The Thames and its History


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A work made by classes 2^ and 3^ B of Liceo Scientifico "Parodi" Acqui Terme about the most important events of the English history that took place in buildings and castles located along the river Thames.

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along the thames in the english history kings and castles a cura della 2b e 3b del liceo scientifico


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indice · windsor castle · hampton court palace · hampton court great hall · the gardens of hampton court · the maze of hampton court · henry viii s six wives · catherine howard · charles i escapes


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windsor castle windsor castle is the oldest and largest inhabited castle in the world it has been the family home of british kings and queens for almost 1,000 years it is an official residence of her majesty the queen whose standard flies from the round tower when she is in residence the queen spends most of her private weekends at windsor and takes up official residence for a month over easter march to april known as easter court the queen is also at windsor for one week each june when she attends royal ascot and the service of the order of the garter windsor is still very much a working royal palace the castle is used regularly for ceremonial and state occasions it is here that the queen often hosts state visits from overseas monarchs and presidents st george s hall makes a spectacular setting for a state banquet when a single table stretching the length of the hall and seating 160 people is decorated with porcelain and silver-gilt from the royal collection occasionally the queen hosts a `dine and sleep when her majesty invites important figures such as political leaders ambassadors high commissioners or the heads of commonwealth nations to have dinner at the castle before showing them a special display of items from the royal library the guests then spend a night at the castle and depart after breakfast the following morning st george s chapel within the castle precincts is the spiritual home of the order of the garter the oldest order of chivalry in the world founded at windsor by edward iii in 1348 its knights still attend a service of thanksgiving in the chapel of their patron st george processing in their robes and insignia through the castle precincts today the order consists of the queen the prince of wales and 24 knight companions there are also royal knights and foreign or `stranger knights st george s chapel remains an active centre for worship with daily services open to all.


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origins it was william the conqueror who first chose the site for windsor castle high above the river thames and on the edge of a saxon hunting ground he began building at windsor around 1070 and 16 years later the castle was complete the castle was originally built to secure the western approach to london but easy access from the capital and proximity to a royal hunting forest recommended it early on as a royal residence by 1110 henry i r.1100-35 already had domestic quarters within the castle and his grandson henry ii r.1154-89 converted the castle into a palace he built two separate sets of royal apartments within the fortified enclosure a public or official state residence in the lower ward and a smaller private residence on the north side of the upper ward for his own exclusive occupation when it was first built the castle was walled in timber but in the late 12th century henry ii began to replace the outer fortifications in stone the original norman keep was rebuilt as the round tower in 1170 and the entire outer perimeter was renewed over the next 60 years henry iii r.1216-72 completely rebuilt henry ii s buildings in the lower ward and added there a large new chapel all forming a coherently planned layout around a courtyard with a cloister he also further improved the royal private apartments in the upper ward as well as completing the circuit of stone walls round the lower ward from the 1350s to the 1370s edward iii r.1327-77 transformed windsor from a military fortification to a gothic palace he spent £50,000 in the process more than any other medieval english king spent on any other single building the kings of the middle ages spent a great deal of their time converting the castle into a suitable royal residence much of the work had therefore already been done by the time of the tudors by the time elizabeth i r 1558-1603 took up residence at windsor many parts of the castle were badly in need of repair an extensive programme of improvements was undertaken throughout the 1570s elizabeth also built a long gallery overlooking the north terrace this gallery was incorporated into the royal library during the 19th century.


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charles ii r 1660-1685 appointed the architect hugh may to supervise the modernisation of the royal apartments which became the grandest baroque state apartments in england charles ii s transformation of windsor from military stronghold to opulent baroque palace was complete by 1683 the apartments created by charles ii survived virtually unchanged to the end of the 18th century until 1796 when the king george iii appointed james wyatt to transform the exterior of the buildings into a gothic palace while retaining the character of the state rooms the gothic transformation of the castle continued with george iv who added height to the round tower re-clothed the exterior in massive masonry and created towers and battlements under queen victoria r.1837-1901 a new private chapel designed by edward blore was created at the eastern end of st george s hall and the grand staircase was reconstructed in 1992 a fire broke out in queen victoria s private chapel destroying the ceilings of st george s hall and the grand reception room as well as gutting the private chapel the state dining room and the crimson drawing room the long process of repair and restoration began immediately with a restoration committee chaired by the duke of edinburgh the areas that were most badly damaged such as st george s hall were redesigned in a modern gothic style while the other parts were restored to the condition in which george iv had left them the highly acclaimed restoration work was completed exactly five years after the outbreak of the fire interesting facts 1 the windsor castle is over 1000 years old it is 484 square feet the castle grounds span over 13 acres over 300 people live and work on the grounds 2 the royal librarian has the task of overseeing 300,000 pieces of priceless books prints and artwork.


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3 the fendersmith family has worked for the royal family for several generations they oversee more than 300 fireplaces found within the castle 4 the castle has over 450 manually ticking clocks 5 regardless of the weather the royal flag is raised when ever the queen is in residence otherwise when the queen is not in residence the union jack flag flies in its place 6 when guest visit the palace they receive royal treatment everything is precise and perfect every guest need is anticipated the staff even unpack and pack up a guests belongs 7 in the castles cellar world class wine and champagne are stored the proper selection is made to accompany any state dinner 8 when the queen hosts state dinners each pat of butter served is hand stamped with a crown 9 before dinner a staff member measures the place settings to ensure they are one inch from the table s edge 10 the royal family advertises in their local newspaper for castle staff some positions are filled by exmilitary and some positions are passed down to family members from generation to generation 11 the farmlands associated with the castle are called the great park they span over 4000 acres all of queen elizabeth s prize winning horses are kept here and she names each individually 12 during the christmas season the staff serenade the queen s horses before they serenade her 13 there are a dozen ancient oak trees which date back to the norman conquest 14 there are seventeen pieces of cannon mounted on the curtain wall of the tower 15 when the disastrous fire burned windsor castle approximately oneand-a-half million gallons of water was used to put out the blaze plan


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key to plan ·a the round tower ·b the upper ward the quadrangle as this courtyard is known ·c the state apartments ·d private apartments overlooking the east terrace ·e south wing overlooking the long walk ·f lower ward ·g st george s chapel ·h horseshoe cloister ·l the long walk ·k king henry viii gate principal entrance ·m norman gate ·n north terrace ·o edward iii tower ·t the curfew tower windsor castle occupies a large site of more than thirteen acres five hectares and combines the features of a fortification a palace and a small town the present-day castle was created during a sequence of phased building projects culminating in the reconstruction work after a fire in 1992 it is in essence a georgian and victorian design based on a medieval structure with gothic features reinvented in a modern style middle ward at the heart of windsor castle is the middle ward a bailey formed around the motte or artificial hill in the centre of the ward the motte is 50 ft 15 m high and is made from chalk originally excavated from the surrounding ditch the keep called the round tower on the top of the motte is based on an original 12thcentury building the eastern exit from the ward is guarded by the norman gatehouse this gatehouse which in fact dates from the 14th century is heavily vaulted and decorated with carvings including surviving medieval lion masks traditional symbols of majesty to form an impressive entrance to the upper war upper ward


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the upper ward of windsor castle comprises a number of major buildings enclosed by the upper bailey wall forming a central quadrangle the state apartments run along the north of the ward with a range of buildings along the east wall and the private royal apartments and the king george iv gate to the south with the edward iii tower in the south-west corner the buildings in the upper ward are characterised by the use of small bits of flint in the mortar for galletting originally started at the castle in the 17th century to give stonework from disparate periods a similar appearance the skyline of the upper ward is designed to be dramatic when seen from a distance or silhouetted against the horizon state apartments the state apartments form the major part of the upper ward and lie along the north side of the quadrangle the modern building follows the medieval foundations laid down by edward iii with the ground floor comprising service chambers and cellars and the much grander first floor forming the main part of the palace.different rooms follow the classical gothic and rococo styles wyattville s most famous work are those rooms designed in a rococo style these rooms take the fluid playful aspects of this mid18th-century artistic movement including many original pieces of louis xv decoration but project them on a vastly inflated scale the grand reception room is the most prominent of these rococo designs some parts of the state apartments were completely destroyed in the 1992 fire and this area was rebuilt in a style called downesian gothic named after the architect giles downes lower ward the lower ward lies below and to the west of the round tower reached through the norman gate originally largely of medieval design most of the lower ward was renovated or reconstructed during the mid-victorian period on the north side of the lower ward is st george s chapel this huge building is the spiritual home of the order of the knights of the garterand dates from the late 15th and early 16th century designed in the perpendicular gothic style at the east end of st george s chapel is the lady chapel converted into the albert memorial chapel between 1863­73 to commemorate the life of prince albert at the west end of the lower ward is the horseshoe cloister this curved brick and timber building is said to have been designed to resemble the shape of a fetlock park windsor castle s position on top of steep ground has meant that the castle s gardens are limited in scale windsor castle is surrounded by extensive parkland the immediate area stretching to the east of the castle is a 19th-century creation known as the home park the home park adjoins the northern edge of the more extensive windsor great park occupying some 4,800 acres 1,900 ha and including some of the oldest broadleaved woodlands in europe in the home park to the north of the castle stands a private school st george s.


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sitografia http http http http http made by cazzulo sara celenza giorgia ghiazza lucia ravazzano alessandro vrinceanu adelina


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hampton court palace the maze hampton court has grown from humble beginnings in the 11th century to one of the finest palaces in the world over 800 years of history can be explored through this magnificent palace whose previous owners include cardinal wolsey henry viii and elizabeth i outside you can try not to get lost in the world s most famous maze or visit the beautiful hampton court gardens there are many exciting things to do from walking through the hampton court palace maze widely considered the most famous maze in the world to visiting the great hall of henry viii one of england s oldest and most fabled theaters its historic significance is evidenced by the fact that william shakespeare s troupe performed here in 1603 and 1604 today the palace is open to the public and a major tourist attraction it is cared for by an independent charity historic royal palaces which receives no funding from the government or the crown the palace s home park is the site of the annual hampton court palace festival and hampton court palace flower show along with st james s palace it is one of only two surviving palaces out of the many owned by henry viii 1


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the maze at hampton court was designed and planted in around 1700 by george london and henry wise for william iii it is possible the current maze replaces an earlier one on the site it was originally planted using hornbeam and latterly replanted and repaired using yew the maze covers a third of an acre and has half a mile of paths it is the uk s oldest surviving hedge maze the hampton court maze takes an average of 30-45 minutes to complete ernest law in 1926 said it is the most famous maze in the history of the world and immeasurably the one most visited the maze has been compared to a puzzle or a multicursal and is known for confusing and intriguing visitors with it is many twists turns and dead ends before the creation of the hampton court maze unicursal or single path mazes were the most popular from the maze in uk unlike the puzzle maze the single path maze has one path usually in a spiral shape winding to a centre point the original design has since been modified due to gaps in the hedge offering more ways to the center and more wrong turns some of them ending in loops the maze is now the remnants of what was once the may winding paths of william iii s wilderness garden initially comprised of hornbeams the maze has since been repaired over the years and was completely replaced with yew in the 1960s 2


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a project to restore hornbeam to the maze has been introduced with hornbeam recently planted in the center to ascertain it is viability in modern day wear-and-tear conditions hampton court maze is the most famous maze in the world trying to navigate this wonderful maze on sunny day is one of the most popular london attractions with young couples set on the thames a few miles out of london hampton court is a great day out you get to find out how the tudors lived with trips around the bedrooms kitchens wine cellars and great hall highlights include an original real tennis court that is still in use and the world famous maze the gardens and riverside walks are fabulous and there are several places to eat or grab a coffee or cake on site parking is available but it is also close to the tube and can be reached by boat in summer this is the perfect way to get children interested in history hampton court brings it to life if you are staying in london it is well worth a trip out this is where the legendary takes of henry the 8th happened hampton court maze is also popular with those tourist that have a interest in london s royal history hampton court maze is located in the grounds of the medieval hampton court palace famously home to british monarchs like henry viii and king william of orange the palace is located in leafy richmond upon thames in south-west london perhaps london s most picturesque borough it is located amongst 60 acres of lush riverside gardens and is without a doubt one of london s most tranquilly set attraction 3


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the tourist often bring the children to the city to enjoy this low cost attraction during the olympic games of london 2012 the olympic torch was accompanied by an official inside the hampton court maze in case the torchbearer got lost the torch was then taken to the gloriana row barge by rower matthew pinsent since may 2005 the final stage of the project was a new audio installation entitled trace this permanent art installation has been created by internationally renowned sound artists greyworld commissioned by historic royal palaces through the artpoint trust drawing on the idea of the history maze as a palace of furtive conversation and flirtation greyworld have created a gentle sound work that affects the visitors experience of their journey through the labyrinth visitors will be enticed along the green corridors tempted by tantalising sound a fragment of music a snatch of laughter the seductive rustle of fine silks and the whispers of an illicit conversation that will disappear around the winding paths 4


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at the centre of the maze touch-sensitive benches also create subtle sounds as visitors sit to relax and contemplate their journey into and their strategy to find their way out of the maze over a thousand self-generating sounds have been incorporated into the maze ensuring the visitors will never experience the work in the same way twice if you visit the hampton court maze you will find a map at the entrance to the maze if you compare this map with the reality,you will see that it is the original map without the new gaps and is therefore wrong if you tried to use this map you would get as lost as harris did in real life the entrance and exit are separate although next door to each other just a couple of generations ago the hampton court maze was probably the only one anyone had ever heard of but mazes have become so popular since then that they are springing up all over the country not just in stately homes and gardens but in smaller private gardens as well this makes the task even harder for the hampton court team who have the headache of trying to make their maze as smart and exciting as the modern ones but at the same time doing their best to preserve what is in effect a living antique 5


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there are several accounts of people losing themselves in the maze both in literature and reality one of the most popular if exaggerated accounts of navigating the labyrinth is given by 19th century british humorist jerome k jerome in his 1889 novel three men in a boat he describes one character studying a map of the hampton maze announcing it should hardly be called a maze as it is so simple the three men proceed to haughtily navigate the puzzle only to become lost and circle around the center repeatedly until they had to call for the groundkeeper s help sitography http http maze http http http http http http http 6



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