puzzle 7 training skills and knowledge transfer
7 hop on board a train training skills and knowledge transfer the last but not less important puzzle in our green pass deals with topics that should prepare us for successful transfer of knowledge and skills to our peers even though nothing that we read can prepare us 100 for the first workshop leading experience following pages will come in handy for such occasion this chapter will shows us how to prepare for the workshop/training what methods and techniques we can use and what are the most important skills we should focus on in order to conduct our training successfully but before that let us get acquainted with the experiential learning model educational method which can be very effective in most learning situations especially applicable to green issues tell me and i will forget show me and i may remember involve me and i will understand confucius 551 bc 479 bc chinese thinker and social philosopher from this scale we can understand why learning based on experience can be so effective in comparison to other learning methods again experience itself is not enough we have to go through the full spiral of learning in order to gain new knowledge and/or skills david a kolb is an american educational theorist who helped to popularize the idea of experiential learning and his model is composed of four elements represented on the following picture experience reflection during any learning process we can retain 10 of what we hear 15 of what we see 20 of what we hear and see 40 of what we discuss 80 of what we experience directly 90 of what we want to transfer to other people planning generalization 1 concrete experience learning begins with the experience here and now this experience can confirm or be in contradiction with our current views and stances 2 observation of and reflection on that experience the experience is followed by the process of gathering and analysis of information and thinking about it what happened what is the meaning of that 3 generalization this step represents formation of abstract concepts based upon the reflection and connection with our previous experiences and everyday life what have we learned 4.planning we are now testing the new concepts to see if they are applicable in practice usually by modifying our behavior how can we do better/different in the future 106 green pass
7 also it is important to know few facts when working with adults adults learn slowly but more carefully they are reluctant to take very active roles during trainings because they are afraid of errors also they are reluctant to express their feelings and problems in a group adults are not as flexible in adapting to new working methods they are clear in their attitudes it s easier for them to relate their experiences with lessons learned they can listen more carefully adults have some life experience behind them and different knowledge gained through formal education or in other ways therefore a slight dose of insecurity and vulnerability is present in the learning process because their current attitudes and knowledge are challenged needs analysis there are three main areas in which we can carry this analysis the needs at the organizational level in which part of the organization is training most needed the demand on the level of interest information what is needed in the context of skills knowledge and attitudes the needs on the individual level who needs training and for what what is needed for individuals to bridge the gap in competence and efficiency between current level and level at which they should be the particular significance of each of these three areas will vary from situation to situation but in the end it will always be necessary to include an analysis of individual needs training cycle training can be viewed as an ongoing cyclical process there are five separate phases of the cycle and each follows the logic planning and designing the training as in the previous step we also need to collect a significant amount of information especially if you are involved in a program which has some new elements for you new topics new group or both it is impossible to overstate the importance of planning failure to plan is to plan a failure time spent in planning will bring many benefits in the later steps in the trainingcycle some of the tasks to be performed within this phase are defining the objectives of training and educational goals choosing the most appropriate methods and techniques for the implementation of training the decision about the organizers of the training and needed support evaluation needs analysis realization of the training planning and design selecting different media for learning audio visual media computer paper the design of training content developing tools for evaluation questionnaires etc the organization and the design of the training steps creation of the training material green pass 107 training skills and knowledge transfer evaluation is not only associated with the first phase of cyclical but with the remaining three as well the evaluation must be a continuous process if we are to improve training and its performance.
7 creation of the training material the trainer`s role the apparent role of the trainer is to transfer knowledge and skills and it is crucial that he/she must have well developed presentation skills the trainer has to be good at presenting and keeping the audience s attention so that information is properly accepted and understood never the less training is much much more than that simple information transfer thus presentation skills are not always the most important if we look back at the five-steps training clycle it will become obvious that larger set of skills is required skills needed for needs analysis training design evaluation writing material managing the group etc here is the short list of potential trainer`s roles /skills needed for the successful training presenter pshychologist expert for the training topic menthor teacher able to hear adviser good planner leader evaluator creator manager writer shoulder to cry on innovator administrator organiser motivator role model has the technical knowledge to use audio and visual tools/aids conductor artist everyone`s to blame training skills and knowledge transfer training material is a backbone of our training design and choosing appropriate educational aid can significantly improve our performance that is why previous steps in the training cycle are so important if we understand needs and preferences of our trainees we will be able do develop/choose correct training material which will fit in our training design perfectly among other things training material includes training design learning material exercise books tests readers etc video and audio aids movies flip chart power points etc evaluation forms etc realization of the training this is the step when we hope everything we done in previous stages fits into its place if the planning and preparation were detailed enough then our chances for conducting successful training are significantly higher the role of the trainer is not just to present information but also to moderate motivate inspire lead coordinate manage evaluate and meny other things we will talk about training roles/capacities later inthe next pages evaluation this stage is attributed to have less weight than that in reality has in the training cycle in fact evaluation is vital for this cycle the evaluation should include self-evaluation through self-analysis evaluation questionnaires and comments from training partners are we able to derive a better workout are there any areas that could be improved evaluation of material whether they need to be replaced modified supplemented evaluation of the whole training evaluation of the training by stages thinking about improving performance or behavior during the training how effective was the transfer of knowledge this five-step training cycle should help the participants of the training to change in behavior this change is called learning and if this change did not happen then there was no effective training this list looks impressive and we cannot expect that any of us can master all listed and in many more unlisted roles and skills being a trainer is more a question of awareness of our strengths and to learn how to use them while overcoming and fighting against our weaknesses we can concentrate on working on our weaknesses and to ensure that the training process always includes other persons whether from the training team or from a group of participants in order to bridge potential barriers the most important thing is that the training goes well that participants lget from the training what they came for and to leave satisfied therefore the main role of the trainer is to be a moderatator to be responsible for the progress of the group using the available methods and resources 108 green pass
7 expert in the topic our students expect us to know something about the topic of the training and the more we know and demonstrate this knowledge the more we increase our credibility within the group it is therefore important to improve knowledge about the topic that will be researched discussed presented during the training of course nobody expects you to know everything no one can be walking encyclopedia and it is best to confess that you don t know the answer instead to avoid answering in that case for example you can ask the group for the help it is important to remember not to pose as the untouchable expert in the subject credible experts who have a human touch are much better accepted by the group so act as you will do in any other situation just be yourself expert this training style is usually used by persons with university background their strong side is lecturing and answering to questions from the audience most often they are using are lectures and discussions as training techniques they have a tendency to concentrate on the training content and they are preparing training in details and well ahead also their focus is on conducting the training according to the plan facing a question from participants for which they have no answer at the moment they feel obligated to find correct one as soon as possible sometimes they are emphasizing details which could be boring and not very interesting it could happen that participants perceive trainer as a cold strict and inert person some representatives of this style have difficulties to react on modified conditions of the training and to adapt accordingly already prepared schedule and content also they could have difficulties in dealing with the group atmosphere and dynamic and/or with uncooperative individuals expert for the method there are numerous methods and techniques available for trainers during trainings and some of them will be processed later in this text every trainer should be familiar with most of them and to be competent with at least few of them one of the trainer`s roles is to clearly define which method technique should give the best results with the concrete group you should constantly improve methods/techniques you usually use and experiment with new ones learn from other trainers obsereve their work and try to incorporate some of their magic in your performance sometimes it is best to try new things with your friends before you use it in the training manager of the group this is the area where moderating skills are most visible trainer has to have developed interpersonal skills in order to be able to manage not to control the group style and role could be changed depending on the situation from motivator to the leader and adviser trainer should be able to feel athmosphere and mood within the group and with each individual he she should have some knowledge from the group psychology good and experienced manager of the group has the skills to create synergetic effect and improve the learning process this cathegory requires most time to be mastered and it usually comes through practice showperson people who have undergone a course of positive thinking or any of the motivational courses sometimes tend to bring that experience into their personal training style for them the important thing is to get participants to feel good trainer should be like a magician who wins the audience at onset his/her appearance awakens good cheer enthusiasm humor and positive thinking by all participants green pass 109 training skills and knowledge transfer during the training the role of moderator in most cases can be classified into one of three categories a an expert in the topic b an expert for the method and c manager of the group training styles there are many different training styles in theory but we will describe four most common each of the styles has its advantages but certain aspects if emphasized too much could be more distractive than helpful during the learning process it is very rare case in practice to find one of the bellow described styles in 100 pure form usually trainers are using combination of styles again it depends on a trainer and his/her preferences maybe you will be able to recognize one of the styles in your own performance or not but it is usefull to get familiarized with pros and cons of each of them.
7 training skills and knowledge transfer sometimes they are overestimating the training as a tool for solving everyday problems and when the form of the training becomes unappropriate for them they feel insecure shepras guide trainer who uses this style sees itself as the one who provides assistance as a guide sherpas who knows from where wind is blowing and in which direction to go however he/she it is not the one who needs to achieve great goals in this case learning objectives or the one who should reach the top when asked a question he/she usually answers with a question as well this style allows the trainer to work without any inhibition with people who have more knowledge life experience or better qualification then him/her trainer sees his/her role more as a moderatator or assistant this style requires the trainer to ask many questions even in situations where the participants would like some answers trainers of this style are not evaluating the training by their own feelings instead they evaluate training based on how it was useful and convenient for participants this style can be very useful for participants who expect discreet help and plenty of room for their own decisions but it is not popular with participants who are looking for strict managing and obtaining information from the trainer trainings are reminiscent of one person show with well-prepared trainer and the participants are a bit likean audience that can not but to admire his/her performance it works well if the trainer is creative and has a sense for acting and provides illustrations and practical examples for the topics that are processed in the training similarly people with artistic ambitions sometimes forget that training is not a stage performance but an experience that is shared with others where interests and needs of participants play a major role such working style can lead to a situation where trainer is constantly in action while participants are not it can keep their attention for a while although it is very demanding for a trainer however the inactivity of participants may result in failure of the training participants had a good time but they learned nothing or very little psychotherapist strong tendency towards the use of this style is typical for people with the background in pshychoterapy proponents of this training style usually have a distinct ability to recognize and respond to group dynamics they are very empathic and have a special special understanding of the relationships between individual participants they are not afraid to work with emotions they are not afraid of laughter shouting or tears which could happen during the training again they have a tendency to foget the importance of the training program itself and sometimes they fail to arm themselves with thorough knowledge in the training topics source http everestnews.com 110 green pass
7 methods and techniques preparation the question of methods and techniques is important for the effectiveness of the educational process as well as for its attractiveness some methods can motivate participants to deal with those issues and problems that are most frequently seen as boring and/or less interesting it is important to stress that various methods and techniques are not there just for attracting participants but their major role is to help trainers and tranees to acquire new knowledge and skills while exploring conrete subject when combining different methods one should bear in mind the following learning is successful when alternating phases of concentration and relaxation the diversity of topics can be covered by different types of learning because all students do not face the same issues in the same way uniformity is boring and demotivating and the alternation of different approaches is very useful for maintaining attention and increasing motivation for learning responsibility for learning is not only on the trainer but in large part on the trainees as well thus only selection of the appropriate methods and techniques can ensure their active participation and success of training the methods/techniques however can not replace the content which is very important part of any process of learning methods are just the means to enhance coping and better understandings of certain topics and they are not the heart of the training also the use of different methods can not be a substitute for the competence each method and technique has to have its purpose using different creative techniques in the training without a plan can lead to group euphoria and uncontrolled group dynamic which can greatly affect training process therefore methods/techniques must not be self-serving and we should always bear in mind the goal of the training for which purpose the methods are applied in the first place to be able to make a good combination of methods and techniques that are at our disposal we have to answer several questions first how big is the group are there any major age differences within the group is the group mixed or the majority of participants are only men/women are there any differences in physical abilities within the group maybe we have a participants with some kind of disability what are the previous experiences what is the social background of our participants how much time do we have for the training what are the characteristics of the working space too noisy small well lit etc which technical aids are at our disposal computer video beam flip chart etc are there any possibilities to work in smaller groups additional rooms open space etc which topics should be included in our work what are the teaching goals in which part of the training a concrete method and/or technique should be used and what do we expect to achieve to inform to develop skills to evaluate and check concrete attitudes to exchange experiences to formulate our feelings to make and argument to develop attitudes and new view points to learn about ourselves and others to motivate to summarize do we have any prior experience with choosen methods and techniques also bear in mind that not all the techniques can match all training styles and trainers so design training to suit your preferences/personal work style green pass 111 training skills and knowledge transfer
7 overview of some methods and techniques training skills and knowledge transfer if we talk about forms of work with a group the list could be the final and very short panel aquarium working in small groups and pairs and individual work on the other hand there are many teaching methods and techniques and we will try to categorize them and explain few in more details as it was stated before choosing the correct method and/or technique depends on the group your style and competence and many other factors the one and only limitation in the number of methods/techniques we can choose from is our creativity we have all forms and channels of communication at our disposal we can use texts journalistic or others to inform to analyze texts etc puzzles quizzes jokes stories to encourage the group dynamics to highlight specific information to make an introduction for discussion to estimate knowledge of the group on a particular topic and so on creative forms of expression working on and with comic books paintings photographs posters diagrams any ready-made material or created by the group use of sound movement sculpture etc skits theater mime to review attitudes to find solutions to certain problems to analyze different situations to cope with fears and so on audiovisual media movies music presentations computer etc speech different forms of discussions debates lectures dialogue negotiation verbal exchange etc games playing games improves dynamics of the group creates a positive atmosphere can be use to make a point on the key learning objectives to creating a team etc the various tests anything else that comes to mind and we know how to use it to achieve the objectives of the seminar table below can help us to determine which method to choose to reach our training goal training method verbal methods lectures discussions debating arguing case study brainstorming primary training goal knowledge staging methods role play simulations structured experience sociodrama psychodrama video training diagnostic methods questionaries tests rating scales evaluation and assessment methods games games with economic psychological ecological politic and social potential psysical exercises fun games relaxation and concentration techniques autogenic training progressive relaxation music relaxation yoga authentic methods outdoor methods outwardbound activities confrontation with real conditions interpersonal skills selfunderstanding learning through experience mental hygiene awereness following pages are offering short overview of few commonly used techniques during workshops playing games ice breakers and the warm-up games games can be used with different objectives but the two most common are creating a positive atmosphere at the start of the training or breaking the ice and hence the name ice breakers and changing the dynamics of the seminar to raise the energy of the participants after a long lecture or discussion these kind of games are usually called energizers the same games can be used to achieve both objectives but also for many other goals and choosing the right game depends on the group and trainer`s assessement 112 green pass
7 icebreakers can help participants to familiarize with each other offer a hint about what is expected during the training excite the interest of participants to the topic of the seminar energizers may be more or less physically demanding and sometimes we can use various types of puzzles which may or may not have to be related to the topic of the seminar it is important to involve all participants and allow the change in the pace of the training sometimes it is good to play games just for fun but be careful not to lose the focuse of your training therapeutic role playing the focus is on the individual it allows individuals to confront their own fears and to practice situations when there are personal problems or issues to be solved skill/task oriented role-play the focus is on the group or group`s task each individual has his own role and he/she works with the whole group actors have the task of fulfilling the role assigned functions and not just to play a character each of these three different types of role play includes personal identification and can potentially develop new skills however it is important to know that each of these types has different goals and different instructions for the game brainstorming brainstorming is an effective technique which allows the group to storm ideas without explanation and asking questions with this technique we can obtain in a short time a wide range of answers on a particular subject and thus collect material for future work we can also assess the current group knowledge and attitudes about the seminar topic while providing an opportunity for all participants to actively participate how does it work in practice trainer/moderatator sets for example the question what comes first to your mind when i say green participants are answering with their first association preferably a single word or short phrase and all responses are written on large paper so that everyone in the group could see them the only rule is that there are no wrong answers and no comments or evaluation of any person`s response after a while when all ideas are exhausted formed list of ideas/answers/associations serves as the starting point for further work discussion theory input finding a solution to a certain problem etc brainstorming is a wonderfull assisting tool that encourages participants and not endanger simulation simulation games are trying to reflect just one piece of reality without intent to treat the whole reality these models are used for learning and gaining personal experience the advantage of simulation is that all attendees are actively participating in them they participants make decisions and create situations in which others must respond unlike the role-playing simulations participants are not taking over the character of another person but they react from their own experiences and knowledge on a given situation case study the group is given a description of a real life situation with all necessary details situation may be fictional but it should be as close to reality as it is possible otherwise it will fail to make group interested in the story task for the group is to analyze the case to provide solutions to described problem to raize questions etc this technique is emphasizing the importance of different approaches and attitudes towards the same problem/situation it also helps individuals to increase selfawarenes of their personal strengths and/or weaknesses role play role playing is one of the techniques often used in trainings which provide to participants a new learning experience we need to distinguish between different types of role play with their different objectives and focus dramatic features role-playing the focus of the role is given by an individual a participant takes a character that is very different than his/her own improvisation is the basis of the story or the character green pass 113 training skills and knowledge transfer through this type of role play the experience of how someone else sees the world is emphasized also there is a personal challenge involved in finding a way of expressing ideas and emotions as any other person.
7 hints for the end training skills and knowledge transfer plan your training well ahead and in details/doublecheck everything first of all it will help you to feel relaxed selfconfident and comfortably during the training you can also prepare an alternative training plan or just have few activities/games/questions in your sleeve just in case much more/less participants than you expected group is too energetic sleepy participants needs more time to explore certain topic interpersonal problems within a group etc before you come to the training check if you have all necessary material including pens paper etc bring a watch and come before your group don t worry if you have stage fright before you start your training it is perfectly normal and sometimes can be even benefitial it will help you to focuse on your performance and it could help you to be accepted by the group faster remember just be yourself show your human face the best of all it will not last for too long also if you are well prepared everything will go smoothly repeticio mater studiorum est tell your audience what are you going to say to them then say it and finaly tell them what you said repeating key points of the discussion presentation or even instructions for the game will assure that your words are heard and understood by all participants be objective and neutral expressing your own attitudes and/or affections during the training can lead to demotivation of the group you are here to train people and help them learn and not to impose your own attitudes and opinions about the topic of course you can say your personal stanse but try not to present it as the one and only truth ask open questions open questions like what do you think about this or tell us something about your experience in this matter are initiating discussions and exchange otherwise if you ask somebody have you had such experience the only two answers you can expect are yes or no which lead you nowhere don t be afraid of silence if you pose a question to the group and there is no immediate answer just wait give your participants enough space to think about the answer you can ask few sub-questions but you can also let the silence to do its job be assured that somebody from the gourp will break the silence soon 1 training is like an essey all trainings and training sessions should have three main parts introduction people are getting to know each other and the topic is introduced working out more insight about the topic discussions learning experiences etc conclusion summarizing lowering the energy of the group exiting the session deal with obstructions you may expect to face few difficulties while working with the group somebody speaks too often and takes too much time too loud and emotive reactions to opposing stance two people are constantly talking in the back a participant is working something that is not related to the seminar reading a book frequently sending sms using his/her phone etc somebody is making jokes and funny comments too often i-know-everything person are constantly opposing the trainer and the group one person is actively discussing the topic that is not related to the seminar and so on there are number of interventions that could help you to regain control of your training and which one you will use depends on the situation and your assessment last few are just for the toughest cases visual contact make a longer eye contact with the trouble maker putting aside topics and questions rose from the group and not related to the seminar can be written on the flip chart paper and discussed later movement in space you can regain attention of the group if you stand up from your chair and/or walking around in the room approachment you can stop whispering in the back if you approach closer to the group change of voice speak louder or quiter or even stop talking for several seconds to regain attention work in sub-groups you can end prolonged and unfruitful discussions by using work in smaller groups description of behavior for example when i constantly hear whispers while i talk it confuses me feedback while giving feedback use rules we provided in the team building and communication section of this book demands for change directly ask trouble maker to change his behavior group processing ask the group for support interruption of the session call for a short break even if it wasn t planned conversation during a breaks talk privately with difficult individuals supervision ask for third person`s intervention learning is the process and crafting a good workshop leader can take years so why don t you start the process right now have fun 7 8 2 stage fright is ok 3 4 5 6 114 green pass