NANO Newsletter - Vol 2 - May, 2012

 

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nano shinbun nf-pogo alumni network for oceans volume 02 may 2012 nano joint research projects ready to sail

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nfpogo alumni enewsletter ­ volume 02 may 2012 from the editorial board the volume 2 of nano news is presented to you here with great pride and heart felt delight the editorial board wishes to convey its gratitude and sincere thanks to alumni friends and other well wishers for sending positive notes and comments regarding the inaugural volume launched in september of 2011 it was a great encouragement for us to work even harder to get this volume of the newsletter out nano news was launched with the primary intention to invite nfpogo alumni to share their past and ongoing research work among the nano community if alumni start some collaborative research activities that develop through sharing and communicating their ideas and research plans using nano news that would be the best possible achievement or a dream come true for all of us who work hard to put together this newsletter therefore we request all alumni to keep that in your inquisitive minds when reading through the articles that follow this volume also contains interesting research work of individual alumni as well as of research groups a valuable cruise experience gained by an alumnus is also shared through this newsletter which we think adds another dimension to this volume the editorial board encourages other alumni to report their special cruise experiences to nano news as well and any other such research work in the field that may enlighten others also such an article creates pleasant and interesting reading for all of us the editorial board conveys its deepest gratitude to the patrons trevor platt shubha sathyendranath and sophie seeyave for their continuing support and invaluable input throughout special thanks go to all leading authors for providing important articles and to those alumni for sharing their research activities in this newsletter with very best wishes kanthi k a s yapa editorinchief patrons trevor platt /executive director ­ pogo shubha sathyendranath /assistant executive director ­ pogo sophie seeyave scientific coordinator ­ pogo kentaro ogiue maritime affairs department nippon foundation editorial board kanthi yapa editorinchief vivian lutz margareth kyewalyanga heather bouman olga shatova newsletter design lilian anne krug contact us kanthi@phy.ruh.ac.lk ssve@pml.ac.uk lilian.krug@nfpogoalumni.org nano website www.nfpogoalumni.org 1

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nfpogo alumni enewsletter ­ volume 02 may 2012 this issue 1 from the editorial board ocean colour and climate change on trends stability and bias 3 pogo meetings ­ past and future 4 5 nano joint research projects to kick off in 2012 7 capacity building for south east asian ocean color network research activities carried out by nfpogo alumni at the central institute of fisheries technology india 10 phytoplankton productivity in subantarctic waters role of nutrients accumulated and recycled by seabirds 12 research communications by nfpogo alumni maria fernanda coló giannini 13 kentaro suzuki 13 evgeniya klimchuk 15 valeria a guinder 16 rajdeep roy 19 w.d.n wickramaarachchi 20 gayatri dudeja 22 houssem smeti 24 meeting announcements 25 cover sunset and the r/v atlantic explorer docked at the bermuda institute of ocean sciences photo by the alumnus yuna zayasu have any nice photos to share email us your seascapes underwater photos or photos of field work and we ll include them in nano news contact us kanthi@phy.ruh.ac.lk ssve@pml.ac.uk lilian.krug@nfpogoalumni.org nano website www.nfpogoalumni.org 2

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ocean colour and climate change on trends stability and bias dr shubha sathyendranath assistant director /pogo scientist plymouth marine laboratory colour is the only tool we currently have to observe the marine ecosystem at synoptic scales it probes the marine ecosystem at the interface between light and life in the oceans that is to say it measures the variability in light absorption by phyto plankton pigments which is the first step before marine photosynthesis can take place photosynthesis fuels the pelagic food web the primary production by marine phytoplankton at the global scale is estimated to be about 50 gt of carbon per year commensurate with terrestrial primary production phytoplankton are therefore an important component of the global carbon cycle most of the light absorbed by phytoplankton is dissipated as heat modulating the distribution of solar heating in the water column phytoplankton thus influence two key processes which define our climate the planetary heat budget and the global carbon cycle they should be at the centre of all discussions on the earth system dynamics because they are such fundamental properties of the marine ecosystem ocean colour and phytoplankton are recognized as essential climate variables ecvs by the global climate observation system gcos http www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/index.php given its global coverage its potential for sustained observation over long periods and its cost effectiveness ocean colour is key to studying longterm variability in the marine ecosystem and any potential impact of climate change on the system but there are many problems to be addressed before the full potential of ocean colour can be exploited in the climatechange context let me introduce just one of them here it is related to the duration over which we need sustained observations to be able to detect change since oceans are subject to variability at multiple scales some of them with periods as long as a decade the oceancolour timeseries has to be multidecade long if we are to detect change as a longterm trend after subtracting ocean longterm oscillations but each satellite has a finite life span say about ten years so we need to stitch together data from multiple satellites in a seamless manner to be able to create a multi decadal time series if there are any systematic differences between sensors then the merged data set might show spurious trends and if we are not careful we might interpret them as climate change furthermore each of the satellites should be wellcalibrated for the entire duration of the mission to ensure stability of the signal if not we might interpret erroneous trends resulting from instrument drifts as evidence for climate change simple as it may seem initially the analysis requires careful thinking about trend bias and stability such thinking is essential not only for the use of ocean colour but just about any tool for studying long term trends the european space agency has launched a new programme called the climate change initiative which looks at problems such as this not just for ocean colour but for a number of ecvs if you are interested to learn more about the oceancolour part of the programme please visit http www.esaoceancolourcci.org since we have had uninterrupted oceancolour data from space only since 1997 the accumulated data are really not sufficient to detect climate change with any certainty but we have to think right now about how to interpret existing data what can be done to improve the quality of the data and what our requirements are of future satellites so here is an invitation to think clearly about these things in the context of any data that you might be using in your research who would be willing to write an article for nano explaining trend bias and stability if you merge satellite data from two sensors with intersensor bias can you think about how you might end up with an artificial or apparent trend in the merged data would you like to know more about ocean colour and climate change let the editorial board of nano news know if discussions on such topics would be of interest to you and if there is sufficient response we could think about starting appropriate discussion forum in nano news or on nano web 3 contact us kanthi@phy.ruh.ac.lk ssve@pml.ac.uk lilian.krug@nfpogoalumni.org nano website www.nfpogoalumni.org

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pogo meetings ­ past and future dr sophie seeyave ­ scientific coordinator pogo and nano this year s pogo meeting was hosted by the school of ocean and earth science and technology soest of the university of hawaii at manoa usa from 9 to 11 january 2012 the meeting was well attended with around 60 participants from 18 countries 29 of the 37 pogo member institutions were represented as well as key partner organisations in addition to reports and discussions on 2011 pogo activities such as capacity building support of the international quiet ocean experiment and oceansites and preparations for the expo 2012 in yeosu korea other programmes of relevance to pogo were discussed these included international programmes for coordination of ocean observations such as the framework for ocean observing the southern ocean observing system soos which has recently published its science plan and set up a project office within the institute for marine and antarctic studies imas the panel for integrated coastal observations pico which has also recently published its implementation plan and the global alliance of cpr surveys a new initiative by the sir alister hardy foundation for ocean science sahfos to bring together existing continuous plankton recorder surveys and facilitate the establishment of new ones to provide a truly global coverage of this valuable timeseries of plankton data one of the benefits of the pogo meetings is that pogo members can share information on their national research programmes and learn from one another as well as identifying areas for international collaboration institutes from emerging countries had the opportunity to present recent developments in their ocean observing capabilities and discuss challenges that are common to these countries for example piracy a session was dedicated to disaster mitigation and response focussing on tsunamis and the great tohoku earthquake of march 2011 areas for collaboration between pogo the intergovernmental oceanographic commission ioc the international oceanographic data and information exchange iode and the scientific committee on oceanic research scor were explored with presentations given by wendy watsonwright executive secretary ioc peter pissierssens head ioc project office for iode and ed urban executive director scor a honolulu declaration see http oceanpartners.org/attachments/693_honoluludeclaration.pdf was issued as a result of the meeting representing the latest statement of the issues of concern to pogo and the recommended priority actions in the face of these issues the declaration specifically mentions support of nano as a priority action this is very positive news for the network and is a mark of the commitment of the pogo members towards the alumni who represent to them the future of pogo the election of the next pogo chair took place on the last day during which prof john field director of the marine research institute mare university of cape town south africa was elected by acclamation prof field will take over from prof peter herzig current pogo chair in january 2013 coincidentally the next pogo annual meeting pogo14 will be hosted by mare from 22 to 24 january 2013 photo by alumnus w.n.c.pryiadarshani contact us kanthi@phy.ruh.ac.lk ssve@pml.ac.uk lilian.krug@nfpogoalumni.org nano website www.nfpogoalumni.org 4

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nano joint research projects to kick off in 2012 dr sophie seeyave and dr trevor platt a nano meeting was held in abingdon uk from 26 to 28 september 2011 to plan and write proposals for joint research projects to be carried out by the alumni the meeting consisted of roundtable discussions over three days and was attended by selected nf pogo alumni by mr ogiue of the nippon foundation and his interpreter personnel from the secretariat dr tony knap the director of the centre of excellence and a couple of senior scientists who are friends of nano prof david checkley scripps institution of oceanography and prof howard roe a former chairman of pogo sophie seeyave lilian krug olga shatova and kanthi yapa who have been heavily involved in developing nano gave presentations on progress achieved to date between feb and sept 2011 209 alumni were sent a questionnaire on their current education/employment publications conferences attended projects and other aspects of their career development as of sept 2011 128 out of 209 alumni had returned the questionnaire with a much higher response rates for the alumni of the bermuda cofe 100 and for the regional cofes in brazil and vietnam 77 compared with the responses from earlier initiatives the information provided by the alumni has been entered into an access database and also added to the nano website www.nfpogoalumni.org along with general information about the network an electronic newsletter launched in sept 2011 and links to nano friends these friends are senior scientists involved in capacity building and with strong links to pogo who have agreed to support the network and the alumni where possible the website statistics show that it receives on average 50 visitors per day from 58 countries on 6 continents one of the main goals of the network is to encourage and facilitate international collaboration and to set up joint research projects to be carried out by the alumni this was the principal motivation behind the network meeting in abingdon the meeting was a substitute for one initially planned to take place in tokyo and on a much larger scale however due to the earthquake and tsunami that struck japan in march 2011 plans had to be revised in light of this tragedy and because the nippon foundation has understandably shifted some of its priorities towards disaster relief the projects to be undertaken and the budgets involved had to be downscaled the group reviewed 20 proposal outlines submitted in advance by alumni and classified by region africa europe east asia indian subcontinent and latin america the object was for each region to propose one joint initiative that might be funded by the nf in 2012 over the second and third days of the meeting small groups worked on preparing joint proposals for each of the four regions they endeavoured where possible to merge together ideas from the individual preproposals that had been submitted the four proposals submitted to nf were as follows attendees of the 2011 nano meeting in abingdon 5 contact us kanthi@phy.ruh.ac.lk ssve@pml.ac.uk lilian.krug@nfpogoalumni.org nano website www.nfpogoalumni.org

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indian subcontinent monitoring the coastal waters of india and sri lanka for the occurrence of harmful algal blooms habs objectives · study of dinoflagellates community structure with reference to hab species and dissolved phytotoxins in the coastal waters of the indian and sri lankan subcontinent · use of remote sensing and biooptical properties to understand habs in this region latin america pigment analysis using hplc in antares network coastal time series stations objectives · quantify pigment concentrations using advanced high performance liquid chromatography in five selected antares stations as an initial step for the future implementation of phytoplankton functional type studies · to complement hplc studies with the use of remotely sensed ocean colour measurements north and west africa monitoring coastal pollution and erosion objectives ·define the problems in the field of monitoring of chemical pollution and erosion in northern and western africa · develop common guidelines for monitoring erosion and pollution in coastal areas that will include basic measurements relevant to resources available in the region · extend the techniques to alumni countries throughout africa by involving more alumni in the project · gather the available data on sediments and chemical pollutants in tunisia ivory coast ghana nigeria senegal and burkina faso with the prospect of adding data from other alumni countries where similar type of measurements are performed · compare levels of coastal erosion and chemical pollution in these regions southeast asia validation of a harmful algal bloom remote sensing model rshab for se asian region using timeseries data from vietnam objectives · validate refine and apply the rshab model developed in the philippines · continuation of the mekong delta timeseries the nippon foundation reviewed the proposals in early 2012 and have agreed to fund them for one year initially to a level of 125 k usd to be divided between the four regions and the central administration through collaboration and hard work nano should strive to achieve good scientific and socially relevant results with these limited resources and hope that on the basis of the first year`s successes we might aspire to increased funding from nf in the future we also need to look into other funding sources possibly with the help of nano friends the next few months will be very busy with the initial implementation of the projects and distribution of roles and resources we sincerely hope many of you will want to participate in these projects and contribute to making them a success if you would like to get involved please contact sophie seeyave at the pogo secretariat ssve@pml.ac.uk contact us kanthi@phy.ruh.ac.lk ssve@pml.ac.uk lilian.krug@nfpogoalumni.org nano website www.nfpogoalumni.org 6

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capacity building for south east asian ocean color network nfpogo centre of excellence regional training in vietnam tin hoang c and son tong p h an international training course on the application of ocean color remote sensing for study of marine and coastal processes and related bioresources was held in 2011 in vietnam the main aims of the training course were i to promote ocean color remote sensing science in south east asia sea ii to enhance the knowledge of oceanic optical properties related to the marine environment iii to familiarize the trainees with the satellite data processing and iv to build up the budding satellite ocean science community in the sea region the regional training programme was held at the institute of oceanography io in nha trang vietnam from 19 september to 10 october 2011 as part of the activities of the nfpogo center of excellence in observational oceanography cofe at the bermuda institute of ocean sciences bios world experts in ocean color remote sensing working at highranking universities were invited to the training course prof seiichi saitoh dr joji ishizaka dr satsuki matsumura and dr taka hirata came from different universities and institutes in japan dr joo hyung ryu and his assistant dr jong kuk choi came from the korean ocean research development institute kordi dr gerry plumley deputy director and education director of the bermuda institute of ocean sciences bios and coordinator of the cofeoo supervised the course and provided the traine es with information on the capacity building attendees of the regional cofe vietnam photo son tong p.h activities of nfpogo in observational oceanography beside the six visiting professors mr son tong p h from io with his assistants from vietnam also took part in the teaching activities to exchange information about ocean color remote sensing activities in vietnam and to support the trainees in the practical exercises the trainees were highly motivated to start studying ocean color remote sensing knowing how interesting and important satellite information is most of the 22 trainees were from vietnam 10 were from io and another 8 were from other institutions and national universities in hue 2 ho chi minh city 3 haiphong 1 and nha trang 2 the rest were from the sea region i.e thailand 2 the philippines 1 and indonesia 1 compared with previous courses the educational level of the trainees in terms of remote sensing and ocean color was very high two of them have participated in the cofe in bermuda mr tin hoang c and ms thao pham p some have attended previous training courses in the io and some had been using ocean color remote sensing for their research professor joji ishizaka is working at nagoya university japan he attended as a key instructor of all previous nfpogo training programmes in vietnam 2006 2007 and 2011 i was impressed by the improvement of the trainees skill and knowledge i think this series of training is very successful i hope that i can collaborate closer on research and education in the southeast asia in the near future contact us kanthi@phy.ruh.ac.lk ssve@pml.ac.uk lilian.krug@nfpogoalumni.org nano website www.nfpogoalumni.org 7

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after attending the training and returning to indonesia miss aninda wisaksanti r msc from institute pertanian bogor bogor agricultural university wrote for me it was very good very helpful and useful for developing countries members and excellent program it helps me to get more understanding on the ocean sciences particularly in the topic of remote sensing and gis for marine and fisheries it s very important program especially for me who came from indonesia as a developing country and still need to learn a lot professors who gave us lecture were very kind to share knowledge and experiences from developed countries via that program we could also exchange information between developing countries so we could develop a network for marine and fisheries research further thus the training program has broadened my mind improved my skills just like a trigger after completing the last training i got many ideas for doing research in addition i learned not just about the training materials but also the culture of another country very lovely participants followed a series of lectures from visiting professors which covered various topics in ocean color remote sensing satellite oceanography marinegis and their applications such as in marine fisheries tidal flats red tides phytoplankton community structure carbon circulation and primary productivity the trainees also participated in a field trip in nha trang bay which was conducted for the trainees to become familiar with biooptical instruments prr2600/2610 and measuring chlorophylla concentration and estimating primary production using a fluorometer au10 turner design water samples for measuring chla and total suspended solids tss were also collected hydrological parameters such as temperature and salinity were also measured using a ctd instrument as a means of keeping track of the career progression of the south east asian members the trainees were introduced to the nfpogo alumni network for oceans nano by a vietnamese alumnus mr tin hoang the aims of the network are to maximize the benefits to the alumni from the training they have received and facilitate active contacts among the alumni and with the training faculty the trainees and visiting professors also participated in cultural activities such as visiting scenic and cultural locations in nha trang and the vicinity on behalf of the trainees dr anukul buranapratheprat from burapha university thailand said the nfpogo program at the institute of oceanography in nha trang vietnam provides not only valuable knowledge but also practical training in ocean color remote sensing and gis i have got an experience in what i expect to know which are techniques on benthic habitat classification and fishing ground analysis we have made friends among the trainees and the lecturers from several countries and institutions i am quite sure this activity will initiate future collaborations in ocean remote sensing and gis research among southeast asian countries and pogo members thanks to all people and organizations to make this great opportunity possible contact us kanthi@phy.ruh.ac.lk ssve@pml.ac.uk lilian.krug@nfpogoalumni.org nano website www.nfpogoalumni.org 8

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the trainees worked on issues immediately relevant to their research discussed these with their instructors and peers and presented final reports to the group using their new knowledge in satellite oceanography the presentations indicated remarkable progress they will be able to apply their new knowledge to their research after they return to their institutes and thus contribute to the development of an ocean color remote sensing group in sea in addition a nano nfpogo alumni network for oceans regional project has recently been funded by the nippon foundation for 2012 with participation by alumni and supervisors in the sea region this is an effective first step for developing collaborations in ocean color research in sea on behalf of all trainees and the teaching group we would like to thank the nippon foundation and pogo and the cofeoo bermuda for providing this opportunity to south east asia for developing science and technology related to satellite oceanography and coastal remote sensing about the writers tin hoang c is currently a phd student at curtin university of technology australia previously he worked at the centre for coastal management and development studies hue university of science vietnam he received the bsc degree in biology and msc degree in marine ecology from hue university of sciences vietnam thanks to the partnership for observation of the global ocean s pogo and nippon foundation nf capacity training programs he has attended several nfpogo courses in ocean color remote sensing and observational oceanography such as the visiting professorship programmes held in vietnam in 2007 and 2011 and the second year 20092010 of the centre of excellence in observational oceanography at the bermuda institute of ocean sciences he has specialized knowledge in marine ecology his research interests are aquatic sciences and their role in globally changing environments with a focus on the application of rs remote sensing and gis geographic information system in research resource management marine and coastal environments and marine habitat mapping mr tin has participated in several national and international research projects in research and management of marine and coastal areas he has taken part in many field trips with his colleagues and also has close relationships with local communities in the coastal areas of vietnam son tong p h is head of the marine remote sensing and gis department institute of oceanography nha trang vietnam the main research field of mr son is the application of remote sensing and gis in management planning protection and sustainable utilization of marine resources he has specialized in investigating and building databases for marine resources in central and southern regions of vietnam mr son has been principal and coprincipal investigator of several national and international projects funded by undp unep and jaxa for the assessment planning management exploitation and utilization of marine resources and adaptation to climate change along the vietnamese coast he has coordinated several nfpogo projects in capacity building for marine and coastal study by remote sensing and gis in vietnam and south east asia 2006 the nfpogo visiting professorship program 2007 and nfpogo centre of excellence regional training 2011 photo aninda wisaksanti r 9 contact us kanthi@phy.ruh.ac.lk ssve@pml.ac.uk lilian.krug@nfpogoalumni.org nano website www.nfpogoalumni.org

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research activities carried out by nfpogo alumni at the central institute of fisheries technology cift cochin kerala india in situ time series measurement of biooptical parameters cift is working on the ocean colour monitoring through insitu time series measurements of key bio optical parameters and the generated data is complimenting and supplementing remote sensing data with insitu observations the main objectives of the research are to create a data base of optical properties of optically active substances oas development of satellite derived ocean colour products for the coastal regions and improvements of algorithms to retrieve the oas through ocean colour data for the coastal and fisheries management the main areas of research are the optically complex coastal estuarine and poorly sampled regions of the ocean in respect of the biooptical studies our major focus is on the coastal region of kerala southern ocean so and other optically important regions of the oceans major biooptical works doing at cift studies on the dynamics of chlorophyll in marine/estuarine waters studies on bio optical characteristics of pelagic fish shoal sighted regions measurements of optical characteristics using hyperspectral radiometer community structure of phytoplankton and its relation with productivity evaluation of micro and macro nutrient status and its relation with productivity production of synoptic fields of chlorophyll pigment creation of a long term monitoring station for coastal waters to supplement the chlorophyll network our team ddg fisheries icar new delhi india dr b meenakumari meenakumarib@gmail.com central institute of fisheries technology cochin india dr muhamed ashraf p ashrafp2008@gmail.com mr shaju s s senior research fellow miss minu p senior research fellow miss archana g senior research fellow photo by alumnus w.n.c.pryiadarshani contact us kanthi@phy.ruh.ac.lk ssve@pml.ac.uk lilian.krug@nfpogoalumni.org nano website www.nfpogoalumni.org 10

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phytoplankton productivity in subantarctic waters role of nutrients accumulated and recycled by seabirds my phd project and research trip to subantarctic new zealand olga shatova ph.d student at university of otago new zealand cruise to the snares february 2012 my first research cruise to the subantarctic islands of new zealand took place in february this year following a 2week delay due to bad weather in a rough southern ocean our team of 5 researchers and 3 crew members set off from bluff the very southern port of new zealand the biggest research vessel of our small department the rv polaris is also rather small 23 m long but a very capable boat that has been in rough seas many times before therefore we relied on its agility and experience of the crew after a 2 days transfer in a 3 meters swell we successfully anchored in the wake of the snares islands a tiny group of islands located about 200 km south from the south island of new zealand at first sight the snares look like a little rock in the middle of the ocean as we were approaching it became clear that these small islands are a home for millions of seabirds thousands of sea lions and seals the snares didn t experience any damage related to the era of active whaling and sealing in subantarctica 19th century the island remains pristine and retains rich wildlife presently the island has the highest level of protection by new zealand department of conservation the access to the island is prohibited for the general public and can be allowed under special research permit only i was lucky to be among those scientists who are permitted to land on the snares on the island my tasks included collection of samples of flora and fauna seaweed land vegetation sea birds feathers and guano however things that at first seem to be easy appeared to be hard in the wild environment of the snares the island is covered in shrubs and therefore is hardly passable besides other `live obstacles like fur seals and sea lions were in our way these marine mammals are usually peaceful but sometimes they try to show `who the boss is by exposing their teeth and barking special survival suits that provide a certain level of protection must be worn during trips to the island however these suits are heavy inflexible and restrain movements all this made our sampling trips challenging adventurous and rather exciting the snares fauna is unique and diverse despite the small size of the snares the biggest island in the group has approximate dimensions of 3 by 2.5 km it is a home for few endemic species of birds snares crested penguin snares snipe and snares tomtit about thirty thousand pairs of snares penguins live in colonies on the little island we accessed the colonies sites in a molting season when penguins loose their plumage surprisingly our presence didn t bother penguins they remained unconcerned however some penguins were rather curious and readily walked around bashfully examining us another famous representative of seabirds breeding on the snares is southern buller s albatross or buller s mallymawk a gorgeous bird with a black patch around the eyes that seems to be a perfect `make up like most albatrosses it s fairly large with an average body size of 80cm1m albatrosses nest on steep rock shores and cliffs that make their nests hardly accessible 11 contact us kanthi@phy.ruh.ac.lk ssve@pml.ac.uk lilian.krug@nfpogoalumni.org nano website www.nfpogoalumni.org

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the second part of my work during the cruise was aboard the rv polaris while on boat we collected water samples for nutrient analysis and measured physical properties of the water using a ctd we also collected samples of particulate matter and representatives of the pelagic food web for isotopic analysis this allows us to construct the food web structure in the vicinity of the island and to investigate the factors that influence food web productivity i have also collected water for a phytoplankton incubation experiment that was finished in the laboratory after the cruise the preliminary results from the cruise look promising such an unforgettable the snares islands february 2012 trip great experience great memories a short scientific introduction to the project unexpected responses of coastal ecosystems to anthropogenic stressors arise from insufficient knowledge about food web complex interactions and feedback loops therefore it is imperative to better understand food web structures mechanisms and functions recent studies of nutrient cycling in food webs that span the oceanland interface show that landbased nutrients support food webs in the ocean seabird guano plays an important role in maintaining productivity of coastal ecosystems by delivering micro nutrients to coastal zones iron is a limiting factor in the coastal waters of the subantarctic islands in the southern ocean acquisition of iron by bacteria and biomagnifications of iron within the oceanic food web lead to high concentrations of iron in seabirds and their guano oceanic seabirds such as albatross and penguins congregate for breeding around the subantarctic islands this results in the delivery of large amounts of bioavailable iron from the guano with potential to enhance productivity and support biodiversity in the region snares crested penguin and the polaris main hypothesis we hypothesize that seabird guano containing micronutrients in high concentrations is an important mechanism to fuel primary and secondary production around subantarctic islands i used the following approaches to test this hypothesis phytoplankton incubation experiments with enrichment with nutrients derived from seabird guano sampling of dominant components of pelagic communities collection of water samples for nutrient analysis and measurements of physical conditions in the ocean previous page left to right the rv polaris in ho ho bay my supervisor steve and me climbing the rocks to collect samples penguin colony buller s albatross in a nest contact us kanthi@phy.ruh.ac.lk ssve@pml.ac.uk lilian.krug@nfpogoalumni.org nano website www.nfpogoalumni.org 12

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research communications ­ nfpogo alumni maria fernanda coló giannini universidade federal do rio grande ­ furg email fe.cgiannini@gmail.com wikipage http www.nfpogoalumni.org maria+coló+giannini research work carried out under the masters degree effects of la plata river plume on chlorophyll estimations using ocean color algorithms spectral light reflectance and its magnitude have been commonly used to estimate chlorophylla concentration from ocean color sensors coastal waters are biooptically complex and thus ocean color varies with the presence of other optically active components besides chlorophylla in the southern brazilian waters the dynamics of the la plata river plume over the continental shelf are probably the major factor responsible for the variability of seawater reflectance the present work aims to describe the variability of in situ remote sensing reflectance rrs and evaluates the performance of existing operational chlorophyll algorithms reflectance and chlorophylla concentration data from three oceanographic cruises were used in addition to an historical dataset of the region the deviations between measured and estimated chlorophyll are studied as a function of salinity and turbidity of surface waters we observed that the seasonal variability of surface reflectance properties are strongly affected by la plata river plume dynamics due to the presence of high concentrations of both inorganic suspended solids and colored dissolved material moreover the existing operational algorithms overestimate chlorophylla concentration especially in waters of low salinity s 33.5 and high turbidity rrs670 0.0012 sr1 a new version of the regional empirical algorithm was also developed oc2lpv2 r2 0.8 n 137 the techniques presented under this study allow us to distinguish biooptically different waters which require development of specific algorithms to be considered in ocean color studies for chlorophylla estimates research communications ­ nfpogo alumni kentaro suzuki field science education and research center kyoto university email ksuzuki@kais.kyotou.ac.jp wikipage http www.nfpogoalumni.org kentaro+suzuki research interests my research interests are to study origins of organic matter and the effects of its origin on organisms in aquatic ecosystems i have conducted research in rivers estuaries and oceanic waters using several analytical methods such as pigment measurements stoichiometry analysis and stable isotope analysis two such studies completed are presented below 1 origin of particulate organic matter in the yura river japan riverine particulate organic matter pom discharges into estuaries some riverine pom is utilized by estuarine organisms such as bivalves and amphipods while other pom is decomposed by heterotrophic microorganisms in conjunction with oxygen consumption in estuaries as the fate of riverine pom depends on its origin understanding the sources of riverine pom is important for environmental conservation in estuaries in this study therefore we focused on the elucidation of origins of pom in river waters our observations were conducted along the yura river which discharges into the sea of japan and is a typical 13 contact us kanthi@phy.ruh.ac.lk ssve@pml.ac.uk lilian.krug@nfpogoalumni.org nano website www.nfpogoalumni.org

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river in southwest japan the yura river has a total length of 146 km and a total drainage area of 1882 km2 forest covers much of the watershed areas from upstream to midstream from midstream to downstream the land usage is agricultural and urban riverine pom samples were collected from 11 sites along the main stream of the yura river in may and november 2006 and were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic compositions isotopic compositions and c/n ratios of pom suggested that riverine pom originated mainly from attached algae phytoplankton and anthropogenic materials assuming that each pom source mixed conservatively the fraction of each pom source can be estimated using a three source mixing model pom was mainly dominated by attached algae in the upstream area and phytoplankton and anthropogenic materials increased in the midstream area including a dam and in the downstream area respectively during both months the calculated carbon and nitrogen concentrations of anthropogenic pom in river waters were positively correlated r2 0.7 with the population density this suggests that the increase of those concentrations were due to the increase of population density in may phytoplanktonderived organic matter showed high concentrations at sites in the midstream and downstream areas this may be caused by phytoplankton input from rice paddy fields our study indicates that human activities in the river watershed account for about 50 of the total pom input into the estuarine ecosystem 2 oligotrophic jellyplankton blooms implications for carbon cycling in the sargasso sea recent studies have indicated that jellyplankton are increasing globally and their blooms have a big impact on the socioeconomics in the coastal areas such as fisheries and power plants it is also suggested that jellyplankton are generally not favourable prey for higher trophic levels and shunt carbon away from traditional food chains influenced by the microbial loop however their role in ecosystems and carbon cycles is still not well described especially in open oceans such as oligotrophic gyres salps one type of jellyplankton feed on small particles especially pico and nanophytoplankton at high rates and exhibit one of the highest growth rates among animals thus their grazing can have a huge impact on ecosystem and carbon cycling the objectives of the present study were 1 to estimate salp carbon consumption and 2 to identify the environmental factors affecting salp biomass in the sargasso sea during spring when the highest primary production is observed salps from the spring zooplankton tows of the bermuda atlantic timeseries study from 2002 to 2009 were identified and counted and salp lengths were measured to estimate salp biomass salp carbon consumption was estimated based on maximum daily carbon consumption and salp daily filtration rate for the analysis of the environmental factors controlling salp population permutation tests between salp biomass and various environmental parameters including physical and biological ones were conducted as a result salps are estimated to consume normally 1 of primary production but up to 25 of primary production during large salp blooms we also suggest that large salp blooms are supported by blooms of synechococcus which increase in the sargasso sea in spring therefore a large fraction of primary production would be assimilated in salp biomass at that time current research work my current research work is about mysid population dynamics related to physical parameters such as salinity and origin of particulate organic matter and sedimentary organic matter as food sources for mysids in estuaries in this work we study the origin of organic matter using fatty acid analysis and stable isotope analysis contact us kanthi@phy.ruh.ac.lk ssve@pml.ac.uk lilian.krug@nfpogoalumni.org nano website www.nfpogoalumni.org 14

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