Stockholm, Rio, Johannesburg

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stockholm rio johannesburg brazil and the three united nations conferences on the environment

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ministry of external relations foreign minister secretary general ambassador celso amorim ambassador samuel pinheiro guimarães alexandre de gusmÃo foundation president ambassador jeronimo moscardo instituto rio branco irbr director ambassador fernando guimarães reis the alexandre de gusmão foundation funag was established in 1971 it is a public foundation linked to the ministry of external relations whose goal is to provide civil society with information concerning the international scenario and aspects of the brazilian diplomatic agenda the foundation s mission is to foster awareness of the domestic public opinion with regard to international relations issues and brazilian foreign policy ministry of external relations esplanada dos ministérios bloco h anexo ii térreo sala 190 70170-900 brasília df telephones 61 3411-6033/6034/6847 fax 61 3411-9125

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andré aranha corrêa do lago stockholm rio johannesburg brazil and the three united nations conferences on the environment brasília 2009

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all rights reserved fundação alexandre de gusmão ministério das relações exteriores esplanada dos ministérios bloco h anexo ii térreo 70.170-900 brasília ­ df telefones 61 3411 6033/6034 fax 61 3411 9125 site www.funag.gov.br book cover dora parentes abstrato iii medidas 110 x 100 a.s.t technical advisors cintia rejane rejane souza araújo gonçalves eliane miranda paiva maria marta cezar lopes graphic project and diagram juliana orem e maria loureiro translator melissa de mello e souza reviser claudia vargas printed in brazil 2009 lago andré aranha corrêa do stockholm rio johannesburg brazil and the three united nations conferences on the environment andré aranha corrêa do lago brasília instituto rio branco fundação alexandre de gusmão 2009 244p original title in portuguese estocolmo rio joanesburgo o brasil e as três conferências ambientais das nações unidas isbn 978-85-7631-146-1 tese apresentada no 46° cae ­ instituto rio branco brasília 2004 1 meio ambiente congressos e conferências i instituto rio branco ii título iii título o brasil e as três conferências das nações unidas cdu 504 legal deposit at the national library foundation according to law 10.994 14/12/2004

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acknowledgements adnan amin enrique iglesias fabio feldmann henrique brandão cavalcanti josé domingos miguez joann disano lucas assunção luiz filipe de macedo soares paulo tarso flecha de lima pedro malan pedro moreira salles ronaldo sardenberg and washington luiz pereira de souza for granting me their time for interviews that significantly enriched this work cláudio garon everton vargas helio vitor ramos filho luiz figueiredo machado marcos galvão maria luiza ribeiro viotti pedro borio raphael azeredo ricardo neiva tavares and sergio danese friends without whom i could not have developed this project and to whom i owe the best in this work béatrice for her love encouragement and patience.

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table of contents foreword by marina silva 9 introduction 15 chapter 1 from stockholm to johannesburg the evolution of the international environmental agenda 23 a the stockholm conference 25 main themes of the conference and its preparatory meetings 32 main achievements and criticisms of the conference 44 b the rio conference 48 main themes of the conference and its preparatory meetings 60 main achievements and criticisms of the conference 77 c the johannesburg summit 78 main themes of the summit and its preparatory meetings 93 main achievements and criticisms of the summit 99 chapter 2 brazil s role in the three conferences 103 a brazil at the stockholm conference 105 b brazil at the rio conference 131 c brazil at the johannesburg summit 153

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chapter 3 the brazilian discourse at the three conferences the evolution of the expression of national priorities 167 a treatment of the original themes of the environmental agenda in the three conferences 170 b treatment of the environmental agenda issues derived from the original themes 188 conclusions 201 bibliography 213 appendices 225 iiideclaration of the united nations 227 the rio declaration 237

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foreword

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foreword since the conflicts of the extractivist movement in the state of acre in the eighties to the ministry of the environment in the current administration i have taken in the experiences of many people and institutions these helped shape the ideas principles and objectives that guide me today and give meaning to my actions in the public sphere in the beginning environmentalism did not exist for us in acre it was a struggle for a way of living and producing that had the forest at its center the provider a presence we could not do without for reasons ranging from the cultural-emotional to the economic only later did the awareness of being part of something much larger arrive larger than our colocações area assigned to rubber tappers in the forest for living and producing larger than acre than the amazon larger than brazil it was the size of the world in this period of about 25 years it was as if our little canoe coming from a river of predictable waters with its known margins and meanders had suddenly been thrust into the sea a place where one is frailer where one is almost nothing in the face of unknown risks and where the eye can only see vastness not the limits a place where one needs navigation instruments far more than in the river it is interesting that today having covered so much sea i see that my navigation instruments are basically those given to me by acre and the forest that is the understanding that there is no such thing as separate social and environmental struggles what exists is a conception of the 11

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andrÉ aranha corrÊa do lago world in which production the quality of people s lives and the natural environment must be inseparable generating a new vision of public ethics in this sense i find myself and my challenges ­ in andre s thesis now book this is the direction to which we must row that of describing analyzing and unveiling complex processes involving the environmental issue without losing the wealth of the interactions and various meanings of this complexity and thus consistently informing public action be it of the individual communities or nations it is a thesis in which knowledge builds an immediate bridge to reality and is concerned with answers i would even say looking back at an old motto in a new light that this is a committed work not from the point of view of demarcating an ideology but from a perspective that we could call active intellectual citizenship the author is present in his analyses without losing academic rigor he makes his ethics and his choices clear he concerns himself with his own time and includes himself as an agent besides its obvious contribution to the knowledge of fundamental processes for the future of our country and the world the work has important characteristics it is direct and does not yield to the temptation of being exclusive and elitist through words expanding access to the reading and understanding of complex themes this is no small feat for many times extraordinary works are lacking in a minimal effort to communicate which is a good indication of a democratic spirit andré makes a great academic and political contribution by covering the period of the most significant milestones in the world s multilateral approach to the environmental issue particularly the stockholm rio de janeiro and johannesburg conferences he uncovers the themes concepts scenarios negotiations power games and trends that make up this issue in a global setting with strong repercussions for brazil the country most identified with the environment in the world 12

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foreword brazil s role ­ its decisive action and leadership to ensure that the treatment of the environment is associated to the issue of development is addressed in a competent and critical manner as is the role of the ministry of external relations in the formulation and expression of brazilian positions and its progressive interaction with other sectors of the government and civil society especially after the rio conference and the creation of the ministry of the environment andré also takes note of and analyzes the application of the concept of governance identifying its innovative character in public management and also pointing out its manipulation by developed countries to limit international cooperation and implicitly the commitments of solidarity and common responsibilities established in rio for developing countries he quite rightly reminds us that the environmental issue was created and shaped according to the interests of industrialized countries but disfigured by developing countries under strong brazilian leadership to reflect their visions and necessities giving the issue a more equitable balance which is finally reflected in the construction of the concept of sustainable development and its evolution today sustainable development is a backdrop to the national debate on the return to economic growth with a clear crosscutting and multifaceted environmental policy the foundation and condition for governability this is still not the case but inroads have been made through emblematic experiences such as the struggle against deforestation in the amazon which end up as a means of developing and implementing policies both with respect to their successes and to the understanding of their obstacles and contradictions what is important is the convergence of numerous actors in the objective of creating processes giving them qualitative advancements in the political and institutional culture and democratic practices it is not just the goals that are important but also how they are achieved 13

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andrÉ aranha corrÊa do lago this book also deserves attention because in a certain way it expresses the enormous gains in process for it joins research and method to the author s sensibility to his numerous direct experiences as a member of the itamaraty many of which we shared those occasions confirmed his discipline understanding and above all his personal skill in interacting in a proper and balanced manner with the great diversity of social and technical segments represented there andré is a diplomat who has the essential ability to look at the world without loosing contact with the plurality and complexity of brazil revealing in his professional actions a deep sense of belonging and commitment to his country his work is a symbol of those talents connected to the current needs of the public sphere both nationally and internationally which are prepared to respond to the ensuing demand for differentiated and permanently innovative competencies marina silva june 2005 senator marina silva was minister for the environment from 2003 ­ 2008 14

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introduction

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