts or steps in technical procedures in a text identify the main purpose of a text including what the author wants to answer explain or describe 2.8 october 2011 edition

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7 8 9 explain how specific images e.g a diagram showing how a machine works contribute to and clarify a text describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic 10 by the end of the year read and comprehend informational texts including history/social studies science and technical texts in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range reading standards foundational skills writing standards 4 read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension c 1 use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding rereading as necessary write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about state an opinion supply reasons that support the opinion use linking words e.g because and also to connect opinion and reasons and provide a concluding statement or section with guidance and support from adults produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1­3 with guidance and support from adults and peers focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing with guidance and support from adults use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing including in collaboration with peers participate in shared research and writing projects e.g read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report record science observations recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question 10 write routinely over extended time frames time for research reflection and revision and shorter time frames a single sitting or a day or two for a range of discipline-specific tasks purposes and audiences 4 5 6 7 8 speaking and listening standards 4 tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant descriptive details speaking audibly in coherent sentences 2.9 october 2011 edition

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a plan and deliver a narrative presentation that recounts a wellelaborated event includes details reflects a logical sequence and provides a conclusion 5 create audio recordings of stories or poems add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas thoughts and feelings demonstrate command of the conventions of standard english grammar and usage when writing or speaking a create readable documents with legible print b use collective nouns e.g group d use reflexive pronouns e.g myself ourselves e form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs e.g sat hid told f use adjectives and adverbs and choose between them depending on what is to be modified g produce expand and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences e.g the boy watched the movie the little boy watched the movie the action movie was watched by the little boy 2 demonstrate command of the conventions of standard english capitalization punctuation and spelling when writing a capitalize holidays product names and geographic names b use commas in greetings and closings of letters c use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives d generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words e.g cage badge boy boil e consult reference materials including beginning dictionaries as needed to check and correct spellings 3 use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing speaking reading or listening a compare formal and informal uses of english 2.10 october 2011 edition language standards 1.

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