CA First Grade Common Core Standards

 

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a look at first grade in california public schools and the common core state standards curriculum frameworks and instructional resources division instruction and learning support branch california department of education october 2011 edition

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contents page first-grade curriculum 1.1 english language arts 1.2 overview 1.2 what first-grade students should know 1.2 what students learn in first grade 1.3 reading 1.3 writing 1.5 speaking and listening 1.5 language 1.5 extra support for struggling readers 1.6 support for english learners 1.7 the standards 1.9 mathematics 1.16 overview 1.16 what first-grade students should know 1.16 what students learn in first grade 1.17 operations and algebraic thinking 1.17 number and operations in base ten 1.17 measurement and data 1.18 geometry 1.18 support for english learners 1.18 transition to the common core state standards 1.19 the standards 1.23 ccss domains 1.27 history­social science 1.28 overview 1.28 what first-grade students should know 1.28 what students learn in first grade 1.28 the rights and responsibilities of citizenship 1.28 i

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geography of the community 1.29 symbols icons and traditions of the united states 1.30 life today and long ago 1.30 cultural literacy one nation many people 1.30 economics goods and services 1.31 the education and the environment initiative 1.31 support for english learners 1.32 the standards 1.32 science 1.36 overview 1.36 what first-grade students should know 1.36 what students learn in first grade 1.37 physical sciences 1.37 life sciences 1.37 earth sciences 1.38 investigation and experimentation 1.38 the education and the environment initiative 1.38 science across the content areas 1.39 support for english learners 1.39 the standards 1.39 visual and performing arts 1.42 overview 1.42 what first-grade students should know 1.42 what students learn in first grade 1.42 dance 1.42 music 1.42 theatre 1.43 visual arts 1.43 the standards 1.43 key content standards 1.44 health 1.50 overview 1.50 what first-grade students should know 1.50 ii

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what students learn in first grade 1.50 growth and development 1.51 injury prevention and safety 1.51 personal and community health 1.52 support for english learners 1.52 the standards 1.52 physical education 1.58 overview 1.58 what first-grade students should know 1.58 what students learn in first grade 1.59 overarching standard 1 students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities 1.59 overarching standard 2 students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts principles and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities 1.59 overarching standard 3 students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance 1.60 overarching standard 4 students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts principles and strategies to improve health and performance 1.60 overarching standard 5 students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts principles and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity 1.60 support for english learners 1.60 support for students with special needs 1.61 the standards 1.61 world languages 1.66 overview 1.66 what first-grade students should know 1.66 what students learn in first grade 1.66 organization of the standards 1.67 content 1.67 communication 1.67 cultures 1.67 structures 1.68 settings 1.68 iii

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stages of proficiency 1.68 the standards 1.69 school libraries 1.71 overview 1.71 what first-grade students should know 1.71 what students learn in first grade 1.71 the standards 1.72 iv

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first-grade curriculum what will my child learn in first grade i ve been teaching fifth grade and this year i ve been reassigned to first grade what does the first-grade curriculum look like i m the principal of a small private elementary school and i want to be sure my students are meeting the state s standards how can i find out what students are expected to learn at each grade in august 2010 the state adopted the common core state standards for english language arts and mathematics how will the new standards enhance first-grade curriculum this chapter is organized by sections for each subject describing what students should know and be able to do by the end of first grade each section includes a brief overview of what the student should have learned before entering first grade followed by a description of the first-grade standards each subject concludes with a list of the first-grade standards for that content area the english language arts and mathematics sections include the new common core state standards ccss with california additions for a more in-depth discussion of each subject please review the state-adopted curriculum frameworks for kindergarten through grade twelve the frameworks are posted on the cde curriculum and instruction web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cr/cf/allfwks.asp 1.1 october 2011 edition

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english language arts overview for students to become lifelong readers and writers it is essential that they learn early reading and language skills through a strong integrated instructional process becoming a fluent and skillful reader requires extensive engagement with the english language including understanding the sounds and symbols that make up language hearing and talking about stories and events and connecting words with ideas to express in writing and speaking standards-based instruction is critical to developing students literacy and proficiency in english language arts the standards describe what students are expected to know and be able to do by the end of this school year in 2010 california adopted new standards in english language arts the ccss with california additions the ccss integrate the strands of english language arts reading writing speaking and listening and language the new standards will be implemented gradually over the next several years as curriculum frameworks instructional materials and assessments based on the ccss are adopted for example the ccss there are many similarities between the ccss and the 1997 california english focus on more language arts standards but there are some notable differences for instance in the informational text ccss the standards in kindergarten through grade six are divided into the participating in shared following strands reading writing speaking and listening and language the research writing 1997 california english language arts standards are organized around domains projects vocabulary reading writing written and oral english language conventions and listening acquisition and use and and speaking the ccss often extend or enhance the content of the 1997 text-analysis skills for california english language arts standards for example the ccss focus on more reading comprehension informational text participating in shared research writing projects vocabulary acquisition and use and text-analysis skills for reading comprehension this section provides an overview of the new ccss for first-grade english language arts it includes a review of the important english language arts skills and concepts from kindergarten prerequisite skills and guidance to ensure success for english learners a complete list of the first-grade ccss for english language arts with california additions can be found at the end of this section a complete list of the first-grade 1997 california english language arts standards is located on the cde content standards web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/documents/elacontentstnds.pdf what first-grade students should know a primary focus of language arts instruction in kindergarten was making sense of the alphabet and its role in reading students produced the most frequent sounds for each consonant and isolated and pronounced the initial medial vowel and final sounds in consonant-vowel-consonant words they blended two or three phonemes into recognizable words read high-frequency words by sight and read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding students used a variety of reading comprehension strategies including the use of pictures and context to make predictions retelling stories answer and ask questions and describe connections between events ideas and pieces of information in a text they compared and contrasted similar stories and texts identified key details in both narrative and informational texts and engaged in group reading activities 1.2 october 2011 edition

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students printed letters and words phonetically spelled the beginning of words and used frequently occurring verbs and nouns including regular plural nouns they composed opinion pieces informative/explanatory texts and narratives by using a combination of drawing dictation and writing students also engaged in collaborative conversations with peers and adults about kindergarten topics and learned how to follow rules such as listening to others and taking turns speaking about topics what students learn in first grade first-grade students extend their knowledge of language arts in significant and exciting ways learning skills that enable them to read and write more independently by the end of first grade students should read proficiently at grade level and have the ability to decode and recognize increasingly complex words accurately and automatically students increase their academic and content-specific vocabulary by reading a variety of literature and informational text students further develop their communication skills as they engage with peers and adults in collaborative conversations that provide additional opportunities to express their ideas and experiences as first-grade students learn to write for different purposes they apply their growing knowledge of language structures and conventions in order to master the first-grade english language arts content students need to practice decoding skills to develop comprehension skills students need exposure to a variety of high-quality literature and informational texts reading the following section is organized according to three major areas reading standards for literature for informational text and in foundational skills reading standards for literature in first grade some of the ccss for reading literature emphasize verbal interaction between student and teacher in order to develop the student s comprehension of literature students use key details when talking or writing about a story or book and emphasize their use to describe characters settings and major events the 1997 california english language arts standards for literary response and analysis focus on the student s ability to identify and describe a story s beginning middle and end as well as the plot setting and characters the new ccss continue this development of structural awareness but go further by asking students to demonstrate an understanding of a central message or lesson students also learn to differentiate between types of text those that provide information and those that appeal to the senses and suggest feelings the ccss also set the new expectation that students will be able to compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of story characters this early introduction to literary analysis provides a strong foundation in critical thinking that students will develop throughout their academic careers reading standards for informational text beginning in kindergarten the ccss balance the reading of informational text beginning in with the reading of literature first-grade students learn to read appropriately kindergarten the complex informational text and to read it independently and proficiently as ccss balance the students participate in english language arts activities related to informational text reading of they make connections to other content areas content standards in mathematics informational text history­social science and science are reinforced as students read informational text with the reading of that develops concepts and academic vocabulary in those content areas literature 1.3 october 2011 edition

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both the ccss and the 1997 california english language arts standards provide students with opportunities to learn key comprehension strategies through teacher modeling and extensive guided practice for example students relate prior knowledge to textual information confirm predictions by indentifying supporting text use context to resolve ambiguities about the meaning of words and sentences and identify text that uses sequence or other logical order however the ccss go further by setting the expectation that students know and use various text structures and features table of contents glossaries electronic menus and icons to locate key facts or information in a text students also learn to identify the main topic and retell key details of a text to compare and contrast two texts on the same topic and to describe the connection between two individuals events ideas or pieces of information in a text reading standards in foundational skills the ccss and the 1997 california english language arts standards are similar in that both foster student understanding and working knowledge of concepts of print the alphabetic principle and other foundational skills and concepts for reading in both sets of standards students develop phonological awareness basic decoding and word-recognition skills concepts of print are augmented in the ccss to include organization and basic features of text students should read grade-level text with accuracy at an appropriate rate and with expression that resembles natural speech this fluency provides a bridge to reading comprehension first-grade students recognize the explicit relationship between the words they hear and the phonemic structure of language students become not only phonemically aware but also phonemically proficient in identifying producing and manipulating sounds students should receive systematic and extensive instruction and practice in analyzing words at the phoneme level producing sounds adding deleting and changing selected sounds manipulating increasingly longer words three to four phonemes students learn decoding skills by systematically progressing from simple word types e.g consonant vowel-consonant word lengths e.g number of phonemes and word complexity e.g phonemes in the word position of blends stop sounds to more complex words at each fundamental stage e.g letter-sound correspondences blending reading whole words students practice skills that have been modeled for them initially students read controlled decodable text which serves as an intermediary step until they are able to read grade-level literature and informational text the ccss extend the 1997 california english language arts standards by calling for students to use the knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word students decode two-syllable words by breaking the words into syllables students also apply phonics and word-analysis skills to decode words both in isolation and in grade-level text 1.4 october 2011 edition

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writing the ccss for first-grade writing like the 1997 california standards combine the important skills of writing with a focus forming and documenting ideas responding to fiction and nonfiction works and recognizing the role of organization and text structure in different writing applications students begin to understand that writing is a process and learn to apply it appropriately to write brief narratives and descriptions of objects persons places or events writing activities for students use good models as examples and encourage talking and writing about books and events students begin to the ccss go beyond the 1997 california english language arts standards to include understand that additional sophisticated skills and instructional practices in writing students write writing is a informative/explanatory texts and opinion pieces in addition to narrative writing pieces process to meet grade-level expectations for opinion pieces students provide supporting reasons and facts and a sense of closure students write narratives that recount two or more sequenced events and use words to signal event order they work collaboratively with peers and participate in shared research and writing projects which include the use of digital tools to edit and publish their work speaking and listening in first grade the ccss for speaking and listening focus on the skills students need to participate in collaborative conversations with peers and adults about grade-level topics and texts these topic and text-based conversations are important additions to students speaking and listening skills collaborative conversations provide students with opportunities to use new vocabulary and academic language the basic skills for conversations that students learn under the 1997 california english language arts standards are to listen attentively ask questions for clarification and understanding and stay on topic when speaking the ccss further develop these basic skills as students engage in collaborative conversations with diverse partners building on others comments through multiple exchanges on a topic or text students learn to ask and answer questions for different purposes e.g to gather additional information or to clarify issues and in different situations such as when a text is read aloud or when information is provided by a speaker or presented through other media students continue to memorize and recite poems rhymes and songs with expression and to give restate and follow simple two-step directions in both the 1997 california english language arts standards and the ccss students describe people places things and events the ccss introduce students to the use of drawings and other visual displays as additions to their descriptions and to clarify their ideas thoughts and feelings language students in first grade are introduced to the basic elements of english grammar and usage for spoken and written language speaking and writing in complete sentences are a focus under the 1997 california english language arts standards and specific attention is given to singular and plural subjects and verbs the use of complete sentences to communicate emphasized in the 1997 california english language arts standards continues in the ccss for both writing and speaking the ccss maintain students focus on subject­verb agreement while extending instruction on the use of pronouns to include proper personal possessive and indefinite pronouns e.g i me my they them their anyone everything 1.5 october 2011 edition

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in addition to learning the four types of end punctuation students under the ccss are expected to name and recognize the four types of sentences declarative interrogative exclamatory and imperative instruction in language conventions such as capitalization continues with the addition of capitalization rules for dates and names in writing students learn to use high-frequency words and also learn to recognize common spelling patterns and frequently used irregular words specific grammar elements and language conventions taught in first grade help form a base for future grades to build knowledge of both spoken and written formal english to encourage the use of academic language the 1997 california english language arts standards call for students to be familiar with categories of words and concepts the ccss call for sophisticated vocabulary instruction to help students gain facility with an array of strategies and learn about word relationships and nuances in word meanings rather than learning vocabulary words that may not be related to grade-level texts and topics students learn techniques to help them gain meaning of unknown words in their reading students vocabularies expand through increased exposure to academic language and the use of high-frequency gradeappropriate words in speaking and listening and in writing students gain independence in making meaning of unknown words by using scaffolding strategies introduced in the ccss some of these concepts appear in second and third grade in the 1997 california english language arts standards other vocabulary skills and concepts that students learn under the ccss include simple roots and affixes using context clues at the sentence level defining words by category or key attributes describing real-life connections between words and their use attention to verbs and adjectives and the use of high-frequency conjunctions e.g because since to flag simple relationships in addition students accrue a broader vocabulary by responding to text they have read or heard read aloud extra support for struggling readers reading is the key to success in all content areas first-grade students who do not achieve success in phonological awareness phonics and word-recognitions skills may experience academic difficulties early screening can identify specific areas of instructional needs that can be addressed in a timely manner struggling readers any student experiencing difficulty learning to read which may include those who use nonstandard english english learners and students with disabilities need additional support to participate in daily lessons with their peers and to ensure they will experience success instructional support for students should include flexible grouping for differentiated instruction opportunities to preteach key skills strategies and concepts extra instructional support in phonological awareness for those experiencing difficulties direct explicit instruction in language development to address grammatical structures of oral and written standard english opportunities in vocabulary instruction within context including academic language opportunities to build background knowledge reinforcement and extension of the regular classroom program 1.6 october 2011 edition

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support for english learners english-language development eld is a critical component of the language arts program for english learners and comes with direct explicit and systematic instruction in reading and writing instructional programs for english learners should be planned according to the students assessed level of literacy reading and writing in english and in their primary language as well as their proficiency in english listening speaking reading and writing students with strong literacy skills in their primary language have an advantage they can concentrate on learning english rather than on receiving initial instruction in reading and writing students who enter first grade with little prior schooling and limited english skills must learn to read and write while learning english they begin language arts instruction in english with literacy instruction augmented by concurrent formal linguistic instruction in english i.e eld knowledge of letter-sound correspondences and phonological awareness of the sounds should be included in the lesson before teaching english learners to blend sounds additional phonological and letter-sound instruction is provided as needed modeling and practice can be provided by the teacher or by native englishspeaking peers after assessment english learners should be provided with instruction on new letter sounds and blending or on new word types such instruction will enable them to catch up with their classmates and accomplish lesson objectives the following suggestions provide support to english learners find out whether students have had previous instruction or experiences or both with the words included in the instruction and ensure they understand their meaning assess what knowledge is assumed before each unit of instruction and provide any preteaching of key concepts have english learners draw on literary skills in their first language to use in english and build on the knowledge of reading skills acquired in their first language in english letter-sound correspondences include explicit models of the letter-sound correspondences that students are expected to know and conduct correction in a way that encourages students to keep trying helping them to see the progress they have made provide students with scaffolds to learn grammar skills and meet writing expectations specially designed academic instruction in english sdaie is one instructional strategy to meet the needs of english learners for additional resources to support the teaching of english learners please visit the cde english learners web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/sp/el the cde has published an excellent resource improving education for english learners research-based approaches 2010b that provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date strategies to serve english learners guidelines for using eld and sdaie strategies are provided as well as recommended instructional practices information on the publication is available at the cde press web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/rc english learners need additional time and appropriate instructional support the ccss set rigorous expectations for student learning and eld instruction must accommodate these enhanced expectations the following chart illustrates the enhancements in the ccss for english language arts that may affect eld instruction this chart provides teachers with initial guidance in planning effective eld instruction 1.7 october 2011 edition

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transition to the common core state standards planning eld instruction first grade reading standards for literature 4 identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses see grade 1 language standards 4-6 for additional expectations 5 explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types 6 identify who is telling the story at various points in a text reading standards for informational text 6 distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text 7 use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas 9 identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic e.g in illustrations descriptions or procedures writing standards 1 write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about state an opinion supply a reason for the opinion and provide some sense of closure 3 ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information or clarify something that is not understood 1 demonstrate command of the conventions of standard english grammar and usage when writing or speaking d use personal subject object possessive and indefinite pronouns e.g i me my they them their anyone everything f use frequently occurring adjectives g use frequently occurring conjunctions e.g and but or so because h use determiners e.g articles demonstratives i use frequently occurring prepositions e.g during beyond toward note california additions are in bold typeface and underlined speaking and listening standards language standards 1.8 october 2011 edition

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the standards the ccss with california additions that follow are the prepublication version of the standards prepared by the sacramento county office of education scoe updated on october 15 2010 content that is unique to the ccss and was added by california to the multistate common core standards is in bold typeface and underlined the scoe document is available online at http www.scoe.net/castandards/agenda/2010/ela_ccs_recommendations.pdf outside source these grade-one ccss for english language arts were adopted by the california state board of education on august 2 2010 the ccss college and career readiness ccr anchor standards appendix a define the literacy expectations for students entering college and careers and provide the foundation for the k­12 language arts standards although the ccr anchor standards were not part of the state board of education action in august they are essential to understanding the structure and cohesive nature of the ccss a complete list of the grade-one 1997 california english language arts content standards is located on the cde content standards web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/documents/elacontentstnds.pdf common core state standards english language arts grade one reading standards for literature key ideas and details 1 2 3 ask and answer questions about key details in a text retell stories including key details and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson describe characters settings and major events in a story using key details craft and structure 4 5 6 identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses see grade 1 language standards 4-6 for additional expectations explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types identify who is telling the story at various points in a text integration of knowledge and ideas 7 8 9 use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters setting or events not applicable to literature compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories 1.9 october 2011 edition

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range of reading and level of text complexity 10 with prompting and support read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1 a activate prior knowledge related to the information and events in a text b confirm predictions about what will happen next in a text reading standards for informational text key ideas and details 1 2 3 ask and answer questions about key details in a text identify the main topic and retell key details of a text describe the connection between two individuals events ideas or pieces of information in a text craft and structure 4 5 6 ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text see grade 1 language standards 4-6 for additional expectations know and use various text structures e.g sequence and text features e.g headings tables of contents glossaries electronic menus icons to locate key facts or information in a text distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text integration of knowledge and ideas 7 8 9 use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic e.g in illustrations descriptions or procedures range of reading and level of text complexity 10 with prompting and support read informational texts appropriately complex for grade 1 a activate prior knowledge related to the information and events in a text b confirm predictions about what will happen next in a text 1.10 october 2011 edition

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