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digitalsubstation.com № 3 2018 PROSPECTS OF APPLICATION OF SYNCHROPHASOR MEASUREMENTS 12 Brainstorm BATTLE OF TECHNOLOGIES 10 Facts And Figures DEVELOPMENT OF SYNCHROPHASOR MEASUREMENTS TECHNOLOGY IN UES OF RUSSIA 20 Cover Story AVON SUBSTATION: TRANSGRID’S JOURNEY TO A FULL DIGITAL SUBSTATION 40 Project Map AUTOMATED FAULT ANALYSIS AND RELAY PROTECTION PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 46 Engineering Solution BASIC APPROACHES TO INFORMATION SECURITY AT ELECTRIC POWER FACILITIES OF THE BELARUSIAN POWER SYSTEM 48 Cybersecurity OMICRON CMC 430 54 Test Drive PHASOR CALCULATION AND SYNCHRONIZATION WHILE USING HOT STANDBY 60 Simulation DIGITAL SUBSTATION  №3 · 2018

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IEC 61850 communications at glance Check IEC 61850 communications in your digital substation at park.tekvel.com

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Digitization of power industry is now in the centre of specialists’ debate, there are different opinions about the need to switch to new technologies, some experts even warn against them because of security issues. But I think we are unable to hold back the march of progress, and power industry will become “digital” in one form or another or, rather, it started this transition long ago (microprocessor devices have replaced electromechanical ones, large control boards have given way to displays, and so on and so forth). This opinion is supported by a number of successful projects and the choice made by some experts in this field. Another confirmation is the “Battle of technologies” that we arranged, in which new technologies won a decisive victory practically on all fronts. And not only that! For example, our colleagues from System Operator of the United Power System of Russia and from TasNetworks will tell you in this issue about the results of implementing the synchrophasor technology. Nothing else but digitization brought to life. It is also confirmed by our “Brainstorm” column, in which few experts doubt that phasor measurements can be applied in the power industry. And digital substations, of course, as one of the leaders in digitization. This issue will tell you about the realization of one of the projects. On the other hand, digitization also means responsibility, in particular for cyber security of power facilities. And our author from Belarus will share his opinion about this problem. As you see, all of this has much more to do with practice than with theory. And while participants of different conferences are discussing the prospects and making plans, power facilities around the world are actively implementing the new technologies. So, we’ll keep you informed. Stay with us, our “digital” pages are at your service! —— Ekaterina Kvasha, Editor-in-Chief Published by Digital Substation Ltd. General Manager / Editor-in-Chief Ekaterina Kvasha kem@digitalsubstation.com Advertising Manager Elizaveta Staroverova vem@digitalsubstation.com Editor Roman Voronin vrv@digitalsubstation.com Graphic Design Vitaliy Tupitsyn Design Layout Andrei Tulnov-Sokolov If you want to subscribe or become an author please contact us editorial@digitalsubstation.com If you want to advertise please contact us vem@digitalsubstation.com Address Varshavskoye shosse, 1, str. 1–2, flor 6, room 33, Moscow, Russia, 117105 Digital Substation All published articles express solely the opinion of the authors. Reprinting, copying in whole or in part of any material is allowed only with reference to the publication. digitalsubstation.com digitalsubstation.com  DIGITAL SUBSTATION 1

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CONTENTS 4 NEWS IEC 61850, CYBERSECURITY, NEW CIGRE WGS AND OTHER NEWS 10 FACTS AND FIGURES BATTLE OF TECHNOLOGIES 12 BRAINSTORM PROSPECTS OF APPLICATION OF SYNCHROPHASOR MEASUREMENTS 20 COVER STORY DEVELOPMENT OF SYNCHROPHASOR TECHNOLOGY IN THE UNITED POWER SYSTEM OF RUSSIA 30 COVER STORY TASNETWORKS SYNCHROPHASOR DEPLOYMENT. FIVE YEAR REVIEW 40 PROJECT MAP AVON SUBSTATION: TRANSGRID’S JOURNEY TO A FULL DIGITAL SUBSTATION 46 ENGINEERING SOLUTION AUTOMATED FAULT ANALYSIS AND RELAY PROTECTION PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 48 CYBERSECURITY BASIC APPROACHES TO INFORMATION SECURITY AT ELECTRIC POWER FACILITIES OF THE BELARUSIAN POWER SYSTEM 54 TEST DRIVE OMICRON CMC 430 60 SIMULATION PHASOR CALCULATION AND SYNCHRONIZATION WHILE USING HOT STANDBY 2 DIGITAL SUBSTATION  digitalsubstation.com

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FROM OUR READERS Andrei Zhukov System Operator of the Unified Power System, Chairman of the RNC CIGRE Subcommittee B5 Russia The Digital Substation magazine is a very interesting and dynamic technical periodical covering topical questions of implementation of digital technologies into protection and control systems (Relay Protection and Automation devices) of energy facilities. In fact, this is a youth project, which brings together creative and enterprising professionals. And it certainly attracts attention because it is the younger generation with its advanced knowledge of IT who will play a leading role in addressing the challenges of innovation development in the electric power industry of tomorrow. The editorial strategy of the magazine can be described as the desire to always be at the forefront of discussions and a problem solving process in the field of the industry evolution, as well as the participation in all scientific and technical events in Russia dedicated to relay protection and automation and digital substation technologies. Therefore, the concept of the magazine is the organization of an open discussion platform on its pages to argue about contemporary issues of the development of innovative protection and management systems for the next generation of energy facilities, as well as theoretical and practical problems of their making and operation. Today, in the face of widespread expansion of digital technologies to all spheres of life and production, this concept helps to push the boundaries of understanding the prospects of modern smart relay protection and automation systems in terms of their development and adoption. I am also very pleased to mention that the Digital Substation magazine is the media partner of the Subcommittee B5 Relay protection and Automation of the Russian National Committee of CIGRE   Priyanka Mohapatra SP Energy Networks Scotland IEC61850 has been identified as a key enabler for future smart grid applications. I firmly believe the development as well as acceptance of the standard can only increase through strong collaboration among utilities, vendors and research institutes. Digital Substation magazine is a great forum that facilitates collaboration, by encouraging discussions pertinent to the development and application of IEC61850 in digital substations. It also provides a good platform for in- dustry experts to share their views and ideas for future enhancements. Personally I enjoy contributing to Digital Substation magazine and learning from the experiences of others   digitalsubstation.com  DIGITAL SUBSTATION 3

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NEWS ROSSETI AND ABB TO DEVELOP CONCEPT OF DIGITAL SUBSTATION FOR RUSSIAN ELECTRICAL GRID IEC 61850 MODELS BECAME PUBLICLY AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOADING 4 DIGITAL SUBSTATION  digitalsubstation.com Rosseti, the Russian distribution grid operator, and ABB agreed to cooperate in order to carry out next generation digital grid projects in Russia, including those with advanced digital technologies of grid operating process automation. The cooperation agreement was signed by  Pavel Livinskiy, Director General of  Rosseti, and by  Irina Kozlova, President of the Russian branch of ABB, on the sidelines of the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum. Under the agreement ABB develops a concept of the 110 kV digital substation and produces an engineering model of digital grid. Besides that, ABB along with Rosseti will draft a proposal of digital substation and digital power distribution zone projects, based on ABB technologies and experience. The agreement is expected to realize a high level of digitization, reliability and efficiency of electrical grid facilities. [rosseti.ru]   IEC decided to provide free online access to the IEC 61850 models. “With IEC  61850-7-7, a machine processable format for the distribution of IEC 61850 data models has been defined. Based on that, in the future, all IEC 61850 models will be as well available in this format as namespace files (NSD files). The namespace files are code components, that are intended to be directly processed by a computer. The purchase of the associated IEC standard carries a copyright license for the purchaser to sell software containing Code Components from this standard to end users either directly or via distributors, subject to IEC software licensing conditions, which can be found at www.iec.ch/CCv1,” the excerpt from 57/2023/INF (2018-07-13) says. The IEC 61850 models can be found at the TC 57 Supporting Documents page. [blog.iec61850.com]  

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NEWS SEL PATCHES SEVERE SOFTWARE VULNERABILITIES Several vulnerabilities, including ones rated high severity, had been discovered in management and configuration tools from power grid protection company SEL. The vendor released software updates to address the flaws. The flaws affect SEL Compass, a  tool designed for managing SEL products, and AcSELerator Architect  2.2.24.0 and prior versions, an app that streamlines the configuration and documentation of  IEC 61850 control and SCADA communications. The security holes were discovered by Gjoko Krstic, a researcher from industrial cybersecurity firm Applied Risk. According to advisories published by Applied Risk and by ICSCERT, there are three vulnerabilities, with AcSELerator Architect being affected by two of them. One of them, a high severity XML External Entity (XXE) vulnerability, can lead to  information disclosure and in some cases to arbitrary code execution or a denial-of-service (DoS) condition. The flaw, tracked as  CVE2018-10600 and scored 8.2 according to CVSS v3, can be exploited by getting the targeted user to open a specially crafted template or project file. “The vulnerability is triggered when input The second flaw affecting AcSELerator Architect, identified as CVE2018-10608  and  rated 6.5 according to  CVSS  v3, is  a  medium severity DoS issue that can be triggered using a  malicious FTP server. “The vulnerability can be triggered when an attacker provides the victim with a rogue malicious FTP server and listens for connections from the AcSELerator Architect FTP client fea- SEL patched the vulnerabilities with the release of SEL Compass v3.0.6.1 and SEL AcSELerator v2.2.29.0. passed to the XML parser is not sanitized while parsing the XML project and/or template file (.selaprj). This attack can also be used to execute arbitrary code (in certain circumstances, depending on the platform) or cause a denial of service (DoS) condition (billion laughs) via a specially crafted XML file including multiple external entity references,” Applied Risk reported in the AcSELerator Architect advisory. ture. Once the victim gets connected to the evil FTP via the TCP protocol, a 100% CPU exhaustion occurs rendering the software to hang (not responding), denying legitimate workflow to the victim until the application is  forcibly restarted,” Applied Risk explained. The SEL Compass application is affected by a high severity (scored 8.2 according to  CVSS  v3) insecure file permissions issue that can be exploited for privilege escalation. This bug is  tracked as  CVE-2018-10604. “The vulnerability exists due to the improper permissions on  the SEL Compass directory, with the ‘F’ flag (Full) for ‘Everyone’ group. This gives an authenticated attacker the ability to  modify or  overwrite any file in the Compass directory with malicious code (trojan or a rootkit). This could result in escalation of privileges or malicious effects on the system the next time that a privileged user runs Compass,” Applied Risk said in  the SEL Compass advisory. SEL patched the vulnerabilities with the release of  SEL Compass v3.0.6.1 and SEL AcSELerator v2.2.29.0. According to Applied Risk it took the vendor more than three months to release the updates. SEL recently teamed up  with industrial cybersecurity firm Dragos to “arm the electric power community with the tools to  better detect and respond to threats within their industrial control system (ICS) networks.” [securityweek.com, ics-cert.us-cert.gov]   digitalsubstation.com  DIGITAL SUBSTATION 5

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NEWS DOS VULNERABILITIES HAVE BEEN FOUND IN SIEMENS PRODUCTS The EN100 Ethernet communication module and SIPROTEC 5  relays are affected by security vulnerabilities which could allow an attacker to conduct a Denial‑of‑Service attack over the network. Victor Nikitin, Vladislav Suchkov, and Ilya Karpov from ScadaX reported coordinated disclosure. Affected products include: zz firmware variant IEC 61850 for EN100 Ethernet module: all versions prior to v4.33; zz firmware variant PROFINET IO for EN100 Ethernet module: all versions; zz firmware variant Modbus TCP for EN100 Ethernet module: all versions; zz firmware variant DNP3  TCP for EN100 Ethernet module: all versions; zz firmware variant IEC104 for EN100 Ethernet module: all versions; zz SIPROTEC 5 relays with CPU variants CP300 and CP100 and the respective Ethernet communication modules: all versions prior to v7.80; zz SIPROTEC 5 relays with CPU variants CP200 and the respective Ethernet communication modules: all versions. The EN100 Ethernet modules are used for enabling process communication on either IEC 61850, PROFINET IO, Modbus TCP, DNP3 TCP or IEC 104 protocols via electrical/optical 100 Mbit interfaces on SIPROTEC 4, SIPROTEC Compact and Reyrolle devices. SIPROTEC 5 devices provide a wide range of integrated protection, control, measurement, and automation functions for electrical substations and other fields of application. Specially crafted packets to port 102/tcp could cause a  denial-of-service condition in the affected products. Successful exploitation requires an at- Vulnerabilities are almost analogous, though CVE-2018-11451  has been classified as  more sever (CVSS v3.0 base score 7.5), while CVE-201811452 which affects EN100 modules and can be successfully exploited if oscillographs are running is of medium risk (CVSS v3.0 base score 5.9). At the time of advisory publication (11 July, 2018) no public exploitation of this security vulnerability was known. As a precondition the IEC 61850‑MMS communication needs to be activated on the affected products or modules. tacker with network access to  send multiple packets to the affected products or  modules. As  a  precondition the IEC 61850‑MMS communication needs to be activated on the affected products or modules. No user interaction or  privileges are required to  exploit the vulnerabilities. The vulnerabilities could allow causing a Denial-of-Service condition of the network functionality of the device, compromising the availability of the system. A manual restart is required to recover the EN100 module functionality. Siemens has released updates for SIPROTEC 5 relays with CPU variants CP300 and CP100 (update to  v7.80) and for firmware variant IEC  61850 for EN100 Ethernet module (update to v4.33), is working on updates for the remaining affected products, and recommends to block access to port 102/ tcp (e.g. with an external firewall) until fixes are available as well as to protect network access with appropriate mechanisms (e.g. firewalls, segmentation, VPN). [cert-portal.siemens.com]   IEC 62351-8 TO BECOME IEC STANDARD IEC 62351-8 is on its way to become an IEC standard (57/2017/CD): Power systems management and associated information exchange – Data and communications security – Part 8: Role-based access control. This document provides standardisation for access control in power systems. The power system environment supported by this standard is enterprise-wide and extends beyond traditional borders to include external providers, suppliers, and other energy partners. The following interactions are in scope: zz local (direct wired) access to the ob- ject by a human user; zz local (direct wired) access to the ob- ject by a local and automated computer agent, e. g. another object at the field site; zz direct access by a user to the object using the objects’ built-in HMI or panel; zz remote (via dial-up or wireless media) access to the object by a human user; zz remote (via dial-up or wireless media) access to the object by a remote automated computer agent, e. g. another object at another substation, a distributed energy resource at an end-user’s facility, or a control centre application. Part 8 is currently a technical specification which will change in the next step. The 62 page CD has been published for commenting until 28 September, 2018. [blog.iec61850.com]   6 DIGITAL SUBSTATION  digitalsubstation.com

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NEWS CIGRE CREATED NEW WORKING GROUPS IN SEVERAL STUDY COMMITTEES For recent months CIGRE have created working groups (WG) and joint working groups (JWG) in the following study committees: zz SC A3 Transmission & Distribution Equipment: || TOR-WG A3.40 Technical requirements and field experiences with MV DC switching equipment; || TOR-WG A3.41  Interrupting and switching performance with SF6 free switching equipment; || TOR-WG A3.42  Failure analysis of recent AIS instrument transformer incidents. zz SC B3 Substations & Electrical Installations: || TOR-WG B3.51 Service continuity guide for the maintenance, repair and extension of HV GIS; || TOR-WG B3.53 Guidelines for fire risk management in substations. zz SC B4 DC Systems & Power Electronics: || TOR-WG B4.79  Hybrid LCC / VSC HVDC systems. zz SC B5 Protection and Automation: || TOR-WG B5.65 Enhancing protection system performance by optimizing the response of inverter-based sources. zz SC  C2  Power System Operation & Control: || TOR-WG C2.25 Operating strategies and preparedness for system operational resilience; || TOR-WG C2.39  Operator training in electricity grids at different control levels and for different participants/actors in the new environment; || TOR-WG C2.40 TSO-DSO co-operation — Control centre tools requirements. zz SC  C2  Power System Operation & Control in conjunction with: || SC C4 Power System Technical Performance — TOR-JWG C2/C4.41 Impact of high penetration of inverter-based generation on  system inertia of  networks; || SC C5 Electricity Markets and Regulation — TOR-JWG C2/C5.05 Development and changes in the business of system operators. zz SC  C4  Power System Technical Performance: || TOR-WG C4.49 Multi-frequency stability of converter-based modern power systems; || TOR-WG C4.50 Evaluation of Transient Performance of Grounding Systems in Substations & Its Impact on Primary & Secondary Systems. zz SC C6 Active Distribution Systems & Distributed Energy Resources: || TOR-WG C6.35 Distributed energy resources aggregation platforms for the provision of flexibility services; || TOR-WG C6.38 Rural electrification; || TOR-WG C6.39 Distribution customer empowerment. zz SC  C6  Active Distribution Systems & Distributed Energy Resources in conjunction with: || SC B4 DC Systems & Power Electronics — TOR-JWG C6/B4.37 Medium voltage DC distribution systems; || SC  C1  Power System Development and Economics — TOR-JWG C6/ C1.33 Multi-energy system interactions in distribution grids; || SC  C2  Power System Operation & Control — TOR-JWG C6/C2.34 Flexibility provision from distributed energy resources. zz SC  D1  Materials and Emerging Test Techniques: || TOR-WG D1.72 Test of material resistance against surface arcing under DC. zz SC D2 Information Systems and Telecommunication  in  conjunction with: || SC B5 Protection and Automation — TOR-JWG B5/D2.67 Time in communication networks, protection and control applications — Time sources and distribution methods; || SC  C6  Active Distribution Systems & Distributed Energy Resources — TOR-JWG D2/C6.47 Advanced consumer-side energy-resource management systems. The number of group participants from each member country is limited by two people: one expert with an exposure to  the field and one young professional. Experts are expected to be members of CIGRE, but it is not a prerequisite. The candidates to act as  experts are proposed by  CIGRE national committees. Acceptance of the candidates is the responsibility of a CIGRE study committee chairmen. Once approved by  a  SC chairman, candidates’ proposal is submitted to the CIGRE technical committee for approval. [cigre.org]   digitalsubstation.com  DIGITAL SUBSTATION 7

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NEWS RUSSIA HOSTED A MEETING OF THE IEC 61850 DEVELOPMENT WORKING GROUP The February session of IEC Technical Committee 57 Working Group 10 (IEC TC57 WG10) responsible for IEC 61850 development took place in Russia.  The organizer of  the meeting was the Digital Substation media project. sessions took place in Moscow in 2010 and in St. Petersburg in 2013. Equipment manufacturers (such as ABB, Siemens, Schneider Electric, etc.) traditionally participate in these meetings. So does ENTSO-E, which has been actively implementing IEC The organizer of the meeting was the Digital Substation media project. The meeting of the IEC 61850 development group takes place in Sochi (Rosa Khutor Resort) from 12 to 16  February. The group convenes in different cities several times a year to work together at the standard and have a face-to-face discussion on development issues. These meetings attract professionals — both from power equipment manufacturers’ sector and from utilities, test centres and energy associations — from all over the world. Russia hosted  the working group for the third time: previous 61850 for a long time. The February meeting was no exclusion. At the time of meeting WG10 numbered  259 members from 29 countries which made this IEC working group one of the most numerous. Russia  was  represented by 13 members. There is some direct speech from the participants of the event. 1. Grégory Huon (ENTSOE, Elia) We are currently working on the engineering process more related to the virtual IED concept and the specification description file of IEDs. And I think, secondary systems and primary equipment is where we can expect to have some progress — I would say, incorporated in the standardisation, in the standard itself — in the coming years. 2. Dustin Tessier (Tesco) One of the main results of this meeting were some key decisions made within the different task forces. I think this meeting can be considered to be very productive because we've been able to make progress in key aspects of the standard. 3. Johan Malmstrom (ABB) We are going to other domains. I mean, it [the standard] is very well stabilised in the substation domain today, that ground is covered, but we are working into new fields like transmission systems, FACTS and HVDC, hydro power and DER. That's the future, the extending to new domains of power systems. 4. Laurent Guise (Schneider Electric, IEC TC57 WG17 convenor) Each time it's always a surprise to see how effectively we have all con- 8 DIGITAL SUBSTATION  digitalsubstation.com

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NEWS tinents represented: Japan, China, Korea, Russia, of course, Europe, the US, so we are very pleased to have all these members. ...So, each of the tracks is at  different stage: some of  the are just at a starting stage, some are close to a closing stage. But in any case having a physical meeting is very important. 5. Christoph Brunner (it4power, IEC TC57 WG10 convenor) Along the session we achieved couple of results, for example, the Modbus Russia was represented by 13 members. mapping task force finally released the comments from the first CDV and started the work on the next step and the next revision. The task force on describing functions and modelling made good progress and discussed how to address all aspects of engineering and engineer- ing processes on the future. I think this is also one of the groups that made very good progress. Organizers are grateful to the prime partner and official partners of the  meeting   Prosoft Systems prosoftsystems.ru PLC Technology plctech.ru Profotech profotech.ru Tekvel tekvel.com GENERAL ELECTRIC TO PROVIDE ENEL’S POWER PLANTS WITH PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE SOFTWARE General Electric announced that it  will provide the Global Thermal Generation division of  Enel (Europe’s largest power utility in  terms of market capitalization) with its Predix-based software solutions to be deployed as predictive diagnostic tool in 14 of Enel’s thermal power plants located in Europe and Latin America, supporting their digitalization. or Alstom technologies. Implementation of the software is expected to begin in January 2018 and be completed approximately by the end of the year. Predix is an application development platform purpose-built by GE to meet the scale, complexity, speed and security requirements of industry. Connected machines, equipped with data sensors, collect vast Predix is an application development platform purpose-built by GE to meet the scale, complexity, speed and security require‑ ments of industry. General Electric and Enel will deploy and optimize GE’s Asset Performance Management (APM) software at  13  gas-fired and one coal-fired Enel’s power plants with an overall installed capacity of  7  GW to  monitor, predict and enhance the facilities’ reliability. All of the power plants use GE amounts of information into a centralized and secured data platform. GE’s Predix-based APM software application uses advanced predictive analytics to  analyze data, detect and diagnose equipment problems before they occur, increasing asset reliability and availability, while re- ducing operations and maintenance costs. The system delivers these improvements by  connecting disparate data sources within a plant and using advanced analytics to  turn that data into actionable insights. APM is designed to work across all critical assets (fixed, rotating and non-rotating equipment), and all OEMs (GE and non-GE equipment) across an individual plant or a fleet. [genewsroom.com]   Russell Stokes GE Power The digital transformation of electricity has the potential to  generate more than €1.1 billion in  value for the global power and utility industry in the next decade. Enel is demonstrating that it intends to lead this digital transformation, and I’m excited by the prospect of bringing our teams together to write a new chapter for Enel and for the industry   digitalsubstation.com  DIGITAL SUBSTATION 9

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BATTLE OF TECHNOLOGIES Digital Substation decided to start a non-standard poll among our readers — the battle of technologies as we called it, — which was dedicated to choosing between different engineering solutions. There are the results of this poll here. Despite well-known conservatism of electric power industry specialists, Digital Substation readers prefer digitalization, automation and new approaches (the only exception is metering: a conventional approach beat out the other option). 37,86% Decentralized Power system protection and control 62,14% Centralized 11,76% Electromechanical relays More copper wire ,73% 13More switches 8866,2,72%7% Cyber defense 88,24% Cyber security Networking 10 DIGITAL SUBSTATION  digitalsubstation.com 96,12% Automatic fault location 3,88% Manual control Fault isolation 86,41% To use IEC 61850 Standardization 13,59% To create a national standard 81,37% Process bus Device connection 18,63% Point-to-point

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89,32% GOOSE Equipment data 54,37% Big Data 45,63% Performance specifications 63,73% Condition-based Communication Maintenance 10,68% Dry contact 83,33% SV Data transmission 16,67% Analog signal 118888Copying a legacy IT-system ,65% SCL-file ,3,53%5% Substation design Imported ,41% 29Domestically produced 7700,5,95%9% Equipment 27,45% Attended Equipment and facilities 72,55% Non-attended 48,04% Blockchain-based 36,27% Scheduled 23,76% Sampled 76,24% Synchrophasor Data 61,76% Distributed Generation 38,24% Centralized Metering 51,96% Conventional digitalsubstation.com  DIGITAL SUBSTATION 11

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BRAINSTORM Brainstorm – a unique column in the Digital Substation magazine and site of the same name – aims to attract a maximum number of experts from Russia and the world to address critical issues that cannot be solved by one person! All the texts shown in this column are the experts’ personal opinions and do not reflect the organizations’ point of view on the considered issues. PROSPECTS OF APPLICATION OF SYNCHROPHASOR MEASUREMENTS We asked several industry experts to answer the question:   "What are the prospective scenarios for applying 5synchrophasor measurements (SPM) in the next years?" Dmitry Dubinin System Operator of the United Power System of Russia To give an appropriate answer to this question, we must first understand what limits the development of the SPM technology has now. Among the main constraints are the following: 1. Lack of a regulatory and technical base for the introduction and development of SPM in the united power system of Russia (the UPS of Russia). Attempts have been made to solve this problem: in 2016, the company standard STO 59012820.29.020.011-2016 "Relay protection and automation. Phasor measuring units. Standards and requirements" was released; the company standard "Phasor data concentrators. Standards and requirements" was developed and approved; the company standard "Relay protection and automation. Monitoring system of transient states. Standards and requirements" is being actively developed now. Requirements for the hardware and software complex of monitoring systems of transient states (HSC MSTM) of substations are integrated into the company standard SТО 56947007- 29.240.10.248-2017 "Standards of technological design of AC substations with high voltage of 35-750 kV". These documents will solve a considerable part of the problems in the SPM technology development in the UPS of Russia. Certification authority for PMU in the system of voluntary certification of System Operator was certified, and the first certification tests were even carried out. The procedure for creating a voluntary certification authority for PDC has been initiated, planned dates — fall 2018. 2. Limitations imposed by the insufficient bandwidth of data transmission channels. Unlike other technological information, SPM data due to the high sampling rate have relatively higher requirements for the data transmission channel, and hence their transfer is more expensive. For this reason, at the present time only some information used in automated systems operating in real time is transferred in the on-line mode. Within the next 5 years, data transfer technologies will be greatly improved, which will lead to significant reductions 12 DIGITAL SUBSTATION  digitalsubstation.com

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of costs for data transmission, and, thus, it is expected that the DC will get all SPM data online (as it is done, for example, by American system operators), which will increase the number of problems solved on the SPM basis. 3. The development of the SPM technology is also limited by the position of the owners of power facilities believing that SPM data should be used only for solving problems of System Operator. At the same time, an analysis of disturbances of power equipment operation at power plants and substations shows that the quality of the data supplied by the SPM technology could provide the operational staff of a power facility with very useful information in terms of timely provision of information on the occurrence of synchronous power swings on generating equipment, on the correctness of operation of the system regulators, on developing defects of instrument transformers and secondary voltage circuits, as well as in terms of real-time verification of telemetry transmitted to the system of technological data exchange by the automated system of System Operator and the industrial control system of a power facility, etc. The experts of System Operator constantly find power system disturbances, which development still allows to inform power plant operational staff on developing equipment defects and take necessary measures to prevent the disconnection of generating equipment as well as related financial losses. System Operator regularly takes efforts to increase the owners’ awareness of these issues, which will certainly be continued. The ultimate goal is to increase their interest in this information and to implement the software allowing solving problems of the power object (grid company) based on SPM. Neutralizing the impact of the above-mentioned constraints will eventually lead to a significant increase in effectiveness of operation algorithms of control systems and relay protection and automation systems. On the basis of existing telemetry, it is impossible to calculate dynamic characteristics of the power system, to monitor the relative angles, to identify the parameters of low-frequency oscillations, etc., therefore, the development of the SPM technology and Data quality is critical to the development and improvement of the functionality of modern technical control systems. the use of the SPM technology to address the issues of power system state control, and issues of grid and generating equipment monitoring. When speaking about the SPM technology development plans, the first thing that should be said is the direction of power industry development. Power industry is developing in the direction of implementing distributed generation, solar and wind generation, FACTS power electronics elements, etc., which means that the existing systems of power system state control must be adjusted to the new conditions. And this requires information of a new quality level — synchrophasor measurements. Data quality is critical to the development and improvement of the functionality of modern technical control systems. It helps to improve the understanding of the processes taking place in a power system, to assess the the corresponding software is one of the priority objectives both for the problems of monitoring and management. Introduction of accident-prevention and operation automation using SPM data is also a relevant issue. Currently, research is being done in order to: zz use PMU data to create calculation models for systems of power system condition evaluation for calculation problems of the stability margin monitoring system and the centralized system of emergency automation; zz improve the accuracy of emergency control through the use of phase angles in operation algorithms of emergency automation. And it is almost certain that emergency automation and power system state control systems that use PMU data are quite likely to be put into operation in the near future   digitalsubstation.com  DIGITAL SUBSTATION 13

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