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a look at kindergarten in california public schools and the common core state standards curriculum frameworks and instructional resources division instruction and learning support branch california department of education october 2011 edition

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contents page kindergarten curriculum k.1 english language arts k.2 overview k.2 what kindergarten students should know k.2 what students learn in kindergarten k.3 reading k.3 writing k.5 speaking and listening k.5 language k.6 extra support for struggling readers k.6 support for english learners k.7 the standards k.10 mathematics k.17 overview k.17 what kindergarten students should know k.17 what students learn in kindergarten k.18 counting and cardinality k.18 operations and algebraic thinking k.19 number and operations in base ten k.19 measurement and data k.19 support for english learners k.20 transition to the common core state standards k.21 the standards k.25 ccss domains k.28 history­social science k.29 overview k.29 what kindergarten students should know k.29 what students learn in kindergarten k.29 i

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learning and working together k.29 national and state symbols k.30 working now and long ago k.30 geography of the neighborhood k.31 time and chronology k.31 reaching out to times past k.31 the education and the environment initiative k.31 support for english learners k.32 the standards k.32 science k.36 overview k.36 what kindergarten students should know k.36 what students learn in kindergarten k.36 physical sciences k.37 life sciences k.37 earth sciences k.38 investigation and experimentation k.38 the education and the environment initiative k.38 science across the content areas k.39 support for english learners k.39 the standards k.40 visual and performing arts k.42 overview k.42 what kindergarten students should know k.42 what students learn in kindergarten k.42 dance k.42 music k.43 theatre k.43 visual arts k.43 the standards k.43 key content standards k.44 health k.50 overview k.50 ii

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what kindergarten students should know k.50 what students learn in kindergarten k.50 nutrition and physical activity k.51 growth and development k.51 injury prevention and safety k.51 alcohol tobacco and other drugs k.52 mental emotional and social health k.52 personal and community health k.52 support for english learners k.52 the standards k.53 physical education k.59 overview k.59 what kindergarten students should know k.59 what students learn in kindergarten k.60 overarching standard 1 students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities k.60 overarching standard 2 students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts principles and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities k.60 overarching standard 3 students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance k.60 overarching standard 4 students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts principles and strategies to improve health and performance k.61 overarching standard 5 students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts principles and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity k.61 support for english learners k.61 support for students with special needs k.62 the standards k.62 world languages k.66 overview k.66 what kindergarten students should know k.66 what students learn in kindergarten k.66 organization of the standards k.67 iii

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content k.67 communication k.67 cultures k.68 structures k.68 settings k.68 stages of proficiency k.68 the standards k.69 school libraries k.71 overview k.71 what kindergarten students should know k.71 what students learn in kindergarten k.71 the standards k.72 iv

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kindergarten curriculum what will my child learn in kindergarten i ve been teaching fifth grade and this year i ve been reassigned to kindergarten what does the kindergarten curriculum look like i m the principal of a small private elementary school and i want to be sure my students are meeting the state s standards how can i find out what students are expected to learn at each grade in august 2010 the state adopted the common core state standards for english language arts and mathematics how will the new standards enhance kindergarten curriculum will the new legislation that provides the option of a transitional kindergarten affect the curriculum this chapter is organized by sections for each subject describing what students should know and be able to do by the end of kindergarten each section includes a brief overview of what the student should have learned before entering kindergarten followed by a description of the kindergarten standards each subject concludes with a list of the kindergarten standards for that content area the english language arts and mathematics sections include the new common core state standards ccss with california additions for a more in-depth discussion of each subject please consult the state-adopted curriculum frameworks for kindergarten through grade twelve the frameworks are posted on the cde curriculum and instruction web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cr/cf/allfwks.asp those interested in prekindergarten programs are encouraged to consult the preschool learning foundations and framework available on the cde child development web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/prekguide.asp on september 30 on september 30 2010 the california state legislature enacted senate bill 2010 the california 1381 which changed the date by which a child must turn five years old to enter state legislature kindergarten the law also created the opportunity for students who do not meet the enacted senate bill new start-date requirements to enroll in a transitional kindergarten­defined as a 1381 which changes program that uses a modified age and developmentally appropriate kindergarten the date by which a curriculum and allows students to attend a structured high-quality school-readiness program currently a child must turn five on or before december 2 to be admitted to child must turn five years old to enter kindergarten in the 2012­13 school year the date changes to november 1 and in kindergarten 2014­15 to october 1 in 2015­16 and every year thereafter the child must turn five on or before september 1 to be admitted to kindergarten k.1 october 2011 edition

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english language arts overview in kindergarten students learn the foundational reading and english language arts skills that set them on the path to become lifelong readers writers and effective communicators reading is the most important skill that students develop during their early academic years and kindergarten through grade three is the optimal period of time for such learning the challenge for teachers is to organize and deliver effective efficient instruction in the essential skills and concepts that students must master instruction is differentiated to meet the wide range of students abilities standards-based instruction is critical to the kindergarten curriculum such instruction develops students literacy and proficiency in english language arts the standards describe what students are expected to know and be able to do by the end of the school year in 2010 california adopted new standards in english language arts the ccss with california additions the ccss integrate the strands of english language arts reading writing speaking and listening and language the new standards will be implemented gradually over the next several years as curriculum frameworks instructional materials and assessments based on the ccss are adopted there are many similarities between the ccss and the 1997 california english language arts standards but there are some notable differences for instance in the ccss the standards in kindergarten through grade six are divided into strands reading writing speaking and listening and language the 1997 california english language arts standards are organized around domains reading writing written and oral english language conventions and listening and speaking the ccss often extend or enhance the content of the 1997 california english language arts standards for example the ccss focus more on informational text and content-related vocabulary opinion pieces informative/explanatory writing and collaborative conversations on texts and grade-level topics this section provides an overview of the new ccss for kindergarten english language arts it includes a review of the important english language arts skills and concepts students should have learned before entering kindergarten prerequisite skills and guidance to ensure success for english learners a complete list of the kindergarten ccss for english language arts with california additions can be found at the end of this section a complete list of the kindergarten 1997 california english language arts standards is located on the cde content standards web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/documents/elacontentstnds.pdf students learn the foundational reading and english language arts skills that set them on the path to become lifelong readers writers and effective communicators what kindergarten students should know students entering kindergarten may be four to six years old and bring varied life experiences social skills and characteristics of physical and intellectual development they enter kindergarten with a wide range of individual differences in their prior opportunities to hear see and learn the english language and alphabetic writing system therefore it is important for teachers to assess kindergarten students early in the school year to develop instructional objectives that most effectively meet their students instructional needs k.2 october 2011 edition

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students may or may not have received prekindergarten instruction that included literacy development in oral language comprehension vocabulary alphabet knowledge phonological awareness and print knowledge they may have been exposed to the alphabet had the opportunity to see play with and manipulate letters and used letters in meaningful activities such as spelling their names these students may enter kindergarten already having developed phonological awareness through word play songs and rhyming games students may have experience with writing by making cards or writing explanations for their drawings students may have been exposed to fiction and nonfiction print materials including books and magazines at home or in preschool on the other hand there may be many students who have not had as many literacy and english-language experiences students who have had exposure to reading and writing in only their primary language or others who have had no literary experiences or exposure providing the most appropriate instructional support depends on the needs of each student there are many ways to help prepare a child for success in kindergarten and beyond one of the best ways is participation in a quality preschool program the california preschool learning foundations volume 1 california department of education 2008 describes the knowledge skills and competencies that children typically attain at around 48 and 60 months of age when they participate in a high-quality preschool program and with adequate support students are better prepared for kindergarten if parents and families have read to them taught them about books and print had discussions and asked questions while reading stories and exposed them to the alphabet and writing what students learn in kindergarten instruction in kindergarten is focused on developing foundational skills that prepare a primary focus students for later learning in the all content areas including english language arts of language arts students who learn to read in kindergarten through grade three will be able to read to instruction in learn in later grades a primary focus of language arts instruction in kindergarten is kindergarten is helping students make sense of the alphabet and its role in reading it is critical that helping students students develop phonological awareness so they can move on to decoding words yet make sense of the reading in kindergarten is not merely decoding words in kindergarten students learn alphabet and its beginning skills to comprehend and analyze what they are reading role in reading kindergarten students begin to develop writing skills by using a combination of drawing dictation and writing to express opinions relate an event or provide information with guidance and support from adults they learn to use digital tools to produce and publish writings kindergarten students develop skills in speaking and listening through discussions with peers and adults in both writing and speaking students learn the conventions of english students also have to understand and use academic language to succeed in school academic language refers to the language of literacy and books tests and formal writing it can be words or phrases that apply to specific content areas or that are used to express abstract concepts or feelings in kindergarten students learn academic language in context while reading writing listening and engaging in discussions about books and grade-level topics reading the following section is organized according to three major areas reading standards for literature for informational text and in foundational skills k.3 october 2011 edition

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reading standards for literature to build a strong base for reading comprehension both the 1997 california english language arts standards and the ccss focus on the important elements of a story students identify characters settings and major events in a story ask and answer questions about the essential elements of a story and retell familiar stories students use illustrations and context to make predictions and they identify common types of texts e.g storybooks and poems the ccss call for more analysis than do the 1997 california english language arts standards by asking students to compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories in addition students not only locate the names of the author and the illustrator but also define the role of each in telling the story students describe the relationship between the illustrations and the story through guidance and support students learn and practice these sophisticated skills which if learned well provide them with beginning strategies for literacy analysis reading standards for informational text one primary difference between the 1997 california english language arts standards and the ccss is that the ccss balance the reading of literature with informational text as a result there are more standards for reading informational texts in the ccss than in the 1997 california english language arts standards both sets of standards ask students to locate the title of the book use illustrations and context to make predictions and ask and answer questions about essential elements of the text the ccss introduce students to a greater number of and more complex text-analysis skills with prompting and support students identify the main topic of a text define the roles of the author and the illustrator and describe the connection between two individuals events ideas or pieces of information in a text students also identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text they identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic e.g illustrations descriptions or procedures this deeper level of analysis of informational text will support students as they read text in other subjects such as history­social science and science reading standards in foundational skills in kindergarten the ccss and the 1997 california english language arts standards are similar in that they both foster students making sense of the alphabet and its role in reading knowing letters of the alphabet and understanding the sound-symbol relationship comprehensive knowledge of the alphabetic principle is a powerful predictor of early reading success by the end of kindergarten students should be able to recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters as well as name all uppercase and lowercase letters ongoing assessment and analysis of student progress is essential to identify students who are not making progress and need early phonological-awareness intervention assessment will also identify those students who have developed or are successfully developing phonological awareness and are ready to learn additional skills the 1997 california english language arts standards and the ccss call for kindergarten students to learn the sound structure of language which is the development of phonological awareness students develop phonological awareness defined as the ability to hear and manipulate the kindergarten students begin sounds in spoken words and the understanding that spoken words and to work with words in three syllables are made up of sequences of speech sounds called phonemes important ways decoding or for example students pronounce count blend and segment syllables in word recognition skills spoken words kindergarten students should participate in simple tasks in spelling and writing which they recognize and produce rhyming words and blend two to three phonemes into recognizable words k.4 october 2011 edition

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although early phonological awareness is oral students should have ample opportunities with print kindergarten students begin to work with words in three important ways decoding or word-recognition skills spelling and writing decoding is of primary importance students demonstrate their knowledge of decoding by applying letter-sound correspondences and blending individual letter-sound correspondences to read whole words in both isolation and text kindergarten students use their phonetic knowledge by associating the long and short sounds with common spellings for the five major vowels while decoding words both in isolation and connected text they can also read common high-frequency words by sight e.g the of you are although the 1997 california english language arts standards and ccss are very similar the ccss set an expectation that students will read texts at the emergent-reader level with purpose and understanding as they begin to develop fluency writing the connections between reading and writing are important in reinforcing essential skills kindergarten students learn to recognize identify comprehend and write letters words and sentences as students study the sound structure of language and learn how to read and write phonetically spelled words they begin to use that knowledge to document their ideas in words kindergarteners write using real letters the ccss introduce to spell out words phonetically the 1997 california english language arts standards kindergarten call for students to write about experiences stories people objects and events the students to opinion ccss introduce kindergarten students to opinion pieces and informative/explanatory pieces and texts in addition to narratives students use a combination of drawing dictation and informative writing in their writing activities they compose opinion pieces that state an opinion explanatory texts about a topic or a book they compose informative/explanatory texts that supply in addition to information about a topic in their narrative writing students narrate a single event or narratives several events relate the events in the order in which they occurred and express a reaction to the events the ccss also call for students to respond to questions and suggestions from peers and adults to strengthen their writing and to gather information from provided resources to answer a question students work collaboratively with digital tools to produce and publish writing and shared research and writing projects participation in these writing activities reinforces students use of language conventions new vocabulary and analytical skills speaking and listening kindergarten instruction focuses on the development of receptive and expressive language both the 1997 california english language arts standards and the ccss address basic oral communication skills kindergarten students learn about sentence structure and use that knowledge to produce clear coherent sentences in order to share information and ideas they speak audibly as they describe people places things and events they understand and can follow one and two-step oral directions the 1997 california english language arts standards also call for students to recite short poems rhymes and songs in contrast the ccss focus on collaborative conversations with multiple exchanges between students and peers and students and adults the ccss also emphasize the skills of asking and answering questions to confirm understanding of key details and gain clarification students participate in collaborative conversations with peers and adults in which they follow rules for discussion such as listening to others and taking turns speaking k.5 october 2011 edition

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conversations are centered on kindergarten texts and topics which provide opportunities for students to practice new vocabulary especially content-specific vocabulary students learn to ask and answer questions to seek help get information or clarify something they do not understand students also learn to use drawings or other visual displays to provide additional detail for their descriptions of people places things and events language knowledge of written and oral language conventions is essential for effective communication in both writing and speaking in kindergarten students begin to learn and use english conventions in their writing activities when speaking and when asking and answering questions about the stories and informational texts they read or hear both the ccss and the 1997 california english language arts standards call for students to recognize and use complete coherent sentences when speaking and to spell independently using their phonetic ability and growing knowledge of letter names and the sounds of the alphabet but the ccss set additional expectations for learning the conventions of english students learn to use common frequently occurring nouns and verbs and to form regular plural nouns by adding /s or /es to the end of words they use frequently occurring prepositions e.g to from in out kindergarten students participate in shared language activities in which they produce and then expand complete sentences they learn to write sentences that begin with a capital letter and end with the correct punctuation they capitalize the pronoun i in their writing learning and practicing english language conventions help kindergarten students prepare for writing independently in later grades students acquire in the 1997 california english language arts standards vocabulary development new words and standards are found in the reading strand students in kindergarten are expected to phrases through identify and sort common words into basic categories e.g colors shapes foods conversations about students also use both general and specific language to describe events and common grade-level topics by objects which they do in both speaking and writing reading and being in the ccss standards for vocabulary acquisition and use are found in the read to and by language strand the ccss emphasize multiple-meaning words word relationships responding to text and nuances in word meanings with guidance and support from adults students acquire new words and phrases through conversations about grade-level topics by reading and being read to and by responding to text students learn strategies to determine the meaning of unknown words for example students learn to use frequently occurring inflections and affixes as clues to the meaning of unknown words they identify new meanings for familiar words demonstrate understanding of common verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites and sort common objects into categories to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent students also explore the richness of language distinguishing and acting out shades of meaning among verbs that describe the same general action e.g walk march strut prance and recognizing the real-life connections between words and their use teachers should provide students with many opportunities to use their new vocabulary in conversations about kindergarten texts and topics and in their writing activities in all kindergarten subjects not just english language arts and english-language development eld instruction extra support for struggling readers reading is the key to success in all content areas kindergarten students who do not achieve success in phonological awareness phonics and word-recognition skills may experience academic difficulties early screening can identify specific areas of instructional need that can be addressed in a timely manner struggling readers any students experiencing difficulty learning to read which may include those who use nonstandard k.6 october 2011 edition

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english english learners and students with disabilities need additional support to participate in daily lessons with their peers and to ensure they will experience success instructional support for students should include the use of assessment data for planning differentiated instruction flexible grouping for differentiated instruction with instructional resources specially designed for universal access brief instructional sessions significant gains in phonemic awareness are often made in 15­20 minutes of daily instruction over a period of 9­12 weeks preteaching of phonemic-awareness skills and ample practice in listening identifying and producing the targeted sounds instruction that progresses from the easier phonemic-awareness activities to the more difficult from rhyming and sound matching to blending segmenting and manipulating sounds systematic explicit phonics instruction targeting mastery of letter-sound correspondences additional opportunities in developing oral vocabulary including academic language diagnostic assessment and ongoing progress monitoring opportunities to build background knowledge reinforcement and extension of the regular classroom program support for english learners instructional programs for english learners should be planned according to students assessed level of literacy reading and writing in both english and their primary language as well their proficiency in english listening speaking reading and writing english-language development eld is a critical component of the language arts program for english learners and comes with direct explicit and systematic instruction in reading and writing instructional programs for english learners should be planned according to students assessed level of literacy reading and writing in both english and their primary language as well as their proficiency in english listening speaking reading and writing students with strong literacy skills in their primary language have an advantage they can concentrate on learning english rather than on receiving initial instruction in reading and writing students who enter kindergarten with little prior schooling and limited english must learn to read and write while learning english they begin language arts instruction in english with literacy instruction augmented by concurrent formal linguistic instruction in english i.e eld instructional support for students and suggested procedures to follow should ensure that students have had sufficient opportunities through prior activities in phonemic awareness to hear distinguish and produce sounds being introduced phonological differences between english and k.7 october 2011 edition

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the students primary language should be identified and students should be provided with additional exposure to and practice with the difficult sounds provide students with additional systematic guidance and practice if they are unable to match all consonant and short-vowel sounds to appropriate letters include brief additional practice sessions for english learners who have difficulty in learning lettersound correspondences students should benefit from additional review and practice of particularly difficult letter sounds ensure that students have had previous instruction or experiences or both with the words included in the instruction and that they understand their meaning encourage english learners to take home age-appropriate materials e.g flash cards decodable text handouts related to the teaching objective specially designed academic instruction in english sdaie is one instructional strategy to meet the needs of english learners for additional resources to support the teaching of english learners please visit the cde english learners web page http www.cde.ca.gov/sp/el the cde has published an excellent resource improving education for english learners research-based approaches 2010b that provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date strategies to serve english learners guidelines for teaching eld and sdaie strategies are provided as well as recommended instructional practices the publication is available at the cde press web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/rc english learners need additional time for appropriate instructional support the ccss set rigorous expectations for student learning and eld instruction must accommodate these enhanced expectations the following chart illustrates the enhancements in the ccss in english language arts that may affect eld instruction this chart provides teachers with initial guidance in planning effective eld instruction transition to the common core state standards with california additions planning eld instruction kindergarten reading standards for literature 4 ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text see grade k language standards 4­6 for additional expectations 5 recognize common types of texts e.g storybooks poems fantasy realistic text 6 with prompting and support name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story 9 with prompting and support compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories reading standards for informational text 3 with prompting and support describe the connection between two individuals events ideas or pieces of information in a text k.8 october 2011 edition

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4 with prompting and support ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text see grade k language standards 4­6 for additional expectations 6 name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information in a text 8 with prompting and support identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text 9 with prompting and support identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic e.g in illustrations descriptions or procedures reading standards foundational skills writing standards 4 read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding 1 use a combination of drawing dictating and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book e.g my favorite book is 5 with guidance and support from adults respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed 6 with guidance and support from adults explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing including in collaboration with peers 7 participate in shared research and writing projects e.g explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them 8 with guidance and support from adults recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question language standards 1 demonstrate command of the conventions of standard english grammar and usage when writing or speaking d understand and use question words interrogatives e.g who what where when why how e use the most frequently occurring prepositions e.g to from in out on off for of by with 2 demonstrate command of the conventions of standard english capitalization punctuation and spelling when writing k.9 october 2011 edition

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c write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds phonemes d spell simple words phonetically drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships 4 determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content b use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes e.g -ed -s re un pre -ful -less as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word 5 with guidance and support from adults explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings a sort common objects into categories e.g shapes foods to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent c identify real-life connections between words and their use e.g note places at school that are colorful note california additions are in boldface and underlined the standards the ccss with california additions that follow are the prepublication version of the standards prepared by the sacramento county office of education scoe updated on october 15 2010 content that is unique to the ccss and was added by california to the multistate common core standards is in boldface type and underlined the scoe document is available online at http www.scoe.net/castandards/agenda/2010/ela_ccs_recommendations.pdf outside source these kindergarten ccss for english language arts were adopted by the california state board of education on august 2 2010 the ccss college and career readiness ccr anchor standards appendix a define the literacy expectations for students entering college and careers and provide the foundation for the k­12 english language arts standards although the ccr anchor standards were not part of the state board of education action in august they are essential to understanding the structure and cohesive nature of the ccss a complete list of the 1997 california english language arts content standards is located on the cde content standards web page at http www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/documents/elacontentstnds.pdf k.10 october 2011 edition

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