Teaching Beowulf

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a teacher s guide to the signet classic edition of beowulf by dana huff serieseditors w geiger ellis ed.d arthea j s reed ph.d university of georgia emeritus and university of north carolina retired

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a teacher s guide to the signet classic edition of beowulf 2 introduction beowulf s origins are mysterious while we do not know the identity of the author and we are unsure of its precise date of composition most scholars believe it was composed by a single christian author for a christian audience in anglosaxon england anywhere from the eighth to eleventh century beowulf was composed in the oral poetic tradition whether it was originally written or oral is not known the poem filled with biblical allusions to the old testament is also influenced by germanic oral tradition and old norse myth and legend beowulf is well suited for upper-grade high school students of all abilities adolescent readers will enjoy its action and adventure television shows such as xena warrior princess and hercules and movies like the 13th warrior based on michael crichton s eaters of the dead have helped pique student interest in stories of feudal heroes most upper-grade high school students previously have been introduced to epic poetry and its related concept of the epic hero in such works as the odyssey lower-ability students should be able to read and understand beowulf with the help of plot summaries and class discussions all students will benefit from learning about anglo-saxon customs and values through the study of this early poem in a modern european language this teaching guide is organized in three sections presenting suggestions to be used before beowulf is read while it is being read and after the reading is completed following these sections are a bibliography and a webliography for pursuing further study before reading before reading beowulf students should review the definitions of epic poetry a long narrative poem written in an elevated style which celebrates the deeds of a legendary hero or god and epic hero superhuman hero or god of an epic it may be helpful to discuss epics that the students have previously read such as the odyssey beowulf is noted especially for two literary devices alliteration and kenning upper-grade high school students should be familiar with alliteration or the repetition of similar sounds especially the initial consonant sound of a word or of a stressed syllable such as shild s strong son 23 line 19 alliteration is a literary device that was used frequently by anglo-saxons and burton raffel the translator of the signet classic edition has preserved as much of the alliteration as possible students should also be introduced to the germanic and anglo-saxon literary device of kenning kenning is usually a two-word metaphorical name for something such as sea-road for ocean 30 line 239 when neither element of the compound is a true name of the object it is a true kenning when one element is not a true name it is a half-kenning it also may be helpful for students to be introduced to the anglo-saxon tradition of the scop this will aid students in understanding some of the literary devices and other stylistic techniques that appear in beowulf scops were both composers and storytellers who traveled from court to court the entertainers of anglo-saxon times scops were expected to know a broad repertoire of tales and no doubt be able to compose tales in tribute to the patrons who financed them a possible explanation for the segment about offa a historical king of mercia from 757-796 83-84 students will benefit from learning about the comitatus or germanic code of loyalty thanes or warriors swore loyalty to their king for whom they fought and whom they protected in return the king was expected to be generous with gifts of treasure and land the king also protected his thanes kings were highly praised for their generosity and hospitality warriors were expected to be brave courageous and loyal their reputation for such qualities was very important as evidenced by beowulf s description of the swimming match with brecca 40-41 students should be made aware of the germanic custom of paying wergild or man-payment the practice of paying a slain man s family to atone for the deed and to prevent them from taking revenge against the manslayer wergild is mentioned in beowulf before the events in the poem hrothgar paid a wergild to beowulf s father hence beowulf feels compelled to help hrothgar in his time of need some students may have trouble keeping track of the different warrior groups suggest that they refer to the genealogies in the signet classic edition 160 it is most important that they remember that beowulf represents the geats and that hrothgar represents the danes.

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a teacher s guide to the signet classic edition of beowulf 3 list of characters the signet classic edition of beowulf includes a glossary of names 149-159 note the translator of the signet classic edition has altered the familiar to some old english forms of the names for example heorot is rendered as herot a large version of the genealogies 160 could be constructed by students and displayed on a bulletin board during the study of beowulf journal topics the writing activities that follow will encourage students to examine some of beowulf s themes these activities are suitable for individual or group assignments all of them should serve as springboards for class discussion 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 what is a hero explain your definition and give examples what is courage how would most people today define courage what qualities do you believe a good leader should possess discuss leadership in our society name some modern leaders what are the characteristics of contemporary leaders what do we admire about them what does it mean to be loyal tell about a time you were loyal or someone was loyal to you why is a reputation important what factors influence a person s reputation why is generosity important what does it mean to be generous write about or discuss the most generous person you know interview someone involved in a medieval re-enactment group such as the society for creative anachronism sca what was life like for a warrior or a king during the middle ages what motivates some to re-enact this time in history while reading vocabulary there are a variety of ways to study vocabulary through beowulf initially ask students to identify words that are unfamiliar in the text next they can collaborate in groups or as a class to create definitions of the words based on their usage in context finally they can check their definitions with a dictionary alternatively ask students to create illustrations or skits demonstrating the definitions of the words words for study note scop and wergild do not actually appear in the text but students should be familiar with their meanings see before reading all other words listed below are found on the pages and line numbers indicated 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 scop ­ composers and storytellers of anglo-saxon poetry moored ­ secure a ship 30 line 227 gables ­ decorative triangular-shaped roofing structures 32 line 307 wergild ­ a fine paid to the relatives of a murdered person to free the offender from further obligations or punishment linden ­ soft light wood 37 line 438 mead ­ an alcoholic drink of fermented honey and water 38 line 493 vexed ­ irritated annoyed 39 line 501 gorges ­ eats greedily 42 line 599 sentinel ­ a person or thing that stands watch 44 line 666 talons ­ claws 47 line 754 sinews ­ tendons 48 line 816 hoary ­ gray or white with age 51 line 887 pyre ­ a bonfire for burning a dead body 58 line 1107 hoard ­ a hidden or carefully guarded supply or accumulation of valuables 61 line 1203 scabbard ­ a sheath for a sword 72 line 1562 runic ­ consisting or set down in an ancient alphabet used for writing germanic script especially in germanic languages most often of scandinavia and britain from about the third to thirteenth centuries 76 line 1694

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a teacher s guide to the signet classic edition of beowulf 4 17 18 19 20 solace ­ to console or cheer 76 line 1708 niggardly ­ reluctant to give or spend stingy 83 line 1929 skulked ­ moved stealthily 97 line 2366 scruples ­ morals or ethical considerations that restrain one s behavior and inhibits certain actions 119 line 3128 segment summaries questions/topics and activities prologue to part 10 grendel s first attack beowulf s arrival in this section hrothgar s ancestors are briefly described herot is constructed and grendel attacks it beowulf hears of the troubles at herot and decides to help hrothgar once he arrives he is welcomed and feasted unferth challenges beowulf s reputation beowulf defends himself and attacks unferth s reputation hrothgar makes note that before now he has never entrusted his hall to a stranger beowulf stays awake waiting for grendel as the rest of the hall settles into sleep discussion questions/topics 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 describe herot describe grendel s lair how does it compare to herot what is the significance of grendel being descended from cain why does grendel attack herot what had herot symbolized before the coming of grendel after why is hrothgar s lieutenant concerned about the arrival of beowulf and his men how does the lieutenant recognize beowulf as a hero why does unferth bring up beowulf s swimming match with brecca how does beowulf respond what is welthow s role in herot what does the narrator praise her for 10 what is the significance of hrothgar s speech in lines 655-661 44 11 what are beowulf s thoughts as he waits for grendel s arrival activities 1 2 3 construct a model of herot i.e map floor plan 3-d model re-enact the scene between beowulf and unferth through a puppet show or skit once students seem familiar with the concepts of alliteration and kenning have them identify three examples of each from the text and/or have them create three examples of their own part 11 to part 18 grendel s battle with beowulf grendel attacks herot again killing a geat before beowulf engages him in battle since no weapons can harm grendel beowulf must fight grendel bare-handed and the other warriors are unable to come to beowulf s aid beowulf tears grendel s arm off at the shoulder and hangs it from the rafters grendel escapes though he is mortally wounded the next morning there is a celebration in herot warriors come from far-off lands some of them trace grendel s retreat to the lake boiling with grendel s blood on the way back to herot a scop recounts the story of beowulf s victory and also tells the stories of siegmund and hermod the scop s purpose is to show that beowulf is comparable to siegmund an ancient hero hermod however was a bad king who spread sorrow and heaped troubles on his unhappy people s heads the next morning there is a celebration in herot hrothgar praises beowulf beowulf wishes he had been able to kill grendel in the hall and keep the monster from escaping herot is cleaned and beowulf and his men are rewarded with treasure the scop tells the story of the battle of finnsburgh welthow and her two sons hrethic and hrothmund pay homage to beowulf once again the hall settles to sleep.

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a teacher s guide to the signet classic edition of beowulf 5 discussion questions/topics 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 why does beowulf wait allowing grendel to kill one of the geats before he attacks grendel describe the battle between beowulf and grendel in part 11 why can t the other warriors come to beowulf s aid how does beowulf wound grendel what purpose does the comparison between beowulf and siegmund serve the comparison between beowulf and hermod how does beowulf respond to hrothgar s praise on pp 52-53 how does hrothgar reward beowulf in part 15 what does hrothgar s generosity say about his character summarize the story of finn told in parts 16 and 17 10 why is the story of finn included just before welthow appears what do lines 1163-1167 imply will happen 11 describe the scene at herot as everyone goes to bed in part 18 activities 1 2 re-enact the battle between beowulf and grendel i.e skit puppet show video tell the story of the battle in beowulf s own words in a journal entry or television or newspaper interview be sure to include beowulf s feelings about watching the geat near him die how he felt during the fight a blow-by-blow description of the battle and how he felt about not being able to kill grendel research medieval foods on the internet and/or the library and re-enact the feast at herot 3 part 19 to part 26 grendel s mother grendel s mother comes to herot to avenge grendel she escapes taking esher hrothgar s trusted lieutenant hrothgar laments the loss of esher along with the other sorrows grendel and his mother have inflicted on herot he asks again for beowulf s help beowulf agrees to avenge esher hrothgar leads beowulf and his own men to the bloody lake the abode of grendel and his mother the men discover esher s head on a cliff above the lake unferth gives beowulf his sword hrunting and beowulf dives into the lake to attack grendel s mother after swimming for hours he finds her like grendel she is impervious to weapons hrunting is useless in the heat of battle he finds a magic sword hanging on the wall and kills grendel s mother with it he then finds grendel s body and severs the monster s head when the men onshore see blood rise to the surface of the lake they assume beowulf has been killed and the danes return to herot the geats wait sadly believing the worst beowulf s magic sword melts but he returns to shore with the hilt and grendel s head leaving behind massive amounts of treasure beowulf and the geats take their terrible trophy to herot beowulf offers the magic sword s hilt to hrothgar who warns beowulf against pride and selfishness beowulf and his men prepare to return home discussion questions/topics 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 why does grendel s mother attack herot what does she take with her who was esher what does hrothgar ask beowulf to do in lines 1376-1379 how does beowulf respond describe the lake what does unferth give beowulf why describe the battle between beowulf and grendel s mother.

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a teacher s guide to the signet classic edition of beowulf 6 8 9 how does beowulf defeat her what does beowulf do before he swims back to land what do hrothgar and the other warriors think has happened 10 to what does beowulf attribute his victory why 11 what two things does beowulf present to hrothgar 12 what does hrothgar warn beowulf about in his speech part 25 13 describe beowulf s departure activities 1 2 3 develop a talk show interview or news program interview with grendel s mother that takes place immediately after her attack reveal reasons for her attack and relate her point of view present this interview to the class create a video skit or comic book relating the battle between beowulf and grendel s mother create a representation model drawing etc of hrunting or the sword beowulf finds in the monsters lair part 27 to part 31 beowulf s return to geatland beowulf and his men leave higd higlac s queen is compared favorably with the proud and selfish thrith beowulf and his men are welcomed by higlac who asks beowulf to tell him about the adventure at herot beowulf caps his tale with a presentation of his gifts from the danes to higlac years later after higlac and his son herdred die beowulf becomes king of the geats discussion questions/topics 1 2 4 5 6 compare and contrast higd and thrith what social roles do women appear to have in the world of beowulf what does beowulf think about this reference lines 2028-2030 what gifts does beowulf give higlac higd how is beowulf rewarded by higlac describe beowulf s position at the end of part 31 activities 1 2 research viking ships and create a representation drawing painting or model of the geats ship many years are compressed into this section write a story play or journal recounting the events that led to beowulf becoming king part 31 to part 43 the dragon and beowulf s death beowulf gains the crown of geatland after the deaths of higlac and herdred he has been a good and generous king for 50 years when a thief rouses a sleeping dragon by taking a gem-studded cup unable to find the thief the dragon vows revenge and destroys geatland beowulf blames himself for the tragedy thinking he must have somehow broken god s law he prepares to go to battle against the dragon recalling his past successes for motivation he sets out to fight the dragon alone and is followed by a group of his men during the battle beowulf s shield is melted and his sword is broken the rest of his men flee but wiglaf comes to beowulf s aid and slays the dragon beowulf dies in battle and wiglaf admonishes the geats for their desertion of beowulf in honor of their king the geats build a pyre for beowulf.

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a teacher s guide to the signet classic edition of beowulf 7 discussion questions/topics 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 describe how beowulf becomes king of the geats describe what happened to those who held the dragon s treasure how does the dragon react when it notices its cup has been stolen what event is foreshadowed in lines 2341-2345 why doesn t beowulf fear the dragon why does beowulf refuse the crown offered him by higlac s widow when does beowulf become king what does beowulf s boast in lines 2511-2515 say about his character recall hrothgar s speech lines 1709-1768 how well has beowulf followed hrothgar s advice why does beowulf want to fight the dragon alone when does beowulf realize he s losing the battle with the dragon what does he do 10 what do beowulf s followers do when they realize he s losing what does wiglaf do 11 how is the dragon killed 12 what request does beowulf make at the end of part 37 13 how is beowulf killed 14 summarize beowulf s last words to wiglaf 15 what does wiglaf say to the rest of beowulf s followers activities 1 2 3 create an artistic depiction of the dragon describe the battle in the words of beowulf wiglaf and one of the geats who witnessed the event write a story or play about the events leading up to the dragon taking the treasure other activities 1 2 keep a reading log note any questions comments observations or other thoughts that come to mind as you read beowulf hear old english spoken try trevor eaton s cd see bibliography or the wav files on the web sites readings from beowulf by peter s baker or hwæt old english in context see webliography examine the text in old english beowulf at the labyrinth see webliography after listening to and seeing the words discuss which words are similar to their modern-day counterparts as you read create an illustrated timeline of events in the poem on the classroom bulletin board discuss the digressions in beowulf the stories of siegmund and hermod 50-51 finn 56-59 higd and thrith 83-84 and the last survivor 93-94 what purpose do they serve why are they included 3 4.

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a teacher s guide to the signet classic edition of beowulf 8 quotations for discussion the following quotations may be used in a variety of ways they may serve as starters for journal writing and/or group or class discussion they may also be used with any one of the creative projects in the after reading section for example if a student chooses to create a scrapbook he or she might type the quotations and put them in the scrapbook along with pictures or other objects that interpret the meaning of the quotations he was spawned in that slime conceived by a pair of those monsters born of cain murderous creatures banished by god punished forever for the crime of abel s death the almighty drove those demons out and their exile was bitter shut away from men 26 lines 104-110 [ecglaf s proud son if your hands were as hard your heart as fierce as you think it no fool would dare to raid your hall ruin herot and oppress its prince as grendel has done 42 lines 591-594 no one strange to this land has ever been granted what i ve given you no one in all the years of my rule make this best of all mead-halls yours and then keep it free of evil fight with glory in your heart purge herot and your ship will sail home with its treasure holds full 43 lines 655-661 now he discovered ­ once the afflictor of men tormentor of their days ­ what it meant to feud with almighty god 48 lines 809-811 our eternal lord grants some men wisdom some wealth makes others great the world is god s he allows a man to grow famous and his family rich gives him land and towns to rule and delight in lets his kingdom reach as far as the world runs ­ and who in human unwisdom in the middle of such power remembers that it all will end and too soon 77 lines 1726-1734 push away pride your strength your power are yours for how many years soon you ll return them where they came from sickness or a sword s edge will end them or a grasping fire or the flight of a spear or surging waves or a knife s bite or the terror of old age or your eyes darkening over it will come death comes faster than you think no one can flee it 78 lines 1761-1768 his armor was strong but his arm hung like his heart body and soul might part here his blood might be spilled his spirit torn from his flesh 98 lines 2422-2425 i ve never known fear as a youth i fought in endless battles i am old now but i will fight again seek fame still if the dragon hiding in his tower dares to face me 101 lines 2511-2514

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a teacher s guide to the signet classic edition of beowulf 9 when the brave geats hear how you bolted and ran none of your race will have anything left but their lives and death would be better for them all and for you than the kind of life you can lead branded with disgrace 112 lines 2887-2891 and do beowulf s followers rode mourning their beloved leader crying that no better king had ever lived no prince so mild no man so open to his people so deserving of praise 121 lines 3178-3182 after reading questions for discussion 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 why are their ancestors so important to the warriors in beowulf identify and discuss the christian influences on the poem identify and discuss the viking/scandinavian elements in the poem discuss the code of loyalty in beowulf how is the society structured what is important to the warriors in beowulf what qualities did they feel a good king should possess what do they consider courageous discuss the battle between good and evil in the poem who represents good who represents evil discuss the role of women in this patriarchal world cite examples from the text is beowulf a hero why/why not discuss the role of reputation in beowulf cite examples from the text compare and contrast the battles with grendel and the dragon consider the cause of each monster s attack beowulf s motivation for countering the attack beowulf s battle preparations and the conclusions of each battle 10 discuss the behavior of beowulf s men in each of these battles 11 what attitudes and actions lead to beowulf s downfall defend your answer with examples beowulf projects at the conclusion of class study of beowulf students may undertake one or more projects to enhance their grasp of this work they may elect to work individually or as part of a small group depending upon their individual strengths and inclinations students may select from the suggested creative writing or research projects creative projects 1 2 skit create a skit or puppet show based on an event in beowulf from the viewpoint of another character perform the skit or puppet show for the class including all necessary props film a trend in film today is to modernize old stories example the movie o is a modernization of shakespeare s play othello portraying the othello character as the school s black star basketball player dating a white girl the iago character the coach s son is jealous and seeks to destroy the othello character how would you envision a modern-day or futuristic beowulf think about what modern-day or futuristic counterparts each major character might have and what roles they would play sketch out a storyboard or write a proposal for the movie think about what costumes sets and special effects might be needed to extend this activity students can film/video tape part or all of their movie newspaper create a newspaper outlining the major events in beowulf write articles and include appropriate pictures hand or computer-drawn cut from magazines or newspapers or found on the internet in addition to major articles include typical newspaper features like editorials obituaries advertisements and comics 3.

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a teacher s guide to the signet classic edition of beowulf 10 4 5 6 7 board game create a board game based on the characters and events in beowulf a player should be able to learn what happens in beowulf by playing the game include clearly written instructions some type of board and playing pieces computer game create an adventure computer game based on beowulf include instructions for installing and playing the game as well as a description of the goal for example defeating grendel grendel s mother or the dragon web site create a web site for beowulf include such things as images of the characters as you envision them a summary page a commentary page and a beowulf links page scrapbook compile a scrapbook based on beowulf write captions explaining each item included which should be items that the characters might have saved or which somehow identify the characters suggested items include pictures personal articles and other physical objects a twist on this idea is to create a beowulf time capsule art create an artistic expression of a character scene or symbol in beowulf artistic expressions may include paintings drawings papier-mâché and costume sketches collage create a collage of images and/or quotations from beowulf that somehow demonstrate the book s theme or message include an explanation for each image and/or quotation that appears on the collage why it was included and its significance to the book 8 9 10 comic book beowulf is a story that lends itself well to an action/adventure comic book create a fully-realized comic book based on the story of beowulf 11 dramatic interpretation interpret a scene from beowulf dressing as the characters and performing the scene for the class some suggested scenes include grendel s first attack 27-29 the battle between beowulf and grendel 46-48 the attack of grendel s mother 63-64 beowulf s battle with grendel s mother 70-71 the battle with the dragon 102109 or beowulf s funeral 119-120 12 found poem create a poem from words that appear in the text the poem should somehow demonstrate a theme from beowulf 13 write a eulogy for beowulf critical writing projects 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 write an essay in which you compare and contrast beowulf with other epics you have read write an essay in which you analyze beowulf as an epic hero write an essay in which you analyze the code of loyalty described in beowulf write an essay describing the importance of reputation to the characters in beowulf using examples from the text write an essay in which you analyze the importance of one of beowulf s symbols herot grendel especially his claw and head the lair of grendel and his mother or the dragon s hoard read john gardner s book grendel write an essay comparing and contrasting beowulf with grendel read j r r tolkien s the hobbit write an essay discussing the role of treasure magic and/or the dragon in both beowulf and the hobbit research projects 1 2 3 4 research the sutton hoo archaeological dig in england research everyday life in anglo-saxon england research the role of the king in anglo-saxon history suggested topics include king cnut king harold and the norman conquest and alfred the great research anglo-saxon living history/re-enactment groups such as anglecynn http www.anglecynn.org.uk regia anglorum http www.regia.org and the society for creative anachronism http www.sca.org

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a teacher s guide to the signet classic edition of beowulf 11 bibliography baker peter s beowulf reader basic readings new york garland publishing 2000 anthology of beowulf scholarship over the past 25 years bessinger jess b and robert f yeager eds approaches to teaching beowulf new york modern language association of america 1984 suggestions for teaching beowulf to college students adaptable for high school instructors bjork robert e and john d niles eds a beowulf handbook exeter university of exeter press 1997 a comprehensive guide to the critical history of beowulf chase colin the dating of beowulf toronto university of toronto press 1981 examines various evidence for the more accurate dating of beowulf earl james w thinking about beowulf stanford stanford university press 1994 an exploration of the literary originality of beowulf gardner john grendel new york vintage books 1971 read the story from the monster s point of view excellent for students to compare/contrast differing points of view thompson stephen p readings on beowulf san diego greenhaven press 1998 beowulf criticism divided into three sections social and cultural context the heroic character and thematic and structural issues accessible to students trevor eaton reads beowulf trevor eaton cd pearl 1997 listen to beowulf unabridged in old english webliography anglo-saxon culture the labyrinth eds martin irvine and deborah everhart georgetown university http www.georgetown.edu/labyrinth/subjects/british_isles/anglo-saxon/anglosaxon.html a wealth of links related to beowulf and other anglo-saxon manuscripts as well as anglo-saxon art and archaeology living history and re-enactment old english teaching resources and more anglo-saxon england a guide to online resources ed brad bedingfield the online reference book for medieval studies

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a teacher s guide to the signet classic edition of beowulf 12 beowulf the labyrinth georgetown university

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about the editors of this guide w geiger ellis professor emeritus university of georgia received his a.b and m.ed degrees from the university of north carolina chapel hill and his ed.d from the university of virginia his teaching focused on adolescent literature having introduced the first courses on the subject at both the university of virginia and the university of georgia he developed and edited the alan review arthea charlie reed ph.d is currently a long-term care specialist with northwestern mutual financial network and senior partner of long-term care and associates from 1978 to 1996 she was a professor of education and chairperson of the education department at the university of north carolina at asheville she is the author or co-author of 15 books in the fields of adolescent literature foundations of education and methods of teaching she was the editor of the alan review for six years and president of the assembly on literature for adolescents of the national council of teachers of english alan she is currently co-authoring the 5th edition of a guide to observation participation and reflection in the classroom mcgraw-hill 2004 she has taught almost every grade from second grade through doctoral candidates she lives in asheville north carolina with her husband don two dogs and a cat free teacher s guides a full list of teacher s guides and teacher s guides for the signet classic shakespeare series is available on penguin s website at www.penguin.com/academic teacher s guides animal farm · anthem · beloved · beowulf · the call of the wild · cannery row · city of god · the country of the pointed firs and other stories · the crucible · death of a salesman · dr jekyll and mr hyde · dubliners · ethan frome · the fountainhead · girl in hyacinth blue · the grapes of wrath · a journey to the center of the earth · the jungle · the life of ivan denisovich · looking backward · lysistrata · main street · of mice and men · the mousetrap and other plays · a narrative of the life of frederick douglass an american slave · nectar in a sieve · 1984 · the odyssey · the passion of artemisia · the pearl · persuasion · the prince and the pauper · a raisin in the sun · the red pony · redwall · the scarlet letter · the scarlet pimpernel · silas marner · a tale of two cities · the time machine · up from slavery · the women of brewster place · wuthering heights teacher s guides for the signet classic shakespeare series antony and cleopatra · as you like it · hamlet · henry v · julius caesar · king lear · macbeth · measure for measure · a midsummer night s dream · much ado about nothing · othello · richard iii · romeo and juliet · the taming of the shrew · the tempest · twelfth night visit the penguin group usa web site at www.penguin.com to browse all signet classic paperback editions and www.penguin.com/scessay for information about the annual signet classic scholarship essay contest

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