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december 2004 u p d at ededitionint ro du ctionandhisto ri ca l b ac kg ro u n d today after over seven years of negotiations and currently four years of stalemate and violence it has become clear to all parties involved in the palestinian-israeli conflict that the establishment of a palestinian state is inevitable but the core question about its area of sovereignty and of the land israel intends to annex from the west bank as well as from jerusalem remains unresolved the struggle for land determining the conflict until this day began in 1947 when the united nations recommended what it construed to be a `more or less even partition of palestine into a jewish state on 56.47 and an arab state on 43.53 of the country this was despite the fact that only 7 of the country was owned by jewish inhabitants who made up only one third of the country s population palestinian rejection of the partition plan precipitated the arab-israeli war of 1948-49 causing the flight an-nakba of two thirds of the palestinian population in the face of the israeli forces and atrocities that went on to conquer 78 of the country in 1967 israel occupied the remainder of palestine the west bank and gaza strip wbgs ever since consecutive israeli governments have pursued a policy intended to disrupt the integrity of the palestinian community and create apartheid-like enclaves based on the presumption that the presence of israeli settlements will make it more difficult to surrender territory and thus prevent any possibility of the establishment of a truly independent palestinian state also in 1967 the adoption of unsc resolution 242 calling on israel to withdraw from all captured territory as a basis for peace required palestinians to accept the remaining 22 of their homeland for an independent state when the palestinian leadership in november 1988 formally accepted this resolution they did so at the cost of 78 of historical palestine accepting less than half the allotment of the partition plan however israel failed to consider this historical territorial compromise as a fundamental step in ending the palestinian-israeli conflict and continued to establish settlements ­ in blatant violation of international law ­ in the occupied palestinian territories as well as the golan heights and sinai also captured in 1967 in doing so israeli settlement policy followed the pattern of earlier zionist colonization in pursuing the realization of `greater israel and centered on securing as much control over the territories as possible including their water and other natural and infrastructural resources it has become clear that israel has no intention of stopping or even slowing settlement construction not only has the number of settlers in the wbgs doubled since the signing of the oslo accords a complete new network of bypass roads has been established eventually aiming at establishing an alternative road network for palestinians thus consolidating the factual apartheid regime in the making in addition israel s construction of its separation barrier or `wall in the west bank and around jerusalem has only been the latest step in the long-standing strategy of confiscating as much palestinian land as possible while at the same time limiting palestinian development prospects in continuing to pursue its illegal land-grab policies and consolidating control over the wbgs israel not only reduces the land area territorial contiguity and economic viability of a palestinian state but also preempts the establishment of a viable independent palestinian state and thus the possibility of a two-state solution this bulletin aims to present the fundamental facts and figures relating to the colonization policies of israel palestinian academic society for the study of international affairs tel +972-2-6264426 fax +972-2-6282819 email passia@palnet.com website www.passia.org po box 19545 jerusalem passia

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settlements wall and the preempting the two-state-solution box 1 settlements in international law and un resolutions as international law prohibits the annexation of territory by force israel s colonization policy is considered illegal the un charter itself states that territorial gains from war are unlawful even if achieved in the course of self-defense and that any state is obliged to withdraw once it has protected itself from danger the most relevant articles of the fourth geneva convention and un resolutions in this context are the following the hague convention iv 18 oct 1907 section ii art 23 it is especially forbidden ­ g to destroy or seize the enemy s property unless such destruction or seizure be imperatively demanded by the necessities of war section iii art 46 family honor and rights the lives of persons and private property as well as religious convictions and practice must be respected private property cannot be confiscated universal declaration of human rights 10 dec 1948 art 17 2 no one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property fourth geneva convention 1949 art 47 protected persons who are in occupied territory shall not be deprived as the result of the occupation of a territory into the institutions or government of the said territory nor by any agreement concluded between the authorities of the occupied territories and the occupying power nor by any annexation by the latter of the whole or part of the occupied territory art 49 the occupying power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies un security council resolutions res 242 22 nov 1967 emphasizes the inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by war and calls for israeli withdrawal of from all occupied territories res 446 22 march 1979 determines that the policy and practices of israel in establishing settlements in territories occupied since 1967 have no legal validity and calls on israel to rescind its previous measures and to desist from taking any action which would result in changing the legal status and geographical nature and materially affecting the demographic composition of the arab territories occupied since 1967 including jerusalem and in particular not to transfer parts of its own civilian population into the occupied arab territories res 452 20 july 1979 calls upon the government and people of israel to cease on an urgent basis the establishment construction and planning of settlements in the arab territories occupied since 1967 including jerusalem res 465 1 march 1980 determines that all measures taken by israel to change the physical character demographic composition institutional structure or status of the territories occupied since 1967 have no legal validity and calls on israel to rescind those measures to dismantle the existing settlements and in particular to cease on an urgent basis the establishment construction and planning of settlements in the arab territories occupied since 1967 including jerusalem un general assembly resolutions res 2649 xxv 30 nov 1970 4 considers that the acquisition and retention of territory in contravention of the right of the people of that territory to self-determination is inadmissible and a gross violation of the charter res 3005 xxvii dec 1972 2 strongly calls upon israel to rescind forthwith and desist from all such policies and practices as a the annexation of any part of the occupied territories b the establishment of israeli settlements in those territories and the transfer of parts of an alien population into the occupied territories c the destruction and demolition of villages quarters and houses and the confiscation and expropriation of property d the evacuation transfer deportation and expulsion of the inhabitants of the occupied territories e the denial of the right of the displaced persons to return to their homes 3 reaffirms that all measures taken by israel in contravention of the geneva convention relative to the protection of civilian persons in time of war of 12 august 1949 to settle the occupied territories including occupied jerusalem are null and void res 3525 a 15 dec 1975 5 condemns in particular the following israeli policies and practices a the annexation of parts of the occupied territories b the establishment of israeli settlements d the confiscation and expropriation of arab property i the illegal exploitation of the natural wealth resources and population of the occupied territories 6 declares that those policies and practices of israel constitute grave violations of the charter of the united nations in particular the principles of sovereignty and territorial integrity and the principles and provisions of international law concerning occupation and constitute as well an impediment to the establishment of a just and lasting peace 2

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settlements wall and the preempting the two-state-solution settlements thepe ac e p ro cessand rec entdeve lop ments with the signing of the oslo accords the palestinians agreed to defer all difficult issues incl settlements to a later stage in exchange for an israeli commitment to disengage from the opt and preserve the territorial integrity of the wbgs this although the oslo accords include a broad range of protective measures for the settlements and settlers ­ such as their exclusion from palestinian jurisdiction blanket limitations on palestinian land use near settlements as well as israeli control over land registration zoning and security israel has continued to take unilateral actions all of which are aimed at creating more irreversible facts on the ground in violation of international law see box 1 the palestinian position remains that israeli settlements are illegal and prejudice the viability of a two-state solution and therefore must be evacuated incl those in east jerusalem however despite their belief that any solution to the settlement problem is founded in international law and requires israel to comply with un resolution 242 and withdraw to the 4 june 1967 lines palestinians have shown readiness to make limited concessions in the form of land exchanges that would enable israel to incorporate some settlements adjacent to the green line in return for nearby land from israel of equal potential and value in doing so it is stressed the palestinians are negotiating upon territory that represents only 22 of the total area of historical palestine and what is usually termed as israeli `offers and `compromises is by no means perceived as `giving or `returning but as taking even more of this land see also map 1 the israeli position however disregards international law and insists upon the annexation of west bank territory ranging most recently from about 47 down to a minimum of 7 depending on the presence of either a likud or labor-dominated government if together in a new coalition supported by a majority of the israeli electorate chances are low that such an annexation would be less than 11 and could amount to 20 of the west bank if israel would insist on a so-called `security zone in the jordan valley both israeli mainstream parties still draw guidance from the so-called allon plan ­ first formulated in 1967 and subsequently altered renamed adapted and amended by consecutive israeli governments and military strategists in each `guise israeli commitments have remained the same firstly ensuring the jewish character of the state of israel and secondly securing israel s geo-political domination of all of the country between the mediterranean sea and the jordan river by holding on to the jordan valley as well as border strips stretching beyond the green line toward and around `greater jerusalem the agreements signed by israel and the plo as part of the peace process prohibit actions which destroy the territorial integrity and status or otherwise change the status of the wbgs the 1993 declaration of principles ­ as well as subsequent agreements stipulated that the two sides view the west bank and the gaza strip as a single territorial unit whose integrity will be preserved during the interim period dop art iv the september 1995 interim agreement stated that neither side shall initiate or take any step that will change the status of the a palestinian state historical comparison jewish state according to the un partition plan 1947 palestinian arab state according to the un partition plan 1947 west bank and gaza strip palestinian state area within area of projected israeli disengagement palestinian state according to an israeli annexation of 11 of the west bank borderline between israel and a palestinian state proposed by the geneva initiative haifa map 1 west bank tel aviv jaffa jerusalem gaza gaza strip israel gypt passia 0 jo e r 20 km map © jan de jong d a n 3

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settlements wall and the preempting the two-state-solution west bank and gaza strip pending the outcome of the permanent status negotiations art xxxi clause 7 and that in order to maintain the territorial integrity of the west bank and the gaza strip as a single territorial unit and to promote their economic growth and the demographic and geographical links between them both sides shall implement the provisions of this annex while respecting and preserving without obstacles normal and smooth movement of people vehicles and goods within the west bank and between the west bank and the gaza strip annex i article 1 clauses 2-4 furthermore both the wye memorandum of oct 1998 and the sharm el-sheikh memorandum of sept 1999 recognized the necessity to create a positive environment for the negotiations neither side shall initiate or take any step that will change the status of the west bank and the gaza strip in accordance with the interim agreement art v and art 10 respectively the to date most far reaching though eventually unsuccessful talks took place at camp david in july 2000 in an attempt to conclude final status negotiations from the maps made available by the palestinian orient house team it seems likely that israel demanded the annexation of most of the settlements and that territorial continuity was denied to the palestinian entity in order to achieve this aim the settlements in east jerusalem gush etzion near hebron and large blocs such as the shomron settlements in the northern west bank were all to become part of israel based on the deliberations at camp david then-us president clinton published on the eve of his departure from the white house his so-called parameters proposing with regard to territory and settlements four guiding principles 80 of settlers in blocs contiguity minimize annexed areas minimize the number of palestinians affected in january 2001 the last round of official talks were held in taba before prime minister barak was defeated by ariel sharon in the israeli elections according to the so-called `moratinos non-paper based on minutes taken by the eu envoy at those talks the israeli and palestinian sides had agreed that the large settlements blocs in the northern west bank in addition to the jerusalem and gush etzion settlements were to be annexed while continuity between the palestinian areas was assured but significant amounts of the west bank were to be swapped with disconnected land in the negev desert in a bid to curb the ongoing violence the `mitchell committee was sent on a fact-finding mission to the territories in spring 2001 in april 2001 it presented its recommendations unambiguously condemning israel s continuing policies of land confiscation property destruction and settlement expansion as illegal and as obstacle to peace and calling for a freeze of all settlement activity including the `natural growth of existing settlements since then several initiatives ­ both of official and private nature were launched aiming at overcoming the current impasse and reviving the peace talks in sept 2002 the people s voice campaign was published which proposed regarding the settlement issue that after establishment of the agreed border no settler will remain in the palestinian state whereby the initiative called for borders to be based on the june 1967 lines with border modifications and equal land exchanges in april 2003 the quartet un us eu and russia published the `road map peace plan aiming at a three-staged final settlement of the israeli-palestinian conflict by 2005 based on a two-state solution starting with steps to normalize conditions including an end to palestinian `terrorism and a freeze on israeli settlements including natural growth a neat loophole that israel had exploited in the past the final status of the settlements was to be determined during the third and last stage where all outstanding issues were to be resolved at present the road map is still the accepted official plan for achieving peace in the region in dec 2003 a group of israeli and palestinian personalities launched the geneva accord which inter alia calls for the dismantling of 120 out of 140 settlements and the evacuation of a large number of settlers though it fails to specify details regarding which settlements will be removed however the accompanying maps suggest that most settlements will go while the settlements in east jerusalem are amongst those which will remain intact and become part of israel the infrastructure of the settlements are supposed to be handed over to the palestinian state and it has been proposed that they should be offset against the compensation israel will pay to the refugees displaced in 1948 shortly after the launch of the geneva accord and at the peak of international criticism of the wall with the hearings of the international court of justice icj in the hague just ahead pm sharon proposed his own initiative a unilateral 4 cartoon by omayya joha http omayya.com caption settlements

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settlements wall and the preempting the two-state-solution disengagement plan initially envisioning the removal of 15 of the 17 gaza settlements now concerning all 17 as well as four tiny settlements in the jenin region which itself will continue to be surrounded by israeli-controlled checkpoints basically the plan aims at ridding israel off its responsibility for gaza s 1.3 million palestinians by formally ending its military occupation there while continuing to exercise exclusive control over the borders on 14 april 2004 during a meeting with pm sharon in washington pres bush endorsed the gaza pullout plan and hands him a letter calling the plan brave and courageous the letter further stated that new realities on the ground [i.e settlers in the wbgs would have to be taken into consideration during final status negotiations that israel would not have to fully withdraw to the green line and that palestinian refugees would return to the palestinian state but not israel the letter broke with decades of us middle east policy and violates the 1991 letter of assurances which affirmed that the united states has opposed and will continue to oppose settlement activity in the territories occupied in 1967 washington post 7 sept 2004 i sr a e l s wa ll in 2002 israel approved the construction of a permanent barrier to effectuate a physical separation from palestinian populated areas on the west bank see box 2 on the illegality of the barrier however the barrier ­ more commonly referred to as `the wall will according to its trajectory not separate the west bank from israel proper instead it incorporates substantial west bank areas east of the green line that are crucial for the palestinian economy such as the foothills and plains where modern irrigated agriculture has great potential israel incorporates these lands but keeps the palestinian rural population secluded from them behind the wall although permitting restricted access to landowning farmers the majority of palestinian citizens is barred access to what are now designated `closed seam zones complaints by farmers about the regime regulating access to their fields at the other side of the wall hindering proper cultivation are ignored by the israeli authorities box 2 the international court of justice s ruling on israel s wall on 8 december 2003 the un general assembly adopted resolution es-10/14 requesting the international court of justice icj in the hague to render an advisory opinion on the legal consequences arising from the construction of the wall being built by israel the occupying power in the occupied palestinian territory considering the rules and principles of international law as well as relevant un resolutions on 19 december 2003 the icj set 30 january 2004 as the date for written statements to be submitted on the matter and 23 february 2004 as the date for the actual hearings to begin on 9 july 2004 the icj determined the legal consequences of the construction of israel s wall in the west bank saying that i in order to build the wall israel destroyed or confiscated palestinian property in violation of international law para 132 ii israel s severe restrictions on palestinian movement violate international human rights and humanitarian law para 134 iii the wall impedes the right of palestinians to work health education and to an adequate standard of living para 134 and iv the wall severely impedes the exercise by the palestinian people of its right to self-determination para 122 the court further determined that whilst taking note of the assurance given by israel that the construction of the wall does not amount to annexation and that the wall is of a temporary nature the court nevertheless considers that the construction of the wall and its associated régime create a `fait accompli on the ground that could well become permanent in which case and notwithstanding the formal characterization of the wall by israel it would be tantamount to de facto annexation para 121 emphasis added in conclusion the icj stated that the construction of the wall by israel in the occupied palestinian territory is contrary to international law para 162 and ruled that israel must cease forthwith the works of construction of the wall being built in the occupied palestinian territory including in and around east jerusalem para 151 the court also ruled that israel must dismantle the wall pay compensation to the palestinian population and return the land orchards olive groves and other immovable property seized from any natural or legal person for purposes of construction of the wall in the occupied palestinian territory para 153 emphasis added the icj further confirmed that the territories situated between the green line and the former eastern boundary under the mandate of palestine were occupied by israel in 1967 remain occupied territories and israel has continued to have the status of an occupying power para 78 and that israeli settlements have been established in breach of international law para 120 emphasis added for further information see http www.nad-plo.org/wprimary.php for a full legal analysis with statements documents and maps see http www.palestine-un.org/icj/index.html continued on page 8 5

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settlements wall and the preempting the two-state-solution map 2 the wall and proposed israeli unilateral disengagement december 2004 wall completed under construction dec 2004 wall trajectory approved by israel s cabinet 30 june 2004 approved wall sections around the ariel settlement bloc settlement bloc areas behind the wall barta a east baqa east jenin rehan kadim ganim sanur tulkarem israeli-controlled areas of the jordan valley projection of wall trajectory south of hebron approved by israeli min of defence nov 2004 palestinian populated areas of east jerusalem beyond the wall homesh kedumim nablus elon moreh qalqilya shomron itamar elkana aley zahav bet arye ariel shilo talmon ofra bet el green line 1949 modi in illit ramallah givat ze ev west bank area percentages after the wall areas west of the wall approved wall sections around ariel settlement bloc settlement bloc areas behind the wall jordan valley remaining palestinian areas east of the wall jericho jericho a 6.1 2.1 9.7 29.1 etzion jerusalem ma ale adumim bethlehem tekoa 53 asfar adora percentages of palestinian west bank population directly affected by the wall population isolated outside the walled areas population separated from cultivated land by the wall population separated from cultivated land by wall sections around the ariel settlement bloc hebron k arba 9.2 9.7 3.1 eshkolot karmel 0 20 km map © jan de jong 6

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settlements wall and the preempting the two-state-solution map 3 israel s west bank road plan and disengagement 2004 traditional palestinian trunk road system israeli reconstructed highway network palestinian traditional road section incorporated in israeli highway network israel jenin rehan ganim kadim west alternative palestinian thoroughfares existing palestinian under or overpass sal it zufin karne shomron bank tulkarem sanur homesh nablus yizhar elon moreh qalqilya hamra itamar an shilo va elkana ariel ll e y n river jorda israeli urban rural settlement settlements to be evacuated by israel september 2005 green line 1949 modi in illit giv at ze ev ofra ramallah jericho 23 jerusalem ma ale adumim wadi nar road 47 53 betar bethlehem 30 israeli disengagement in area percentages of the west bank projected israeli disengagement from the northern west bank projected further israeli disengagement palestinian autonomous areas oslo a and b projected israeli-controlled area 0 dead sea 20 km map © jan de jong hebron kiryat arba jord 7

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settlements wall and the preempting the two-state-solution box 3 wall timeline continued from page 5 it is mainly in jerusalem where the wall will incorporate a large number of palestinians citizens of the annexed eastern part running closely not along the green line but along the municipal limits established unilaterally by israel to incorporate east jerusalem in 1967 in consequence all of east jerusalem s suburbs are fenced out from the city on which they depend for services and employment while keeping these large townships e.g ar-ram anata and al-izzariyya out the same wall incorporates adjacent large settlement bloc areas such as etzion and giv on see map 2 with vast reserves of open land targeted for large-scale settlement expansion map 2 see page 6 pictures the vital changes in the territorial composition of the west bank effectuated by the wall characteristic of the new situation is the increasing segregation of settlement-controlled areas from ever contracting palestinian population domains which are becoming further fragmented in the process by a next wave of settlement expansion and the construction of so-called `bypass-highways map 3 see page 7 details the new reality taking shape upon the completion of the network of `bypass highways linking settlements to one another and to israel proper constructing this network was greatly aided by the oslo accords which occasioned the division of the west bank into areas of palestinian self-rule and areas kept under israeli control facilitating the emergence of territorial corridors slicing through the former areas which got reinforced by the `bypass highways as their infrastructural backbones 1995 pm yitzhak rabin appoints public security min moshe shachal as head of a committee to build a fence july 1997 dm yitzhak mordechai objects to the rabin govt s separation fence plan and shelves it nov 2000 pm and dm ehud barak decides following the eruption of the al-aqsa intifada to build an obstacle to palestinian vehicles in the latroun area may 2001 mk haim ramon calls to form a unilateral separation movement june 2001 sharon orders to set up steering teams for the fence headed by national security council head uzi dayan july 18 2001 the cabinet approves dayan s plan the israeli army will safeguard the east side of the seam line area the border police will safeguard the western side the cabinet also decided to build a barrier against passage of people in select sections april 14 2002 in response to a suicide attack on a netanya hotel three weeks earlier a ministerial defense committee decides on a seam line administration june 2002 pm sharon approves the dm s proposal for a fence route between israel and the west bank with a first section running 100 km from salem in the north to kufr qasem aug 2002 the route to elkana is approved and it was agreed to build the fence in two sections north and south of jerusalem july 2003 the first stage of the seam line project between salem and elkana is completed oct 3 2003 the israeli cabinet approves the 430-km seam line route from elkana to um derj near arad nov 2003 phase three begins along 100 km southbound from elkana to the ofer camp near jerusalem dec 8 2003 the unga approves an appeal to the international court for justice icj in the hague to debate the fence s legality jan 30 2004 israel states the fence is a security issue not a legal-political one feb 2004 work on the fence is halted due to petitions by palestinian residents and the council for peace and security to the high court of justice against confiscating lands june 30 2004 the israeli high court rejects 30 km of the fence s 40 km route july 9 2004 the icj rules that the wall is illegal source ha aretz 11 july 2004 only recently israel submitted a proposal for the restoration of palestinian road contiguity which was disrupted by the `bypass highway network key components of the proposal are planned overpasses and tunnels for palestinian traffic to go under or over the highways which will be severed from the roads left to palestinians and are left to serve settlements only ensuring their contiguity and viability palestinian contiguity will be residual underneath the contiguity reserved for the settlers these contiguities do not compare that what is left for the palestinians is critically inferior to that reserved for the settlements the alternative palestinian thoroughfares need to cross very difficult terrain with steep slopes pass through numerous built-up areas and can only accommodate a limited flow of traffic palestinian officials have consequently rejected the road plan for having a detrimental effect on the chances of rehabilitating the palestinian economy there is however little doubt that israel intends to carry out the road plan anyhow as a key condition to enable and facilitate its intended disengagement from palestinian land not from most of the settlements as can be gathered from the locations where tunnels and bridges are proposed altogether it indicates a planned disengagement from about 53 of the west bank 8

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settlements wall and the preempting the two-state-solution box 4 population at a glance settlements facts figur es · settlers comprise less than 10 of the total israeli-jewish population · within the wbgs israeli settlers constitute approx 9 of the total west bank population and less than 0.6 of the gaza population · some 35 of the settlers live in the greater jerusalem area · the pcbs puts the total settler population in 2003 at 415,383 distributed as follows 223,199 in the wb 184,589 in jerusalem and 7,595 in gaza · according to figures released by the interior min the settler population of the wbgs grew in the period from june 2003 to june 2004 by 12,306 5.32 to a total of 245,000 settlers two-thirds of the overall growth is attributed to the 3.5 annual fertility rate among settlers while the remaining third actually moved to the settlements most of the growth occurred in the ultra-orthodox settlements of betar illit modi in illit and kokhav ya akov growth of the settler population excl east jerusalem 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 245,000 176,500 114,900 66,300 32,600 1972 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 1,500 21,700 23,800 32,600 46,100 53,400 60,300 66,300 72,800 81,600 93,600 103,600 114,900 126,800 132,300 150,200 156,100 176,500 188,100 203,000 213,000 226,000 231,400 245,000 population source israeli ministry of interior and israeli cbs settlements · according to the paldis database there are 163 settlements in the wbgs 17 of which in gaza peace now counts 148 settlements in the wbgs 17 of which in gaza see list and map page 10 and 11 the pcbs identifies 172 formal israeli settlements incl 17 in gaza and the according to figures from the israeli min of interior and the cbs 143 settlements have been built in the wbgs since 1967 with the last one having been established in 1997 · as of july 2004 peace now reported a total of 97 outposts of which 52 were erected after march 2001 · as of june 2004 settlement expansion activity new and continuing was under way at 73 locations incl 12 settlements in gaza covering almost 500,000 m2 peace now aerial survey march-june 2004 · according to peace now the settlements cost israel at least $556 million per year · some 85 of west bank settlements excluding those in east jerusalem are almost insignificantly small in residential size and capacity the largest of them can be compared to small villages of about 1 km2 with on average some 700 inhabitants only 15 some 20 settlements resemble small townships reaching averages of about 6,000 residents two from this group ma ale adumim and ariel ­ have been granted city status with populations of over 25,000 and 16,000 respectively while another four giv at ze ev modi in illit betar and efrata ­ are currently developing into small towns reaching averages of about 10-15,000 inhabitants · the municipal cluster of some 10 jerusalem settlements houses half of all west bank settlers in urban densities unparalleled with other settlements yet occupying a total area of less than 0.2 of the west bank west bank settlements outside jerusalem s municipal boundaries consume only 1.4 of the west bank bringing the total percentage of currently built-up settlement land in the west bank to 1.6 roads and bypass roads · the actual built-up areas of the settlements is tiny but to maintain them a network of roads and bypass roads fences bufferzones and outposts are used to maintain control over much larger areas while palestinians are forbidden to build near settlements or within 150 meters of the bypass roads that serve them bypass roads are under israeli control and entail a 50-75-m buffer zone on each side of the road in which no construction is allowed · the pcbs counted 785.9 km of bypass roads in the wbgs in 2003 735.5 km in the wb 50.4 km in the gs · according to b tselem there are currently 17 roads totaling some 120 km in the wbgs that are completely prohibited for palestinians as well as 10 roads totaling 245 km that are partially prohibited in addition there are 14 roads or sections totaling 365 km on which palestinian travel is restricted b tselem forbidden roads august 2004 cartoon by omayya joha http omayya.com caption arrow reads final solution the disengagement plan · concerned settlements total 21 ­ 17 in gaza nisanit dugit alei sinai netzarim kfar darom morag and 11 gush katif settlements and 4 in the northern west bank ganim kadim sa-nur and homesh the 17 gaza settlements are home to 7,254 settlers as of end-2003 and occupy 15-20 of the land however israel controls up to 38 of gaza covering the settlements military installations `yellow areas and buffer zones along the borders certain roads and around settlements the four west bank settlements are dormitory communities with a tiny population of approx 550 the world bank disengagement the palestinian economy and the settlements june 2004 population 9

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settlements wall and the preempting the two-state-solution re sidentialsettlementsintheoccupied pa lestiniante rri t o ri e s location west bank total 136 settlements 1 adora 2 alei zahav 3 alfei menashe 4 almog 5 almon anatot 6 alon shevut 7 argaman 8 ariel 9 asfar metzad 10 ateret 11 avnei hefetz 12 barkan bet aviia 13 bat ayin 14 bet arye 15 bet el 16 bet haarava 17 bet horon 18 beqa ot 19 betar illit 20 bruchin 21 bracha 22 dolev 23 efrata 24 elazar 25 eli 26 elkana 27 elon moreh 28 emmanuel 29 enav 30 eshkolot 31 etz efraim 32 ganim 33 geva binyamin 34 gevaot 35 gilgal 36 gittit 37 giv at ze ev1 38 givon hahadasha 39 haggai bet 40 halamish neve tzuf 41 hamra 42 har adar 43 har gilo 44 hashmonaim2 45 hemdat 46 hermesh 47 hinnanit 48 homesh 49 itamar 50 kadim 51 kalya 52 karmei zur 53 karmel 54 karne shomron 55 kedar 56 kedumim 57 kfar adumim3 58 kfar etzion 59 kfar tapuah 60 kfar rut 61 kiryat arba 62 kiryat netafim 63 kochav hashahar 64 kochav ya akov 65 lapid 66 ma ale adumim 67 ma ale amos pop 2002 220,491 214 442 5,500 142 707 2,960 179 17,320 257 315 862 1,262 677 2,473 4,502 50 808 168 20,264 795 885 6,996 870 1,943 3,257 1,120 2,815 518 218 621 170 1,560 178 123 10,846 1,307 327 1,037 170 1,786 397 2,249 90 234 624 198 491 149 286 560 348 6,407 549 3,039 1,864 517 484 217 6,028 327 1,323 3,217 2,060 27,736 307 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 ma ale efrayim ma ale levona ma ale mikhmas ma ale shomron ma on makkabim massua mattityahu mehola mekhora menora mevo dotan mevo horon metzadot yehuda migdal oz migdalim mizpe shalem mizpe yeriho modi in ilit4 na ale nahal avenat nahal elisha nahal maskiyyot nahli el neguhot netiv hagedud neve daniel nili niran naaran nofim nokdim no omi na mah ofarim ofra oranit otniel peduel pene hever pesagot peza el rehan revava rimmonim ro i rosh zurim rotem sansanna sa nur sal it sha are tikva shadmot mehola shaked shani livna shavei shomron shilat shilo shim a susiya talmon tekoa telem tene omarim tomer vered jericho yafit yakir yitav yizhar zufin 1,651 478 993 579 313 176 410 345 154 1,236 302 629 382 327 129 204 1,245 21,865 513 296 85 183 1,065 759 61 423 650 139 782 2,206 5,056 547 940 296 1,239 276 140 631 567 153 302 33 479 3,741 459 583 404 660 348 1,598 331 564 1,479 1,087 76 454 321 201 150 952 140 440 919 gaza strip total 17 settlements 137 alei sinai 138 bedola 139 bene atzmon 140 gadid 141 ganne tal 142 gan or 143 dugit 144 kfar darom 145 morag 146 neve dekalim 147 nissanit 148 netzer hazani 149 netzarim 150 pe at sadeh 151 qatif 152 rafiah yam 153 selaw east jerusalem total 10 settlements 154 ramot allon 155 ramat shlomo 156 ramot eshkol5 157 neve ya acov 158 pisgat ze ev 159 giv at shapira6 160 old city jewish qtr.7 161 east talpiot 162 gilo 163 har homa8 total wbgs 163 settlements 1 6,959 344 180 547 272 279 269 66 276 151 2,370 932 314 386 110 329 134 0 6,959 38,720 11,820 15,226 21,450 37,210 8,320 4,070 13,687 28,716 925 407,594 incl giv on camp and har shmu el neighborhood 2 incl ganei modi in and ramat modi in 3 incl nofei prat and alon neighborhood 4 incl kiryat sefer neighborhoods of mattityahu and or sam eah 5 incl givat hamivtar and mlt dafna 6 incl qiryat hamemshala and mt scopus 7 incl ir david kfar david and hashiloah 8 incl giv at hamatos nb some west bank settlements are located partly in the west bank or in no man s land but are listed anyhow since they are not entirely in israel settlements with no population figures have either no number recorded officially in most nahal settlements or are listed under another locality sometimes within israel source paldis database 2004 10

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settlements wall and the preempting the two-state-solution map 4 settlements the wall and projected israeli disengagement december 2004 hinnanit shaked khermesh mevo dotan jenin j kadim gannim israeli wall completed under construction dec 2004 wall trajectory approved by israel s cabinet 30 june 2004 approved wall sections around the ariel settlement bloc settlement bloc areas behind the wall israeli-controlled areas of the jordan valley projection of wall trajectory south of hebron approved by israeli min of defence nov 2004 palestinian populated areas of east jerusalem beyond the wall possible locally rerouted wall section barta a east projected area of israeli disengagement israeli disengagement areas currently designated as oslo-c zones israeli urban rural settlements settlements to be evacuated by under the disengagement plan isaeli military facility green line 1949 sanur tulkarem avne hefetz homesh enav shave shomron mt.ebal kedumim mehola shadmot mehola rotem sal it hemdat elon moreh beka ot hamra argaman mekhora ro i nablus qalqilya zufin yizhar karne alfe shomron menashe emanuel itamar mle nofim brakha shomron yaqir oranit etz efrayim revava k.tappuah shr.tikva k.netafim barkan elkana rehelim ariel migdalim brukhin ale zahav peduel bet arye ofarim eli mle.levona shilo massua gittit mle.efrayim peza el tomer gilgal netiv hagdud yafit west ateret nahli el talmon bank kohav hashahar ofra bet el yitav rimmonim halamish na ale modi in illit lapid k.rut menora makkabim nili hashmona im shilat mattit niran dolev ramallah khv.ya acov mle mikhmas geva binyamin n.ya acov almon no omi n.elisha mevo horon bet horon g.ze ev g.hahadasha har adar r.shlomo ramot r.eshkol jericho vered yeriho a bet ha arava almog p.ze ev k.adumim mzp yeriho g.shapira mle.adumim kedar e.talpiyot har homa kalya jerusalem israel dugit alei sinai nissanit gilo gaza netzarim ra ne h.gilo betar illit neve geva ot daniyel rosh zurim elazar bat alon efrata ayin shvut k.etzion m.oz karme zur bethlehem tekoa nokdim er an se a it asfar m ed mle.amos mizpe shalem telem katif settlements neve dekalim deir al-balah kfar darom adora hebron kiryat arba khan younis morag gaza strip negohot n.aner b.haggai pne hever otniel karmel ma on eshkolot shim a tene sansanna shani sussiya m.yehuda rafah 0 20 km map © jan de jong 11

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settlements wall and the preempting the two-state-solution box 5 selected quotes you don t want to end the occupation and you don t want to stop the settlements so the only way to convince you is by force this is the intifada of peace marwan barghouthi interview with ma ariv 9 nov 2001 it s either settlements or peace both cannot go together it s the main issue for us in the road map former chief palestinian negotiator saeb erekat new york times may 14 2003 israeli settlement activity has severely undermined palestinian trust and hope it preempts and prejudges the outcome of negotiations and in doing so cripples chances for real peace and security the united states has long opposed settlement activity consistent with the report of the committee headed by senator george mitchell settlement activity must stop us secretary of state colin powell speech at the university of louisville kentucky 19 nov 2001 there is a question in the minds of palestinians and questions in the minds of many people around the world as to whether or not one can actually bring into being a viable palestinian state without doing something about the settlement activity and the outposts and the settlements that are there this will be one of the most difficult issues we have to deal with us secretary of state colin powell interview with israel tv channel 2 12 may 2003 the settlement outposts worry us a great deal and we were happy to let the americans lead the dialogue with israel regarding upholding its commitments in the framework of the road map [evacuating all of the settlement outposts built since march 2001 but not a thing happened ignoring for a moment the expansion of construction in ma ale adumim how is it possible to build a two-state model at a time that israel is building infrastructures for additional settlements paving a road from ariel to the jordan rift and linking ma ale adumim to the ben-gurion airport highway how is all this compatible with the principle of a palestinian state that is territorially contiguous marc otte european union special representative for the middle east peace process ha aretz 29 october 2004 i sr a e li op tion s for a pa le stinian stat e map 5 presents basic projections of options for a palestinian state advanced by israeli politicians since the failed camp david talks in july 2000 first it shows the areas of projected israeli disengagement from the west bank leaving 53 of the west bank within factually emerging borderlines separating a palestinian self-ruling domain from that of the settlements which are being consolidated into blocs linked with closed zones to the west the `seam zone behind the wall and to the east the jordan valley the second option leaves 93 89 of the west bank east of the wall for palestinian statehood the orange-yellow colored areas behind the solid blue line 93 and eventually in decrease the areas behind the broken blue line 89 indicated in the map s legend as option 3 the first one is roughly similar to the 2001 taba proposal the latter is resembling the configuration proposed by israel at the july 2000 camp david talks the outlines of both options depicted on the map are aligned with the trajectory of the constructed and approved wall of today except for the outlying palestinian sections of east jerusalem which in both initial options of camp david and taba were intended to be transferred to palestinian authority the map includes a projection of a `security zone in the jordan valley likely to be demanded by israel under the above main options the map further pictures the borderlines proposed by the geneva initiative or accord it recommends the exchange of about 2 of the west bank area for land of equal size across the green line adjacent to the west bank and the gaza strip most of which was conquered by israel in 1948-49 for comparison see the lines of the un partition plan on map 1 page 3 of this bulletin 12

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settlements wall and the preempting the two-state-solution map 5 israeli options for a palestinian state 1 projected area designated for palestinian statehood by dominant circles in the israeli likud party areas to be annexed by israel under that option projected area designated for palestinian statehood by dominant circles in the israeli labor party projected area likely demanded by the likud party to be annexed to israel in exchange for areas of palestinian statehood preferred by the labor party jordan valley area probably demanded to remain under israeli control by the likud party boundary of palestinian state as proposed by the geneva initiative israeli urban rural settlements settlements to be evacuated under the disengagement plan green line 1949 sanur jenin rehan kadim ganim 2 3 tulkarem homesh 4 kedumim nablus elon moreh qalqilya shomron itamar elkana aley zahav bet arye ariel shilo territorial options in percentages of the west bank 4 9 7 talmon modi in illit ramallah g.ze ev bet el ofra jericho 11 20 jerusalem 53 80 etzion ma ale adumim bethlehem tekoa israeli annexation of 7 of the west bank legend option 1 see box above additional israeli annexation of 4 of the west bank legend option 3 amounting to a total of 11 jordan valley zone under legend option 4 comprising 9 of the west bank palestinian area after an israeli annexation of 7 of the west bank legend option 2 remaining palestinian area on the west bank after projected israeli disengagement adora asfar hebron q arba karmel eshkolot 0 20 km map © jan de jong 13

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settlements wall and the preempting the two-state-solution impact of israel s policies on palestinian localities and livelihoods casestudy the following three maps picture the serious impacts that israeli settlements and related infrastructure of the wall and the separated road networks have on palestinian livelihoods map 6 pictures immediate impacts on palestinian localities in and around the city of qalqilya map 7 widens the framework from a local scale to that of a whole region in this case of the district of nablus and map 8 summarizes the projected impacts within a framework encompassing all of the west bank as the vital core of the targeted palestinian state map 6 qalqilya and surroundings focuses on the wall s direct impacts on local communities all depicted palestinian localities are separated from vital land resources by the wall villages such as falamya and in particular jayyus can no longer profitably cultivate their irrigated fields because of restricted access for workers and of limitations in harvesting and marketing produce the city of qalqilya forming an urban unit together with the adjacent township of habla is left with only a tunnel to access that place and is now deprived of vital areas along the highway targeted earlier for an urgently needed municipal industrial zone the socioeconomic potential of areas alienated from palestinians is now being allocated for the benefit of the zufin and alfei menashe settlements the map shows how zufin is expanding across the lands of jayyus from one piece of the wall to the opposite section threatening a complete cut-off for the village farmers from their lands that generate practically all of the village s income map 7 see page 15 details the geo-political and socioeconomic reconfiguration of the nablus district as a consequence of the wall expanding settlements and the israeli-proposed alternative palestinian thoroughfares underneath the settler highway network the map pictures how the city of nablus will be encapsulated by a tight belt of highways cutting it off from urgently needed areas of urban development it further shows how the city s rural surroundings are turned into `peninsular regions left with just rudimentary links to the main city while robbed from direct links to neighboring rural areas map 6 local impacts of israeli settlements the wall and the proposed road infrastructure israel kochav ya ir kufr jammal falamya jayyus zufin qalqilya nabi ilyas alfe menashe arab ramadin west bank izbat tabib azzun isla habla ras atiya wadi rasha ras tira daba matan 0 nof hasharon nirit izbat jalud 2 km map © jan de jong palestinian roads checkpoint or border crossing point israeli highways and settlement access roads projected green line palestinian cultivation g greenhouses f=fruit trees israeli wall palestinian towns and villages municipal limits falamya and jayyus israeli settlements proposed or projected expansion israeli settlements current expansion g f 14 habla gate at jayyus

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settlements wall and the preempting the two-state-solution map 7 projected regional impacts of israeli settlements the wall and the proposed road infrastructure 6 60 jenin map 8 projected national impacts of israeli settlements the wall and the proposed road infrastructure j tulkarem shave shomron s jenin 80 90 elon moreh 557 jubara sal it beit lid kedumim tulkarem t nablus zufin nablus 557 b.furik itamar qalqilya habla nof ha sharon jayyus alfe menashe 557 y lle qalqilya nqjor da va lley n va an a se j 5 masha o ariel rd bidya qabalan aqraba m salfit 5 jerusalem g 60 contiguous settlement bloc-corridors lateral thrust of israeli control e ramallah a r t 6 israeli reconstructed highway network road number alternative palestinian thoroughfares existing tunnel and israeli-proposed under or overpass current and projected road blocks oslo a and b areas oslo c areas israeli urban settlement rural settlement e r r je jericho ru sa israel lem jerusalem bethlehem map © jan de jong t map 8 projects impacts on a total west bank encompassing scale the depletion of arab east jerusalem as the decisive socioeconomic `motor of the targeted palestinian state together with the marginalization of the central city s immediate surroundings turned into peninsular `dead-end areas leaves inadequate conditions for the outlying west bank districts to realize their potential for economic growth the map shows the locations of proposed cross-border industry parks in an attempt to make up in whatever degree for the impending loss of viability for the targeted palestinian state hebron depleted urban area of metropolitan arab jerusalem marginalized metropolitan jerusalem surroundings west bank areas becoming peripheries projected settlement expansion israeli bypass highway network alternative palestinian thoroughfares j proposed cross-border industry parks map © jan de jong box 6 at a glance isr ael s wall · as of oct 2004 the length of the barrier was over 200 km once completed it will be 832 km and some 8,000 acres of land have been confiscated for its construction · some 6.1 of the west bank area will be west of the wall increasing to 8.2 when the wall will be built around the ariel bloc · when completed according to the present plans only 6 of the wall will be within 100 meters of the green line · once competed 47.6 of west bank land will have been de facto annexed into israel · some 9.7 of the palestinian west bank population is separated from cultivated lands by the wall growing to 12.8 upon construction of wall sections around the ariel bloc another 9.2 of the population is isolated outside the walled areas · once competed 88.6 of settlers will live outside the wall while 89.5 of the palestinian west bank population will be trapped inside it 10.5 will find itself isolated between the wall and the green line and 13.8 will be separated from their land by the wall 15

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