Il ruolo delle donne nella green economy - Il tema della mobilità

 

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directorate general for internal policies policy department c citizens rights and constitutional affairs gender equality the role of women in the green economy the issue of mobility note abstract this note highlights the characteristics and determinants of gender differences in mobility patterns emerging from the literature and presents an overview of how transport policies have been adapted to support women s mobility needs focusing on examples of practices implemented in four european countries the results show significant albeit declining gender differences related to gender roles within households and the labour market as well as demographic trends the policy recommendations underline the need to consider gender and environment mainstreaming in transport policies pe 462.453 en

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this document was requested by the european parliament s committee on women s right and gender equality authors istituto per la ricerca sociale irs italy manuela samek lodovici flavia pesce trt italy patrizia malgieri silvia maffi caterina rosa responsible administrator erika schulze policy department c citizens rights and constitutional affairs european parliament b-1047 brussels e-mail poldep-citizens@europarl.europa.eu linguistic versions original en about the editor to contact the policy department or to subscribe to its monthly newsletter please write to poldep-citizens@europarl.europa.eu manuscript completed in may 2012 european parliament © european union 2012 this document is available on the internet at http www.europarl.europa.eu/studies disclaimer the opinions expressed in this document are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official position of the european parliament reproduction and translation for non-commercial purposes are authorised provided the source is acknowledged and the publisher is given prior notice and sent a copy.

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the role of women in the green economy the issue of mobility contents list of abbreviations list of tables figures boxes executive summary 1 introduction 2 gender differences in mobility patterns and sustainability evidence from the literature review 2.1 evolution of households labour market and demographic trends affecting gender differences in mobility 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 new household and parental models new developments in the labour market demographic trends and the impact of ageing on mobility 5 7 8 11 14 16 16 18 21 2.2 gender ­ sensitive literature on gender differences in patterns of mobility 2.2.1 characteristics of women s travel patterns 26 26 2.3 gender­sensitive literature on more sustainable mobility schemes 2.4 the role of information communication technologies ict in supporting more sustainable mobility schemes 29 32 2.4.1 the relationship between gender work and space in the context of ict s 32 2.4.2 2.4.3 implications of new communication technologies on working conditions impacts of new communication technologies on daily activities 33 34 3 progress in addressing gender differences in mobility patterns and good practices in member states 3.1 progress in addressing gender differences in mobility patterns in the eu an overview 3.2 progress in addressing gender differences in mobility patterns and good practices in selected countries 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 france italy spain the uk 35 38 40 40 42 46 47 3

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policy department c citizens rights and constitutional affairs 3.3 final considerations 50 4 conclusions and policy recommendations references annex i women and public transport gender audit checklist annex ii analytical scheme for the selected good practices annex iii ­ france time and schedule plan in rennes annex iv ­ italy survey in reggio emilia area annex v ­ spain study of the transport system in guipÙzcoa annex vi ­ united kingdom london gender equality action plan 52 59 67 71 72 74 76 78 4

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the role of women in the green economy the issue of mobility list of abbreviations attg capi cbo ch4 co2 dft drt ec eia eu gb gdp ghg gia gis gtt ict inail lfs ms ngos n2o nts oecd autoridad territorial del transporte de guipùzcoa computer assisted personal interviewing community based organization methane carbon dioxide department for transport of united kingdom demand responsive transport european commission environmental impact assessment european union great britain gross domestic product greenhouse gas emissions gender impact assessment geographic information system gruppo torinese trasporti public transport operator information and communication technology istituto nazionale contro gli infortuni sul lavoro labour force survey member state non governative organisation nitrogin dioxide national travel survey organisation for economic co-operation and development 5

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policy department c citizens rights and constitutional affairs pa pta pic pte pum staav tad tadou tep tfl uitp pubblica amministrazione public amministration public transport authority protocol implementation conformance passenger transport executive piano urbano della mobilità urban mobility plan servizi turistici autonoleggi autolinee vigliocco transport operator transport à la demande drt transport à la demande doubs central tranvie elettriche parmensi public transport operator transport for london union international des transports public international association of public transport united nation united kingdom vehicle miles traveled world bank zona a traffico limitato traffic calming area un uk vmt wb ztl 6

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the role of women in the green economy the issue of mobility list of tables figures boxes list of tables table 1 table 2 bus users frequency of use by age and gender 23 main purpose of journeys and mobility difficulties for persons over-60 by gender 24 table 3 difficulties in using various forms of transport for persons over 60 by gender 24 table 4 gender differences in modal split in the eu 27 2007 37 table 5 gender differences in sustainable transport mode eurobarometer 322 climate change 2009 38 table 6 gender oriented transport policy measures in the selected member states 39 table 7 france selected policies and measures 41 table 8 italy selected policies and measures 44 table 9 spain selected policies and measures 46 table 10 uk selected policies and measures 48 table 11 policy recommendations directly related to a gender-sensitive and sustainable mobility policy 53 table 12 policy recommendations indirectly related to a gender-sensitive and sustainable mobility policy 56 list of figures figure 1 figure 2 labour market participation rates by gender projected change over the period 2007-2060 in percentage age group 15 to 64 20 demographic structure of population in 2010 and 2060 ­ eu 27 22 list of boxes box 1 dimensions of sustainability 11 box 2 escort journeys and their impact on the transport sector 18 box 3 women only transport initiatives as a practice for safe public transit in some non-european countries 28 box 4 using cognitive mapping and geographic information system gis for gendersensitive transport planning 30 box 5 women s participation in the decision making process in china 31 box 6 sustainable urban mobility plan basic characteristics 36 box 7 origin/destination survey in the lombardy region 2000 43 7

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policy department c citizens rights and constitutional affairs executive summary a green economy is defined as one that results in improved human well-being and social equity while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities in its simplest expression a green economy can be thought of as one which is low carbon resource efficient and socially inclusive 1 there is now a growing recognition that sustainability and the green economy are interrelated as sustainable development rests not only on economic growth but also on environmental and social sustainability mobility patterns and the transport sector have an appreciable effect on sustainable development since the transport sector is one of the main drivers of economic and social growth but also of energy consumption and pollution gender is a significant factor in accounting for differences in mobility and travel behaviour women are also recognised as being more likely than men to adopt sustainable travel behaviours furthermore for women mobility appears to be related to empowerment access to opportunities and independence recognition of the links existing between gender mobility and sustainable development has however only recently begun to emerge in the gender and mobility literature and in transport planning given this framework this briefing note addresses and discusses the definition and the meaning of green economy with specific reference to gender differences in the domain of mobility the note highlights the characteristics and determinants of gender differences in mobility patterns according to the available literature and presents an assessment of how transport policies have been adapted to support more sustainable mobility patterns and take into account women s mobility needs the analysis is based on examples of good practices implemented in four european countries france italy spain and the uk with different socio-economic and institutional frameworks women s travel patterns differ from men s in many ways women are likely to travel shorter distances than men are more likely to use public transportation engage in more non-work travel outside rush hours and make more multi-stop trips run household errands and escort other passengers usually children or dependent elderly and tend to be safer drivers than men in both the international literature and in transport planning the gender dimension in mobility patterns and sustainability has so far received relatively little attention the scant attention to gender differences is in part due to the lack of gender differentiated statistics which makes it hard to understand gender differences in mobility patterns according to most studies gender differences in travel patterns are mainly accounted for by the division of roles in the labour market and the family which affect women s employment conditions income levels and mobility needs the availability of public transportation outside rush hours the physical and financial accessibility of transport facilities for women escorting little children or older disabled persons as well as safety conditions are the main aspects to be considered in designing women-friendly transport systems 1 unep 2011 towards a green economy pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradication a synthesis for policy makers p.1 www.unep.org/greeneconomy 8

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the role of women in the green economy the issue of mobility the evolution of household and parental models the new developments in the labour market and new technologies with the spread of new forms of work women`s increased labour market participation as well as population ageing are likely to extend the variety of mobility patterns and call for appropriate transport policies capable to combine attention to sustainability with attention to gender and age-specific mobility needs the adoption of a gender perspective in transport policies is particularly important both to reduce gender inequalities and to support more environment-friendly development as women present more environment friendly mobility patterns than men over the last few years women friendly transport measures and gender based surveys on mobility needs have been implemented in a number of european and non-european countries at the local and national level on the whole these measures concern the provision of flexible services including demand-response transport drt2 new mobility services such as car-pooling schemes reserved to women improvements in the lay-out of vehicle interiors to facilitate access and provide space for strollers taxi night services reserved to women with fare discounts parking facilities restricted to women however the analysis of some of these practices carried out in france italy spain and the uk shows that 1 there is still a large information gap in relation to women mobility needs 2 the measures implemented at the local level are usually pilot projects presenting implementation and sustainability problems due to the lack of dedicated public funds especially in periods of budget constraints and cuts on welfare spending 3 addressing women mobility requires the interaction between transport and welfare policies which might increase the complexity and length of the decision making process on the basis of the assessment of transport policies and of good practices examples we are able to derive the following recommendations to enhance the capacity of transport policies to respond to the mobility needs of women and men in a sustainable way improving gender based statistical data and research to better understand gender differences in mobility patterns and their effects on the green economy supporting women s participation in decision-making taking into account women s needs means that women must be able to express them therefore it is essential to involve women in consultation project planning and decision-making processes as this is generally not the case it is necessary then for this issue to be addressed at least in the procedures applicable to projects funded by international institutions 2 drt demand response transport or dial a ride or flexible transport services are advanced user-oriented forms of public transport characterized by flexible routing and scheduling of small /medium vehicles 9

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policy department c citizens rights and constitutional affairs in this respect two instruments could be promoted gender impact assessment procedures gias and gender audit checklists improving accessibility safety and comfort in transportation modes as women walk and use public transportation more than men the existence of pathways in cities as well as safe pedestrian crossings is very important for both safety and comfort bus stops and the paths leading to bus stops must also take account of women s needs and in particular accessibility to transportation vehicles and safety as for accessibility the design of transport facilities is very important women often have children or elder people/disabled with them and are often burdened with bags and packs access to buses and trains must be facilitated by providing sufficiently wide doors and by avoiding steps besides providing adequate seating and space for small children the disabled and the elderly safety and security in public transport are also crucial issues which disproportionately affect women to take account of safety problems women should be allowed to use public transportation closer to their final destination even if outside the normal bus stops in the evening and at night the provision of adequate lighting is also especially important in this respect awareness campaigns aimed at both bus drivers and passengers should also be promoted to improve women s safety the question of safety also arises with regard to the design of car parks improving service provision and economic regulation whereas public transport services public or private public transport as well as taxis etc are in most cases designed for travel towards the city centre during rush hours women also need transport services in their local neighbourhood outside rush hours which will allow them to make short but linked journeys as for economic regulation two main issues should be considered on the one hand the ticketing structure of public transport services should take account of the fact that women make series of journeys which in most cases call for the use of several tickets on the other hand the european union and member states could promote gender differentiated insurance costs reflecting women s safer driving behaviour relative to men supporting women s employment in the transport sector the transport sector offers many job opportunities to which women could have access to increase the number of women in such jobs contractors can include specific clauses on a required percentage of women employees both for road maintenance and for jobs in public transport systems furthermore the social partners and public authorities could promote gender equality policies through adaptation of working conditions measures to support the work-life balance and gender equality in recruitment policies professional mobility and career development and access to training promoting further research on the effects of ict on mobility patterns and working conditions while the empirical evidence on the relation between the diffusion of ict and mobility patterns is still weak teleworking appears to negatively affect working conditions leading to spill-over effects on family time and longer working hours these may increase the work-home conflict particularly amongst women further drawbacks such as the risk of isolation loss of visibility and lower career perspectives could also affect women more than men it is thus necessary to promote further research on the impacts of ict on mobility patterns and working conditions 10

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the role of women in the green economy the issue of mobility 1 introduction unep defines a green economy as one that results in improved human well-being and social equity while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities in its simplest expression a green economy can be thought of as one which is low carbon resource efficient and socially inclusive 3 developing a green economy means maintaining enhancing and where necessary rebuilding natural capital as a critical economic asset and as a source of public benefits there is now a growing recognition that sustainability and the green economy are interrelated as sustainable development rests not only on economic growth but also on environmental and social sustainability as discussed in box 1 below box 1 dimensions of sustainability the concept of sustainable development was defined by the brundtland commission in its 1987 report4 sustainable development is defined as development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs three interconnected components of sustainable development are considered ecological or environmental social or human and economic the economic approach to sustainability is based on the concept of guaranteeing the maximum flow of income while at least maintaining the stock of assets or capital that yields these benefits interpretation problems arise with regard to the maintenance and mutual substitutability of the different kinds of capital manufactured human natural etc difficulties are also inherent in considerations of uncertainty irreversibility and catastrophic collapse the ecological view of sustainability focuses on preserving the resilience and dynamic ability of biological and physical systems to adapt to change these systems may be interpreted to include all aspects of the biosphere including cities viability of subsystems critical to the global ecosystem and protection of biodiversity are of key importance the socio-cultural concept involves both intra and intergenerational equity elimination of poverty and defending the rights of future generations are of central importance maintenance of the stability of social and cultural systems and reduction of destructive conflicts are to be pursued 3 4 unep 2011 towards a green economy pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradication a synthesis for policy makers p.1 www.unep.org/greeneconomy world commission on environment and development 1987 our common future www.undocuments.net/wced-ocf.htm 11

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policy department c citizens rights and constitutional affairs source eu-dg research 2004 mobility patterns and the transport sector have a significant effect on sustainable development since the transport sector is one of the main drivers of economic and social growth energy consumption and pollution in the eu the transport sector passengers and freight accounts for about 5 of gdp and directly employs around 10 million people of which about one fifth are women women are mainly employed in the air transport sector nace 62 and in the supporting and auxiliary transport activities activities of travel agencies nace 63 amounting respectively to 37.3 and 32.5 of the workforce in 20055 about one third of the final energy consumption in the eu is related to transport excluding maritime transport and pipelines and road transport is by far the dominant transportation mode for about 84 of passengers-km transported and 48 of tonne-km for freight6 currently the transport market depends almost completely 97 upon oilbased fuels gasoline and diesel and very little on biofuels and electrical energy which represent only 1 and 2 respectively thus transport is responsible for about 70 of the final demand for oil and oil products in the eu and a large share of the overall greenhouse gas emissions ghg in the european union derives from the transport sector in particular transport contributes by 24 to the total ghg emissions co2 ch4 n2o in the eu-27 including international aviation and maritime transport and excluding land-use change and forestry activities which can eliminate greenhouse gases or reduce emissions7 given the relevance of the transport system to environmental sustainability the eu produced two white papers eu 20018 and 20119 to set a common transport policy for a sustainability strategy in the transport sector the aim is to develop an integrated environmentally compatible european transport system the 2011 white paper clearly affirms that actions should be taken to tackle the increasing contribution of transport to global warming and energy consumption 5 6 7 8 9 eurofound 2007 innovative gender equality measures in the transport industry http www.eurofound.europa.eu/pubdocs/2007/43/en/1/ef0743en.pdf european commission 2011 eu transport in figures statistical pocketbook 2011 http ec.europa.eu/transport/publications/statistics/doc/2011/pocketbook2011.pdf european commission 2011 eu transport in figures statistical pocketbook 2011 cit european commission com2001 370 final 2001 european transport policy for 2010 time to decide brussels http ec.europa.eu/transport/strategies/doc/2001_white_paper/lb_com_2001_0370_en.pdf european commission com2011 144 final 2011 roadmap to a single european transport area ­ towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system brussels http eur-lex.europa.eu/lexuriserv/lexuriserv.do?uri=com:2011:0144:fin:en 12

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the role of women in the green economy the issue of mobility the european parliament in its resolution of 11 march 200810 on sustainable european transport policy also addresses energy and environment policies 2007/2147ini and is working for a directive on energy efficiency member states will be required to provide a national road map within the first months of 2015 in order to align local policies with the european 20-20-20 targets 20 reduction of ghg 20 of renewable sources by 2020 gender is a significant factor in accounting for differences in mobility and travel behaviour women are also recognised as being more likely than men to adopt sustainable travel behaviours furthermore for women mobility appears to be related to empowerment access to opportunities and independence recognition of the links existing between gender mobility and sustainable development has however only recently begun to emerge in the gender and mobility literature given this framework this briefing note addresses and discusses the definition and the meaning of green economy with specific reference to gender differences in the domain of mobility and attention to the following two main topics innovation in mobility services with focus on the progressive shift from the use of non-renewable traditional energy resources to greener and more sustainable ones in the use of mobility services i.e from car-centred mobility to access to mobility services such as public transportation car-sharing and car-pooling innovation in mobility patterns where the central issue is the development of ictbased tools providing access to information and services e-commerce teleworking etc which are likely to influence mobility demands and needs significantly in the forthcoming years chapter 2 highlights the characteristics and determinants of gender differences in mobility patterns on the evidence of the available literature chapter 3 presents an assessment of how transport policies have been adapted to support more sustainable mobility patterns and take into account women s mobility needs the analysis is based on examples of good practices implemented in four european countries france italy spain and the uk with different socio-economic and institutional frameworks more detailed information on the selected practices is presented in the annex finally chapter 4 presents the main recommendations stemming from the literature and the good practices review 10 european parliament 2008 report on sustainable european transport policy taking into account european energy and environment policies brussels http www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getdoc.do?pubref ep nonsgml+report+a6-2008-0014+0+doc+pdf+v0 en 13

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