S07.1 Describe the Latest Development in Networks and Communications


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current and future development in networks and communications name form subject teacher 4 alamanda information and communication technology ict :


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1.0 introduction a computer network is a system of interconnected computers and peripheral devices for example it may connect computers printers scanners and cameras.communications is about the transfer of information from a sender across a distance to a receiver whilst computers communicate with digital signals the older forms ofcommunications technology such as telephones and radios use analog signals and others 2.0 mobile computing 2.1 definitions mobile computing is a generic term describing one s ability to use technology while moving as opposed to portable computers which are only practical for use while deployed in a stationary configuration many types of mobile computers have been introduced since the 1990s including the wearable computer personal digital assistant/enterprise digital assistant smartphone ultra-mobile pc 2.2 specification services and frequencies of mobile computing apple iphone 4s specifications umts/hsdpa/hsupa gsm/edge cdma ev-do rev a wifi bluetooth 4.0 wireless technology web browsing camera video photo mail attachment support sensors language and keyboard support dictionary support umts/hsdpa/hsupa 850 900 1900 2100 mhz gsm/edge 850 900 1800 1900 mhz cdma ev-do rev a 800 1900 mhz4 802.11b/g/n wi-fi 802.11n 2.4ghz only services frequencies


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3.0 internet technology and services 3.1 voip voice over internet protocol voip is a general term for a family of transmission technologies for delivery of voice communications over ip networks such as the internet or other packet-switched networks other terms frequently encountered and synonymous with voip are ip telephony internet telephony voice over broadband vobb broadband telephony and broadband phone internet telephony refers to communications services-voice facsimile and voicemessaging applications-that are transported via the internet rather than the public switched telephone network pstn the basic steps involved in originating an internet telephone call are conversion of the analog voice signal to digital format and compression/translation of the signal into internet protocol ip packets for transmission over the internet the process is reversed at the receiving end voip systems employ session control protocols to control the set-up and tear-down of calls as well as audio codes which encode speech allowing transmission over an ip network as digital audio via an audio stream codec use is varied between different implementations of voip and often a range of codes are used some implementations rely on narrowband and compressed speech while others support high fidelity stereo codes 3.2 blog a blog is a type of website usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary descriptions of events or other material such as graphics or video entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject others function as more personal online diaries a typical blog combines text images and links to other blogs web pages and


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other media related to its topic the ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs most blogs are primarily textual although some focus on art artlog photographs photoblog sketches sketchblog videos vlog music mp3 blog and audio podcasting micro-blogging is another type of blogging featuring very short posts 4.0 types of network one way to categorize the different types of computer network designs is by their scope or scale for historical reasons the networking industry refers are · pan · vpan · wlan · wimax 4.1 pan a personal area network pan is a computer network used for communication among computer devices including telephones and personal digital assistants close to one


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person the devices may or may not belong to the person in question the reach of a pan is typically a few meters pans can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves intrapersonal communication or for connecting to a higher level network and the internet an uplink personal area networks may be wired with computer buses such as usb and firewire a wireless personal area network wpan can also be made possible with network technologies such as irda bluetooth uwb z-wave and zigbee 4.2 vpn a virtual private networks vpn utilizes public telecommunications networks to conduct private data communications most vpn implementations use the internet as the public infrastructure and a variety of specialized protocols to support private communications through the internet a vpn provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to their organizations network a virtual private network can be contrasted with an expensive system of owned or leased lines that can only be used by one organization the goal of an vpn is to provide the organization with the same capabilities but at a much lower cost.


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internet hub home worksta tion branch office 4.3 wireless lan wlan a wireless lan wlan is a wireless local area network that links two or more computers or devices using spread-spectrum or ofdm modulation technology based to enable communication between devices in a limited area this gives users the mobility to move around within a broad coverage area and still be connected to the network.


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4.4 wimax worldwide interoperability for microwave access wimax is a communications technology that uses radio spectrum to transmit tens of megabits per second in bandwidth between digital devices such as laptop computers similar to wifi wimax brings with it the ability to transmit over far greater distances and to handle much more data 5.0 conclusion the digital world involving and the trends are changing making the world faster ever before and technology more stable mobility is all about today s world which took birth with the invention of the first pager in 1956 by the japanese new technologies are being implemented tested and applied in mobile computing making us and the future another step closer the internet is also getting better along the lines of the information age meanwhile types of network available for us is making computer networks and communications the new man s best friend the computer networks and communications are expanding rapidly each and every day making the sharing of information easier and faster mobile computing is now getting more high-tech by the day and now focused in small medium and large businesses and hence becoming a competitive industry in the global market mobile computing may be beneficial to the environment as less transportation will be utilised.


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this mobility aspect may be carried further in the people will interact via mobile stations eliminating the need to venture outside pf the house in conclusion the future of mobile computing looks increasingly exciting with the emphasis on compact small mobile computers that it may also be possible to have all the practicality of a mobile computer in the size of a hand held organizer or even smaller the working lifestyle will change with the majority of people working from home rather than commuting references ·http www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=mobile+computing&i=47137,00.as p28.072010 · http answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070629052817aaszjby28.072010 · http en.wikipedia.org/wiki/voice_over_internet_protocol28.072010 · http en.wikipedia.org/wiki/blog28.072010 ·http compnetworking.about.com/od/basicnetworkingconcepts/a/network_types.htm28 072010 · http en.wikipedia.org/wiki/personal_area_network28.072010 · http en.wikipedia.org/wiki/wireless_lan28.072010 · http www.mariosalexandrou.com/definition/wimax.asp28.072010 · http cell-phones.toptenreviews.com/smartphones/apple/apple-iphone-4s-details.html 28.07.2010



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