The Chile Specialist nº 56

 

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1st Quarter 2004 - 30 pg.

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the chile specialist the official newsletter of the chile specialist association 1st quarter 2004 no 56 the chile specialist association is an affiliate of the american philatelic society editor · charles p blickle · 511 moss ave · clearwater fl 33759-3432 · cblickle@worldnet.att.net publisher · carlos vergara · carlos@cvphoto.net editor emeritus · leland crane · llcrane@juno.com what is going on by pete blickle at the january stamp show in norfolk virginia the american philatelic society recognized the chile specialist association as an aps affiliate what this means other than wider exposure i am not yet sure however time will tell there is an excellent article on farther away island by steve pendleton in the march 29 2004 issue of linn s stamp news page 44 pendleton writes for linn s about his collecting interests of antarctica and far-away islands isla mas afuera was at one time a penal colony the article has several very good illustrations including the only colonia penal de mas afueraencomienda i have ever seen this postal address label was used for mailing food parcels to the prisoners as a follow up to ross towle s ar article in the last issue there is a reference to ar s in collecting made easy in the march 1 2004 linn s stamp news on page 6 contents what is going on by pete blickle member mail bag cover of the quarter by bill lenarz rapa nui by pete blickle correo aereo testart by pete blickle valdivia s locally printed two centavos presidentes by bill lenarz disinfected mail by jorg maier 1897 vicuña germany cover with 3 tren by ross a towle the 1899-1900 issue of papel sellado by ross a towle valparaíso by Álvaro pacheco the chile specialist no 56 page 1 of 30 page page page pages pages pgs pages page pages pages 1 2 3-5 5 6-9 10-18 19-20 21 22-26 27-30

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member mail bag sent in from bert huizing in the chile specialist vol 51 page 21 i read in ramblings from ross about the peso roulette on cover i have some remarks and questions about this matter the destination of this international parcel postcard is not switzerland it is civezzano situated nearby trento in the italian province of alto adige-trentino south tirol in 1908 this area was austrian territory and called süd south tirol it can be recognized by the austrian style,postmark of civezzano in 1919 the area of south tirol was gained by italy very interesting is the route of this card it was sent via metz situated in the alsace north east of france and in 1908 german territory which can be recognized by the german style postmark it can be supposed the parcel was sent onwards by train to trento trient german name it is not clear where the card arrived in europe possibilities are le havre france or antwerp belgium from my collection i can show a postcard sent from iquique 4 february 1898 to braunschweig germany the card shows no arrival or transit marks except lille 15 march 1898 lille is situated in the north of france the main conformities with the 1908 piece where did they arrive in europe why both sent via the north of france maybe members have other examples of pieces which show these kinds of transit marks and routes john brown sent a letter about the first airmail stamps issued by the chilean post office the 1927 testart issue and a comment concerning the valparaiso alta mar cancel that appeared several issues ago he asked if anyone could write knowledgeably about the testart issue i do not know how knowledgeable i am about the subject but i have set down what little i know in this issue s article and welcome additional comments john s remarks about the alta mar which was mailed on his 21st birthday the valparaiso alta mar postmark is definite and thus needs explanation i suspect that the daily correspondence from this department was reasonably substantial and those letters destined for coastal towns were bundled and sent to valparaiso direct to the maritime postal section either as a one-off mistake or perhaps less likely established custom mail intended for valparaiso environs was included and thus received the alta mar reception mark many chilean rate questions are answered in ross towle s newly-published book postal rates of chile-tarifas postales de chile-1766-1959 the six chapters of this easy-to-use book include an introduction and how-to-use section chapter 2 covers domestic postal rates chapter 3 covers international postal rates chapter 4 is devoted to special services chapter 5 to airmail surcharges and chapter 6 contains illustrated examples of the various rates there is also an appendix of post offices in 1928 listed by town department and province this book is invaluable for students of chilean philately or for anyone who collects the postal history of chile this handy reference book is available from chilecollector see more info on ordering on page 9 of this newsletter the chile specialist no 56 page 2 of 30

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cover of the quarter by bill lenarz the chile specialist no 56 page 3 of 30

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cover of the quarter continued this cover is also shown in ross towle s book postal rates of chile 1766-1959 2003 chile collector space limitations did not allow a full description of the cover and ross who watched me recover from sticker shock as i purchased the cover encouraged me to prepare this note ross consulted his marvelous archives and generously provided information on postal arrangements be tween afghanistan and india afghan proce dures for incoming mail and the kabul postage due cancel on back of the cover the cover was sent by bernardo stolzenbach from valdivia and the stamps are socked on the nose with valdivia june 13 1926 cancels brinkgreve and west the postal history of chile proud-bailey co 2002 illustrate this cancel and give dates seen by the authors as 1910-14 1918-21 their illustrated month and day is september 18 a date that i do not have on a cover from chile they also illustrate a contemporary registered cancel it is not unusual to find chilean registered covers with stamps canceled by ordinary mail cancels the r oficina de orijen etiquette of the left side does not have the town of origin filled in which is often the case for registered covers of this period in addition to the registration number in the etiquette there is a 13165/8 in blue crayon below and to the right of the etiquette this probably was registration accounting notation applied by one of the receiving post offices the afghani script notation below the stamps appears to be in a different hand than the address and is a complete mystery to me the cover was franked with one 10c and three 40c presidentes for a total of $1.30 this paid the upu registration fee of 50c 50c for first 20g and 30c for the next 20g it is not surprising that this is a double weight cover it is large european size and has the remains of a wax seal on the back the 10c catalogo especializado chile 2000 136 is the type iv typograph frameoffset center that is expected for 1926 covers the cover is addressed to herr r hesse c/o deutsch-afghanische company in kabul via peshawar prior to 1925 mail to afghanistan arrived at the peshawar post office in india and was transferred to the afghan post office in that city starting in 1925 such mail was brought to the railhead post office at landikhana india and then given to afghan border officials who delivered it to the border afghan post office a redirection to landikhana is in red script under the via peshawar peshawar now in pakistan and in afghanistan in the 19th century is close to the afghan border the back of the cover reveals some more hints on its route there is a santiago cancel partially covered by an afghan stamp there also is a mostly covered cancel showing eg which may be last letters of reg but the location is not legible the cover probably went by rail to santiago and then by rail to buenos aires at that point it may have gone by sea to london for shipment to india however the santiago cancel is dated on the 20th or latter suggesting that the cover may have not been dispatched from there until transportation via a more direct route to india was available the landikhana mark indicates that it arrived august 3 1926 51 days after being posted in valdivia afghanistan did not join the upu until april 1 1928 m w tyrrell the universal postal union members stamps 1874-1974 1974 van dahl and required recipients to pay local rates for incoming mail the afghan stamps on the back were canceled with the chile specialist no 56 page 4 of 30

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cover of the quarter continued kabul postage due cancels the other cancel was too distorted by water for ross to decipher the two 30 paisas and one 20 paisas stamps of the 1921 issue paid for unknown local rates but it is likely that both local letter and registry fees were charged i am not aware of any other presidente covers to afghanistan or to any other non-upu country that assessed charges for local rates other countries that joined after 1911 tyrrell and may have charged incoming mail include china 1914 san marino 1915 danzig 1921 latvia 1921 yugoslavia 1921 albania 1922 estonia 1922 lithuania 1922 saudi arabia 1927 iraq 1929 yemen arab republic 1930 monaco 1955 nepal 1956 and lichtenstein 1962 the above list does not include countries that were control by others presidente covers to any of the above countries would be interesting and especially so if also franked with local stamps i would be delighted to learn of any such covers rapa nui by pete blickle i recently purchased three 1883 5 cts blue no.28 stamps over-printed rapa nui the printing is vertical top to bottom and bottom to top and diagonal from upper left corner to lower right corner and vice versa i had never seen these over-prints before and the question arises are they legitimate or someone s idea of fun on sunday like some hahn reprint varieties chile occupied easter island rapa nui in the personages of fr hermano eugenio eyraud and comandante policarpo toro etal in 1888 as commemorated by the ocupacion isla de pascua issue of 1940 no 265 no 266 the time frame of the over-prints fits what about the overprint and the usage the chile specialist no 56 page 5 of 30

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correo aereo testart by pete blickle this article will set forth what little i know about testarts as far as i can determine the inception of the testarts was ley num 159-santiago 18 de diciembre de 1924 1 which gave luis testart basse authorization to start a domestic airline between iquique and concepcion and intermediate cities for a period of 12 years decreto no 2790-vistos de oficio no 3563 de la direccion general de correos y telegrafos 30 de marzo de 1927 1 signed by samuel ossa borne head of the departamento de correos authorized the concession to fly mail between santiago-valparaiso and back thus la compania de aeronavagacion sudamericana with a morane saulnier 125 hp monoplane christened the condor purchased from and piloted by eduardo deckert had its maiden flight on may 3 1927 with luis testart basse as the sole passenger the flight time from valparaiso to santiago was 35 minutes the express train time between the same two cities was about three hours and thirty minutes the first official flights were may 4 1927 and the line operated until the condor crashed in valparaiso on march 16 1928 1 the original order for the stamps which are overprinted correo aereo two blocks obliterating the previous 10 cts denomination and either 40 centavos 80 centavos 1 peso 20 cts 1 peso 60 cts or 2 pesos these stamps were issued may 3 1927 in the quantities of 50,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 and 15,000 respectively 2 the overprints were on a previously english order of a 1918 issue with the bust of o higgins in blue with a brown border to commemorate the battle of maipu the stamp when it arrived was found to have to have maipo rather than maipu and was shelved 1 figure 1 there is the common pro raza cinderella often mistaken for the unique proof of the testart issue which was issued in 1925 for a campaña sanitaria2 the pro raza is also the basis for fake testarts figure 1 illustrates a mint testart a pro raza and a fake testart it is my understanding that the testarts could not be sold to the public but were affixed to the letter at the post office by a postal clerk this begs the question of how do mint and unused testarts exist my hypothesis assumes that the postal clerks were honest and that the unused testarts are from the stock left after the march 16 1928 crash catalogo 2000 shows six plate position varieties for this issue so there exists either at least one sheet of the maipo issue not overprinted or sheets of testarts that were not correo aereo testart continued the chile specialist no 56 page 6 of 30

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burned i have seen no record of the quantity of this issue that was destroyed the rates domestic letters-10c for each 20g or fraction-lei 245 10 feb 1925 plus airmail surcharges ultima hora 10c for each 20g or fraction testart 40c for each 20g or fraction-2 may 19273 figure 2 the overwhelming majority of mail bearing testart franking were sent between the cities of santiago and valparaiso with the exception of the c p carlson covers mr carlson worked for the chilean exploration company a wholly owned subsidiary of the anaconda copper mining company the operator of the mining complex located at chuquicamata airmail covers sent to him from both valparaiso and santiago have the same franking as those of the same weight sent between the two cities the 10c domestic rate delivered the mail from the receiving airport to any city in the country fig 2 3 4 figure 3 correo aereo testart continued the chile specialist no 56 page 7 of 30

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figure 4 figure 5 of course there is always the oddball cover and even with the help of postal rates of chile i cannot understand the franking this registered airmail letter from c.p carlson to a.c rossler posted 5 may 1927 in valparaiso airmail via santiago has the 40c testart to handle the airmail surcharge fig 5 does the remaining 50c in postage cover the international rate and registration surcharge as well as the ultima hora surcharge the chile specialist no 56 page 8 of 30

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correo aereo testart continued there is also a fake sheet of 35 of the 2 peso testart photographically reproduced that is badly done as the blue o higgins is black and the sharpness of the brown border is missing this was described as what it is a fake and sold on ebay the seller has either disappeared been banned or has no more chilean material and i have not seen him for a while i would appreciate any further information concerning this issue references 1 los primeros correos aereos en chile [1919-1928 by freddy lemus l 2 catalogo especializado chile 2000-sellos postales y aereos sociedad filatelica de chile 3 postal rates of chile-tarifas postales de chile-1766-1959 by ross a towle new resource available now postal rates of chile 1766-1959 by ross a towle just published by and available exclusively from chilecollector indispensable for properly describing your postal history items and a fundamental resource for exhibiting this hardbound 240 page volume includes over 100 pages of full color illustrations a must have for all serious students and exhibitors of chilean postal history recently awarded a gold medal in philatelic literature postal rates of chile 1766-1959 is available for $67.50 postpaid within the u.s or $75.00 postpaid outside of the u.s copies can be ordered from carlos vergara carlos@cvphoto.net or directly on-line at www.chilecollector.com the chile specialist no 56 page 9 of 30

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valdivia s nose and other aspects of the locally printed two centavos presidentes by bill lenarz i have been putting together a one-frame exhibit on the two centavos presidentes and have encountered conflicting information about some aspects of the local printings and associated archival material this article discusses the conflicts and my attempts to resolve them more specifically i examine whether or not the die was re-engraved number of plates perforations shades dates of issues and the context of two archival items i dedicate this article to hamish reid hamish shares my interest in the presidentes and has been very helpful to me over the past decade he has been very generous in sharing his knowledge including sending me copies of his exhibit pages providing me with references that i didn t know about and by tactfully critically reviewing my previous studies while he has not lost his interest in stamps his eyesight has deteriorated to the point that he decided that he should dispose of his collections he continued to help me by offering to sell me his presidente material which includes stamps covers archive material and notes from other presidente collectors such as j r w purves g blank h potter j thomas and others i couldn t resist and the acquisition of his material added enough to what i already possessed to allow me to do this and many future studies while i am very happy to have his material i would prefer that he still be capable of checking my results with his material and pointing out where i may have erred review the typograph stamp is quite interesting because it was the first definitive postage stamp printed in chile since the 1867 printing of the imperf 5 centavos columbus by the chilean post office and there are collectable differences in shades perforations and plates chile had neither sufficient physical facilities nor trained personnel to begin printing its postage stamps without assistance the chilean ambassador to london augustin edwards mcclure also owner of the influential newspaper el mercurio facilitated an arrangement with thomas macdonald company of london to supply these needs macdonald designed the printing plant supplied much of the construction material presses steel for dies and plates electroplating equipment inks paper and perforators macdonald also assisted the government in hiring skilled english printers to help manage the plant and train chileans in security printing crafts dies and plates for the 2 centavos stamp were prepared by macdonald and sent to chile the talleres especies valoradas printed the stamps and the post office reportedly issued them september 2 1915 the first printing of the 2 centavos stamp was not well executed and generated complaints from the chilean government macdonald blamed the poor printing on ink that deteriorated during the voyage from england to chile they sent more ink and while the next printing was an improvement the die was eventually re-engraved and a new plate prepared i have found that stamp catalogs treat the various issues in a variety of fashions the chile specialist no 56 page 10 of 30

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valdivia s locally printed presidentes continued table 1 catalog listings of the locally printed 2 centavos presidente catalog scott 2002 socopo 1974 shade red red obscure red salmon red obscure red salmon rosered unclear ziegel red clear scarlet pale scarlet catalogo especializado 2000 obscure red orange red clear red salmon perforation 13.5 to 14.5 13.5x14.5 13.5x14.5 13.5x14.5 13.5x14.5 13.5x14.5 13.5x14.5 13.5x14,13.5,14 13.5x14,13.5,14 13.3x14.2 comb 13.8x14 line 13.3x14.2 comb 13.8x14 line 13.75 13.75 13.75 13.75 die differences no mention no mention no mention no mention no mention no mention no mention no mention no mention yes yes yes yes yes yes plate no mention no mention 130 stamps no mention no mention no mention no mention no mention no mention no mention no mention 130 stamps 130 stamps 100 stamps 100 stamps issue date 1915-1925 1915-1927 1915-1927 1915-1927 1915-1927 1915-1927 1915-1927 1915-1927 1915-1927 9/2/15 1918 9/2/15 feb-17 1918 1920 socopo 1985/86 michel 1996 stanley gibbons 1989 as shown in table 1 my review of catalog listings revealed considerable inconsistencies scott lived up to its reputation of not being useful to specialists of countries other than the us socopo listed three shades but only one perf did not discuss the die and gave little plate information michel gave three perfs for the presidente series as a whole and did not discuss the plates or die stanley gibbons noted two perfs but did not relate them to issue mentions a re-engraved die but did not discuss plates catalogo especializado provided the most complete treatment but only listed a 13.75 perf for all of the centavos values it omitted listing the approximately 13.5x14.5 perf listed by the other catalogs my experiences with collectors from chile indicate that they have much more interest in varieties of shade paper and watermark than in perf variations thus it is not surprising that the catalogo did not devote much attention to this field of philately the catalogo is the only catalog that mentioned that selvage of the second type can have bars there are also articles on the stamp but they don t completely clear up the confusion john n luff 1921 stated the 1c and 4c have been re-engraved and the designs altered but i cannot accept the claim of re-engraving for the 2 centavos i know that late impressions of the stamp are clearer and lighter in color than the early ones but i cannot find any trace of recutting or any alteration in the lines of the design i attribute the clearer impressions to a cleaned or possibly new plate a new lot of ink may also have something to do with the lighter impressions bonilla 1936 listed a 1915 printing in obscure red with panes of 130 stamps he also listed a 1918 printing from a re-engraved die with panes of 100 stamps he found that the background and frame are similar in the two die states but that the borders were better in the second state he also found that the major differences were in the bust of valdivia with notable improvements in the eyes mustache and goatee he also concluded that the stamps were printed in double panes of 130 or 100 stamps separated by a vertical column the chile specialist no 56 page 11 of 30

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valdivia s locally printed presidentes continued gutter which was the width of a stamp he pointed out horizontal perforations do not reach the edge of border selvage but completely cross gutters in some issues the gutter is completely blank other issues have printed vertical bars with horizontal lines in the gutter adelmann 1962 listed two types and that the first type occurred in plates of 130 stamps and that the second type was better he also listed a deep red 1915 and rose-red 1916 for the first type and a red 1918 and salmon 1920-22 for the second type he didn t mention different die states bonilla 1968 noted that the stamp was removed from circulation in early 1926 die states and plates figure 1 locally printed stamps 2x the left stamp is from the first printing of the first die state with ink that macdonald thought was damaged during shipment the middle stamp is from a later printing with lighter ink from the first die state the right stamp is from a plate made from die state ii note that the ink used for the middle stamp may have been lighter than for the right stamp because more details are visible in the hair but that the corner borders are much thicker on the stamps from the first die state stamps from three printings are shown in figure 1 the stamp from the first printing die state i was heavily inked and i can t blame the chilean authorities for complaining about its quality the borders are heavy details are poor and valdivia s effigy is poorly sculpted the second example is from the same die die state i but printed with lighter ink details in the face show better but it is poorly sculpted the third example is much better the borders are not as heavy and highlights give the face a more sculpted appearance highlighting was accomplished by thinning parts of some of the lines this is particularly noticeable in valdivia s nose and below his right eye figure 2 i also found that there is a constant subtle flaw in one of the vertical lines of the left rectangle that occurs in all stamps from die state i but not from die state 2 figure 3 i conclude that modifications were made to either the master die or a new and improved transfer die was prepared die state ii the improved eyes mustache and goatee noted by bonilla may have resulted from the use of lighter inks because these features show more detail in the middle stamp shown in figure 1 which is from die state i than in the shown example from die state ii also i have seen many examples from die state ii with borders that are nearly as heavy as some examples from die state i i not be able the chile specialist no 56 page 12 of 30

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valdivia s locally printed presidentes continued figure 2 head details 5x from stamp printed with lighter ink from first die state left and stamp printed from second die state middle note that in the second die state there are areas of thinned lines outlined in the right illustration that cause the nose and the area below and to the right of the right eye to be better highlighted to determine who prepared the 100 subject plates and thus do not know if the re-engraving was done by macdonald in london or the talleres in chile luff who is well known as the discoverer of the lithograph 5 centavos imperf columbus issue may not have had examples from die state ii when he did his work figure 3 detail 8x from die state i stamp showing constant flaw nick in vertical shading line of left rectangle there is no doubt that there were at least two plates because the stamps were issued in panes of 100 and 130 stamps i have a multiple of the bottom 6 rows with selvage from the 130 subject plate die state i printed with heavy ink all of the stamps of the fourth column have the primary transfer flaw shown in figure 4 and a previous owner noted in the selvage the flaw and all 13 implying that all 13 stamps of the fourth column had the flaw pete blickle lent me a multiple with the top three rows and selvage from the same printing all of the stamps of the fourth column have the flaw selvage of neither multiple has bars the chile specialist no 56 page 13 of 30 figure 4 detail 10x from die state i stamp showing primary transfer flaw blemish in e of correos

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valdivia s locally printed presidentes continued figure 5 detail 10x of stamp from die state ii pane without bars in selvage showing transfer flaw 9 breaks or thins in horizontal shading line below a of centavos figure 6 detail 10x of stamp from die state ii pane without bars in selvage showing transfer flaw 10 break or thin in horizontal shading line to right of base of bottom right ray of right star i have two complete 100 subject panes with selvage from the second die state neither pane has bars in the selvage the two panes have a similar shade but have different perfs there is a small dot in the margin about 0.5 mm nw of subject 1 in both panes i have been able to discern subtle primary transfer flaws in columns 2 3 5 6 8 9 and 10 most stamps in column 9 have transfer flaw 9 which is shown in figure 5 all stamps in column 10 except row 1 of one of the panes have transfer flaw 10 which is shown in figure 6 it appears that the panes come from the same plate and that the plate was prepared from rows of 10 that were copied from a master row of 10 i have a block of 4 with selvage with bars on the right figure 7 and a vertical strip of three with selvage with bars on the left examination proved that these stamps were die state i the face was not well highlighted and the block of 4 did not show transfer flaws 9 and 10 this surprised me i expected that the stamps may have come from a new plate but also expected that the stamps would be die state ii because the catalogo only listed barred selvage from panes of 100 stamps i discovered the die state i constant flaw figure 3 when studying these stamps and then found that all of the stamps i have previously classified as die state i had the flaw the barred selvage stamps have the orange red shade listed by the catalogo for panes of 130 stamps i have blocks of 7x2 and 5x2 with this shade the fourth column of two stamps of both blocks has the transfer flaw shown in figure 4 for die state i i believe that only one plate was made from die state i or if another plate was figure 7 block of 4 of die state i with barred selvage 1.1x the chile specialist no 56 page 14 of 30

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valdivia s locally printed presidentes continued made the same clichés were used it is possible that the barred selvage multiples came from a 100 subject pane constructed from the same clichés used for the 130 subject pane perforations the late jack thomas of england extensively studied perforations of the presidentes he did not publish his results but stanley gibbons used his notes for the basis of its statements about the presidente perforations i agree that the panes are either comb perf 13.3x14.2 or lined perf 13.8x14 these values are averages and individual measurements can vary the 13.75 perf listed by the catalogo could easily be from a line perf stamp measured to the nearest 0.25 philatelists have not found other centavo valued locally printed presidentes with line perfs thomas also noticed that many of the comb perf stamps had a wide tooth either just below or just above the horizontal row of perfs he did not speculate on the cause i looked at the pattern of bent perf pins in the vertical columns and found that the comb perforator only did one row at a time the perforator dimensions did not exactly match stamp dimensions wide teeth reflected a slight gap between adjacent applications of the perforator and the location of wide teeth reflected the orientation of the sheet with respect to the perforator widths of wide teeth are consistent within a multiple line perf stamps produced by the talleres are on the average much bettered centered and distances between lines much more consistent than stamps produced by the american bank note company shades and dates of issue i agree with the catalogs that the first issued stamps were a heavy or unclear red or scarlet while the catalogo lists the issue date as september 2 1915 i have not been able to find a copy dated earlier than october 7 1915 the 2 centavos columbus stamps printed by the american bank note company were still being used in late 1915 and there may not have been much demand for the locally printed stamp in september i have examples of an orange-red shade from as early as february 1917 as indicated by the catalogo but i also have a red shade from lighter ink than the first releases from as early as july 1916 my earliest die state ii stamp is clear red and dated march 9 1918 my first copy of a line perf stamp is dated july 14 1920 my first copy of an orange red shade salmon is dated october 2 1920 a more distinct pale salmon shade appeared in 1922 the pale salmon shade is always comb perf my earliest copy is dated june 20 1922 line perf stamps are more common than comb perf from late 1920 through early 1922 and scarce after 1923 i only have two copies of the stamp dated after september 1925 and it was withdrawn in early 1926 bonilla 1968 towle 2003 lists two 2 centavos rates from january 23 1912 to october 24 1928 printed matter books magazines and music 2 centavos for first 50g and circulars 2 centavos for each example perhaps he missed rate changes that occurred in 1925 and eliminated the need for 2 centavos stamps archival material i have an archival item related to the 2 centavos stamps that is not well understood the item figure 8 was described by moorhouse 1988 there is a handwritten note in addition to what is shown in figure 8 that reads chile for surface size of work as british 1 die 1 color 2 cents 3 dies surrounds 10 cents 15 cents 20 cents 1 die head valdivia s locally printed presidentes continued the chile specialist no 56 page 15 of 30

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