2011 CNSE Faculty Research Report

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2011 CNSE Faculty Research Report

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we welcome you to the college of nanoscale science and engineering cnse of the university at albany state university of new york nanotechnology is rapidly changing the face of our world broadening our view via unprecedented access to information unique opportunities to influence our environment and an evergrowing ability to engineer materials for novel and previously unimaginable applications at cnse we combine world-class academic pursuits in the areas of nanoscience nanoengineering and nanobioscience with a focus on rapid transfer of novel concepts and ideas into industrial use to this end we have established a unique industry-university-government partnership model that provides access to state-of-the-art 300mm wafer processing capabilities required for rapid insertion of such concepts into the mainstream manufacturing menu cnse provides an environment that bridges the gap between university research opportunities and manufacturing implementation nanoscience refers to the observation identification description discovery experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of nanoscale phenomena nanoengineering is the application of nanoscience principles to practical ends such as the design manufacture and operation of efficient and functional structures machines processes and systems on the atomic scale nanoeconomics is the formulation study and analysis of the economic and business principles underlying the development and deployment of nanoscale know how products and systems nanobioscience refers to the application of nanoscale scientific concepts and principles to the study of biological and biomedical structures and systems in addition nanobioscience encompasses cnse s nanohealth initiative which is aimed at developing novel nanotechnology applications in nanomedicine including nanotoxicology and environmental and public health michael liehr cnse vice president for research

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table of contents the nanoscience constellation ion beam laboratory 6 hassaram bakhru ph.d professor and head nanoscience constellation mengbing huang ph.d associate professor of nanoscience euv research projects 10 robert brainard ph.d professor of nanoscience metrology 15 alain diebold ph.d empire innovation professor of nanoscale science executive director center for nanoscale metrology defects and microstructural engineering 19 kathleen dunn ph.d associate professor of nanoscience materials fabrication and integration 25 eric eisenbraun ph.d associate professor of nanoscience nanoelectronics for cmos and post-cmos 27 robert geer ph.d professor of nanoscale science vice president for academic affairs and chief academic officer e-beam lithography research 34 timothy groves ph.d empire innovation professor of nanoscale science and associate head nanoscience constellation spin-transfer graphene research 40 vincent labella ph.d associate professor of nanoscience microanalysis and image analysis 43 eric lifshin ph.d professor of nanoscience reliability science and engineering 46 james lloyd ph.d senior research scientist x-ray scattering 50 richard matyi ph.d professor of nanoscience compound semiconductor research 52 serge oktyabrsky ph.d professor of nanoscience

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surface science 56 carl ventrice ph.d associate professor of nanoscience the nanoengineering constellation plasmonic based chemical sensors 59 michael carpenter ph.d associate professor of nanoengineering e-beam lithography and mask writing 61 john hartley ph.d professor and head nanoengineering constellation device physics 64 ji ung lee ph.d empire innovation professor of nanoscale engineering static and dynamic photoresist shrinkage effects in euv photoresists 66 warren montgomery assistant vice president advanced technology business development euv technology team 68 warren montgomery assistant vice president advanced technology business development nanoelectronics 69 bin yu ph.d professor of nanoengineering the nanoeconomics constellation economics of high technology industries 73 unnikrishnan pillai ph.d assistant professor of nanoeconomics nanotechnology economic impact report 77 laura schultz ph.d assistant professor of nanoeconomics the nanobioscience constellation sensors components and models of stress and damage signaling 80 thomas begley ph.d assistant professor of nanobioscience

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substrate-selective patterning virus-based nanoparticles for cancer therapy 84 magnus bergkvist ph.d assistant professor of nanobioscience occupational and environmental health and safety of nanomaterials 87 sara brenner m.d m.p.h assistant professor of nanobioscience and assistant vice president for nanohealth initiatives nano-enabled biotechnology 93 nathaniel cady ph.d assistant professor of nanobioscience development of cmos-compatible resistive memory devices 99 nathaniel cady ph.d assistant professor of nanobioscience wafer processing and nanobioscience research 101 james castracane ph.d professor and head nanobioscience constellation cancer cell metastasis and nanoscale topography 105 nadine hempel ph.d assistant professor of nanobioscience development of nano-based therapeutics to limit cancer aging and infectious disease processes 110 j andres melendez ph.d professor of nanobioscience and associate head nanobioscience constellation stem cell biology and bio-nems/mems 114 janet paluh ph.d associate professor of nanobioscience mammalian and microbial cell bioprocessing 117 susan sharfstein ph.d associate professor of nanobioscience gene expression 121 scott tenenbaum ph.d associate professor of nanobioscience nanobioengineering stem cell technology 125 yubing xie ph.d assistant professor of nanobioscience

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nanoscience constellation nanoscience refers to the observation identification description discovery experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of nanoscale phenomena.

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the nanoscience constellation ion beam laboratory h bakhru and m huang scope ion beam characterization rbs nra pixe high-res rbs microbeam and fabrication ion implantation goal fabrication and characterization of nanoscale and microscale devices and structures for electronic and photonic applications 2011 accomplishments topic 1 fabrication of embedded ag nanoparticles in silicon for photovoltaic applications fabrication of ag nanoparticles using ion implantation thermal deposition and annealing has been achieved with the extrion 400kv implanter and dynamitron 2mev implanter rbs data indicates large amounts of ag gettered to cavity regions that can be placed at a desired depth by tailoring the implantation energy figure 1 6

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the nanoscience constellation · n kadakia m huang and h bakhru embedded silver nanoparticle fabrication for surface plasmon-enhanced silicon photovoltaics spie conf proc 8111 2011 doi:10.1117/12.891638 n kadakia m huang and h bakhru fabrication of subsurface metallic nanoparticles for enhanced carrier generation in silicon-based photovoltaics mrs conf proc 1322 mrss111322-b06-07 2011 doi:10.1557/opl.2011.1104 · topic 2 laser annealing of semiconductors-dopant diffusion and activation of boron in silicon depth profiling of boron in silicon was achieved using boron nuclear reaction analysis combined with thin film sectioning a depth resolution of less than 5 Å was achieved using these techniques laser annealed samples with junction depth less than 10 nm was characterized using this method defect characterization of laser annealed samples showed increased amount of defects near the surface the concentration profile can be calculated from c z n bn -1 bn tn where c[zn is the concentration of boron at depth zn bn-1 is the boron concentration before ozone oxidation bn is the boron concentration after hf etching and tn is the thickness of the silicon layer removed using thin film sectioning this experiment can be repeated continuously until we profile the concentration of boron to the desired depth as shown in figure 2 figure 2 · lakshmanan vanamurthy mengbing huang hassaram bakhru high resolution depth profiling of boron ultra shallow junctions to be submitted to the journal of vacuum science and technology a 7

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the nanoscience constellation topic 3 fabrication of freestanding linbo3 thin films via he implantation and femtosecond laser ablation a combination of ion-implantation exfoliation and femtosecond laser ablation was used to fabricate thin micrometers-thick single-crystal films of a complex oxide linbo3 the process physics for the method is bounded by the threshold for ablation and the onset of laser thermal out-diffusion of the implanted he used in exfoliation selective etching in this work we have demonstrated ablative lateral patterning of implanted lno followed by hf-mediated exfoliation and shown that precisely formed shapes can be obtained at useful patterning rates in particular we have demonstrated that trenches up to the implantation depth could be ablated in implanted samples and that patterned films could then be exfoliated from their parent crystal our results show that this ablative writing method has a clear laser power process window low power reduces process rate while a relatively high power level drives off implanted he thus preventing subsequent hf selective etching for exfoliation figure 3 · · · figure 4 avishai ofan ophir gaathon lihua zhang kenneth evans-lutterodt sasha bakhru hassaram bakhru yimei zhu david welch and richard m osgood jr twinning and dislocation pileups in heavily implanted linbo3 phys rev b 83 064104 2011 ophir gaathon avishai ofan jerry i dadap lakshmanan vanamurthy sasha bakhru hassaram bakhru and richard m osgood fabrication of freestanding linbo3 thin films via he implantation and femtosecond laser ablation j vac sci technol a 28 462 2010 m lilienblum a ofan Á hoffmann o gaathon l vanamurthy s bakhru h bakhru r m osgood and e soergel low-voltage nanodomain writing in he-implanted lithium niobate crystals appl phys lett 96 082902 2010 8

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the nanoscience constellation topic 4 fabrication and analysis of embedded nickel nanoparticles in silicon for spintronic applications cavities were created by hydrogen implantation and annealing inside a silicon substrate which were then decorated by implanted nickel this has been achieved using the extrion 400kv implanter and the dynamitron 2mev implanter figure 6 figure 5 figure 6 moment emu vs magnetic field oe figure 7 figure 8 9

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the nanoscience constellation euv research projects brainard group scope euv photoresist fundamental research goal to determine the root-cause of the degradation of ler in euv resist thin films and to evaluate new nanoparticle ligands for improved euv lithographic properties 2011 accomplishments topic 1 ler limitations of euv thin film resists mechanistic studies into root causes funded by sematech published at euv symposium 11/11 and spie advanced lithography 2/12 as euv lithography advances toward better and better resolution the thickness of resist films must decrease to minimize pattern collapse unfortunately as the resists get thinner their ler performance degrades figure 1 our primary objective in this program is to determine the root-cause of the degradation of ler in euv resist thin films in this project we lithographically evaluated resist ler performance as a function of resist optical density tg and substrate to explore optical density we designed a series of polymers with fluorine content in the range from 3 to 50 weight percent similarly to explore glass transition tg we designed a series of polymers with tg s in the range from 80-140oc for each of these sets of polymers we evaluated the ler performance as a function of film thickness from 20-90 nm lastly we studied the lithographic properties of an open source and commercial euv resist as a function of substrate all ler vs thickness curves have been evaluated using a single mathematical model 10

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the nanoscience constellation a b film thickness 120 nm 60 nm 30 nm figure 1 lithographic performance of four resists as a function of film thickness topic 2 advanced ligands for hfo2 nanoparticle resists funded by sematech published at euv symposium 11/11 and spie advanced lithography 2/12 as euv prints features with increasingly smaller cds the thickness of the resist films will need to decrease unfortunately however traditional organic resists will be unable to provide the necessary etch resistance in these thin films in response our collaborators at cornell university have developed euv photoresists based on hafnium oxide nanoparticles resist capable of resolving 40-nm lines with 6 mj/cm2 sensitivity in this project we conducted three studies aimed at providing new nanoparticle ligands for improved euv lithographic properties figure 2 we conducted thermodynamic studies that determined the relative ligand binding energies of several ligand types we designed and synthesized strongly-bound ligands capable of participating in free-radical imaging reactions and are capable of providing nanoparticle films that are aqueous developable oh oh f3c o p ho o ho ooop ho o ho s o o ho cf3 oh s o o ho figure 2 new ligands for hafnium oxide nanoparticle resist 11

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the nanoscience constellation topic 3 confidential euv resist projects stable acid amplifiers for euv lithography confidential funded by an industrial partner the microelectronics industry is capable of printing images in photoresists with 2022 nm resolution with good sensitivity and low line edge roughness ler in 2016 this industry will need to be able to print images with 11 nm resolution however the materials properties of the photoresists and the diffusion length of photoelectrons and secondary electrons generated in these photoresists will need to reach higher control most euv photoresists image using mechanisms based on acid catalysis this catalytic acid is produced in these resists when photoacid generators pags interact with photons and electrons this research project is aimed at producing advanced pags for use in euv lithography one challenge facing the developers of euv resists is the need to simultaneously improve resolution line-edge roughness ler and sensitivity however these characteristics are inversely related a relationship commonly referred to as the rls trade-off euv resists are composed primarily of organic polymers and photoacid generators pags during exposure to extreme ultraviolet euv 13.5 nm light the pags produce strong fluorinated acids acid amplifiers are compounds that detect an acid signal from pag and produce additional acid this can be helpful in a photoresist by creating more acid in exposed regions thereby creating faster resists this paper is focused on the development of stable acid amplifiers aa and pags that produce lithographically useful strong fluorinated acids it has been shown that fluorinated sulfonic acids give improved lithographic performance due to more efficient catalysis with decreased diffusion this ultimately allows the photoresist to have improved sensitivity and better resolution central to the design of new acid amplifiers for euv lithography is the need to control three properties · · · acid strength catalytic acids should be as strong as possible which is best done by incorporating fluorine atoms into sulfonic acids acid diffusion generated acids should diffuse as little as possible which can be done through covalent linkage to polymer molecules stability acid amplifiers should be as stable as possible in the absence of catalytic acid and be thermally unstable in the presence of acid unfortunately acid amplifiers are significantly less stable as the strength of the acid generated by them increases figure 3 shows twelve first-order thermal decomposition 12

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the nanoscience constellation rate constants as a function of acid strength as predicted pka s and acid-amplifier body type figure 4 shows a plot of log decomposition rate vs pka of the acid generated by the aa for the twelve compounds shown in figure 3 the log-log plot is linear with r2 all greater than 0.98 we have developed a new type of aa that provides 4-5 orders of magnitude greater stability when the acid generated is pentafluorosulfonic acid and can produce a stable aa that produces one of the strongest acids known triflic acid the design and structures of several additional aas will be presented along with their lithographic performance predicted pka 0.5 sulfonic acid so3h o oso2r oh oso2r o oso2r oh oso2r -1.1 cf3 so3h f3c 16 21 f f f 3.6 5.1 73 1.6 2.4 37 1.2 1.7 33 -1.2 -2.2 so3h f f 240 figure 3 first-order dissolution rates of acid amplifiers as a function of body trigger and acid precursor 3 2 o oh a oso2r logdecomposition rate 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 b oso2r 4-5 order of magnitude improvement in stability oh body a body b body c body d body e o c oso2r new aa body-type that will be disclosed during spie presentation and manuscript d oso2r -4 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 pka figure 4 a new aa body/trigger combination provides 10,000 to 100,000 times greater stability than the previously published acid amplifiers a-d 13

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the nanoscience constellation · · confidential euv resist projects photoacid generators for euv lithography confidential funded by an industrial partner confidential euv resist projects euv photoresists capable of 11-nm resolution confidential funded by an industrial partner topic 4 material development for biological applications effect of extracellular scaffold elasticity on salivary gland acinar cells funded by nih our group is collaborating with professor melinda larsen in the department of biological sciences at the university at albany the very long-term goal of our collaboration is to build three-dimensional polymer matrices that will enable the growth differentiation of epithelial cells so that functioning artificial salivary glands can be grown and implanted into patients it will take many years of research before this dream can become a reality however the research proposed here can provide critical first steps toward completing our overarching goal synthesis of multifunctional peg polymers our synthetic approach will allow us to control the composition of the polymer and by extension the properties of the hydrogel we will prepare peg polymers as random terpolymers from ethylene oxide eo monomers containing two important functionalities methacrylate groups omma for cross-linking and alkynes pomo for attachment of ikvav cell binding sites figure 5a the resulting peg backbone will be used to generate all hydrogel variants o eo o 5 pomo o o 10 omma o o a polymerize 10 crosslinkable groups oooooooo oh o o ho o o peg backbone 5 ikvav attachment sites using click chemistry med-high ikvav high ikvav 5 levels of x-linkers b c no ikvav low ikvav med ikvav figure 5 strategy for synthesis of peg hydrogels to systematically explore 25 combinations of ikvav and cross-linker levels 14

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