Innovation and clinical research in Brazil


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innovation and clinical research in brazil 1 innovation and clinical research in brazil s Ão pau lo o c to b e r 2010 editionsspecialsvo lu meiihea lt h


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2 generalcoordin at i o n octávio nunes institutional communication manager missieli rostichelli institutional communication assistant phone 55 11 5180-2395 communic at ionliaison burson-marsteller selma hirai phone 55 11 3040-2403 burson-marsteller phone 55 11 5180-2305 interfarma editorial project nebraska composição gráfica phone 55 11 5505-7043 edition iolanda nascimento ­ mtb 20.322 printing formag s gráfica e editora ltda run 63,000 copies photos interfarma database aboutinter fa r m a interfarma ­ pharmaceutical research industry association ­ is the entity that gathers the pharmaceutical industries installed in brazil responsible for promoting and stimulating research and development of new medications founded in 1990 interfarma gathers 36 laboratories that represent 57 of the brazilian market in medication in september 2010 the association changed its bylaws and began to represent national companies and researchers.


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innovation and clinical research in brazil 3 because i am the size i see myself and not the size of my height fernando pessoa


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innovation and clinical research in brazil 5 introduction urgent and deep improvements in brazil s public health system have become the population s major demand during the election campaign to choose the new government opinion surveys revealed that concern about medical care hospital admissions and access to medication is the main anguish of the brazilian population greatly out-distancing public safety ranked second curiously the population s demand for health results in part from brazil s advances and in part from its difficulties as other important problems such as inflation employment and economic stability are being overcome our public health shortages become more visible and incomprehensible at the same time we have historically coexisted with results that fall short of what is needed in governments from every period region and political position it is true we have much to celebrate as a country we have expanded vaccine coverage increased the number of health agent teams reduced infant mortality rates raised the s life expectancy however we continue to lack resources management and innovation in many other segments of public health and in this aspect brazil s development has curiously become a generator of new problems as we combated and improved in public health our country s profile of diseases advanced demanding more complex solutions before we were able to get rid of dengue fever or the lack of sanitation hypertension diabetes the s called diseases of progress of aging and of urbanization were here to stay the leaders who take office in 2011 regardless of position or party will have a challenge in common the population has elected health a priority and it expects concrete results interfarma an association that represents the pharmaceutical research industry understands that any advance in terms of public health shall first of all demand a constructive rational and unbiased debate because no attempt at a solution will resist partisanship backward points of view or the search for consensus without which public policies become fragile and efforts useless as its contribution interfarma has sought to stimulate debate in an open democratic and pluralistic manner it has held seminars begun to publish reports on the fundamental issues of public health and it has participated in every area of initiatives that contribute towards our authorities this publication on clinical innovation and research is part of this effort and this vision it contains data opinions and arguments about the role brazil could play in innovation the difficulties that hinder it from assuming a more important role and the paths the next government can study related to the subject sincerely eloi bosio chairman of the board antônio britto ceo


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6 brazil land of opportunities brazil has advanced in innovation but it could be many steps ahead if it applied itself firmly to the task the excellence of some of its research and development centers as well as the evolved scientific foundation and knowledge the country generates is important in agribusiness biofuels the automotive and aeronautical sectors mining and information and communication technology the country stands out however it could be more and could generate new wealth if brazilian innovation was also competitive in other areas and brazil decided to enter the global research and development chain with determination brazil has countless instruments to be among the top countries in innovation it is the 7th biggest economy in the world international reserves are kept at a good level the banking system has proven its efficiency it has political and social stability and it has the cleanest energy matrix in the world the positive profile continues brazil has one of the largest domestic markets in the world it is one of the major exporters of foods and it was able to establish a totally diversified foreign market add to this scenario qualified institutions and personnel as well as national and multinational companies in conditions to speed up the innovation process in every sector this has not occurred with the speed and vigor of other countries more daring and engaged in the concept of innovation without citing the biggest economies some countries like singapore and south korea have raised the innovation banner they have an aggressive attitude in this area and are thus standing out in the global picture says antônio britto ceo of interfarma ­ pharmaceutical research industry association ambition is lacking although it has advanced brazil is still timid in relation to its size and the role it needs to perform if we compare what the country was doing with what it is doing it has advanced but brazil is not the only one in this race if we increased our speed from 20 to 50 others out there increased it from 80 to 120 so we are less daring and aggressive than the others despite the improvement says britto there is a lack of private initiative a country patent request process is directly related to its capacity for innovation despite the extremely favorable scenario brazil is only ranked 23rd in patent requests in the wipo ­ world industrial property organization ranking with 496 requests this ranking is an indicator of companies and institutions that request a deposit in some international institute in brazil the inpi ­ national industrial property institute ­ has registered nearly 25 thousand requests for patents in all areas but a patent registered here does not guarantee protection abroad some specialists credit this small number of patent deposits abroad and the difference in comparison to deposits in the inpi in large part to timidity and a lack of business culture area specialists say this is most probably uncertainty and insecurity on the part of business owners in face a government that took too long to define and guarantee instruments for protecting innovations the system for protecting industrial inventions is one of the fundamental elements for stimulating research and development in search of new technologies affirms gert dannemann director of the dannemann siemsen institute for intellectual studies and property the institute director says the success of countries like germany which became the second largest global exporter due to the quality and high technology of its products stems from the guarantee the country s laws give patents ricardo camargo mendes from the prospectiva ­ international business and public policies ­ consultancy says brazil s patent legislation is advanced and in compliance with international treaties but he says the rhetoric from some of brazil s representatives abroad sometimes disqualifies any right to intellectual protection especially what do the scientists think the consequence of this is low investment by companies in research and development says carlos henrique de brito cruz scientific director at fapesp ­ research support foundation of the state of são paulo ­ and former dean of unicamp ­ university of campinas.


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innovation and clinical research in brazil 7 in the area of medication which ends up driving outside companies away it is common for us to receive multinational business leaders asking whether brazil has industrial protection laws says mendes these arguments can be observed in the numbers according to data from the ministry of science and technology the companies invested 0.5 of gdp ­ gross domestic product in innovation in 2009 in some countries investment in research is four times higher than in brazil law deficiencies are in their enforcement patent requests stop in the long waiting line at the inpi due to a lack of structure and technicians for some specialists if legislation advanced its enforcement by inpi still depends on agility and investments in human resources according to the analysts the law was much more comprehensive and innovative than the body s capacity to enforce it today the institute has 270 patent examiners including senior junior and regularly hired personnel that are in training a period that can take from two and a half to three years the eye of the researcher business investment in research in the most developed countries is three to four times greater than it is in brazil says the fapesp scientific director carlos henrique brito cruz in south korea that number jumps to 1.6 and in japan and the united states to 2 altogether brazil invested the equivalent of 1.1 of gdp in innovation 0.6 on the part of the government this is a much lower percentage when compared to korea and singapore which invested 2.5 and oecd organization for economic cooperation and development countries plus china and russia with 2.3 on average these numbers also explain why in brazil patent deposits at the inpi and european and american bodies by universities correspond to 58 of the total whereas in the united states and in developed countries 90 of the registrations are made by companies says brito cruz júlio césar castelo branco reis moreira advisor to the inpi patent directorate says that number of examiners is not sufficient to handle the federal government s institutional strategic planning goal which is to reach 2014 making at least one exam of all requests deposited in 2010 we have areas in inpi today examining deposits from 2004 and 2005 says reis moreira in critical areas such as electronics where the shortage of personnel is greater we are still examining the end of 1999 and beginning of 2000 according to the institute the pharmaceutical sector is following along at the same pace as the others although it has received more attention lately today there are 75 examiners handling the drug area 70 with phds we believe that is a sufficient number to handle the requests in this area and reduce the backlog -says reis moreira according to the institute on average brazil takes four years to analyze a patent request twice the time consumed by european and american bodies the process which is common to the patent system in most developed countries demands that once presented the request be kept secret for 18 months after that quarantine the patent applicant has another 18 months to confirm whether he wants his request analyzed or not that means says reis moreira that when a request is at the inpi since 2000 it is late since 2003 the year it was put on the list for analysis that period is called a backlog.


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8 fewer phds less training if on one hand companies face bureaucracy and certain contradictions in the processes that should provide incentives for innovation the universities could expand their space if they adopted a greater patent culture and learned to have patents there is still great difficulty at usp university of são paulo and unicamp university of campinas for example in transforming scientific production into protection observes luiz fernando reis director of the institute for teaching and research at hospital sírio-libanês one of the country s references in research and health care the fact that an institution owns a patent guarantees it the correct use of that invention in the last year determined usp and unicamp deposited 1006 patents at the inpi more than all the other university institutions together another fact recalled by fapesp scientific director brito cruz is the small number of phds working at companies while here only 23 of them are in the production sector in south korea that percentage jumps to 54 and in the united states to 80 brazil needs to further increase training in basic science and the preparation of people at universities it needs to accelerate training for applied research and technological development at companies says brito cruz scientists agree there is resistance on the part of companies in hiring researchers but on the other hand on the university benches there is still an important shortage of phds and post-phds precisely those at the top of knowledge brazil graduated nearly 11 thousand phds revenue versus innovation in some aspects it is the industrial property law that hampers innovation in others government bodies are the problem but there is also the internal revenue s de-stimulating action in the case of the technological innovation law regulated by decree in october 2005 the law was viewed as a big push in the sense of driving and stimulating new technologies it stipulates incentive measures for innovation and scientific and technological research in the productive environment aimed at achieving the country s technological autonomy and industrial development one of the instruments created by the law to facilitate research was the income tax deduction for the following year of spending on innovation during the current year well regulated and well designed the law could greatly increase investments in innovation says ricardo mendes of prospectiva not paying taxes to develop a new technology is interesting for everyone many other countries do that like china and singapore for example countries that are attracting much investment in research however in brazil from the internal revenue perspective it is the one that determines what is and is not innovation not the inpi says mendes if it decides it isn t the company has to pay what it did not collect plus interest and fines many companies including large multinationals do not use the innovation law out of fear the internal revenue will have another interpretation fear that its research will not be seen as an innovation so to avoid that liability they end up not taking the chance says ricardo mendes this creates a climate of great insecurity defeating the good part of the law because innovation is often not a tangible product in the opinion of the prospectiva director the country could be at the same level as the other brics if there were not so many obstacles and if the incentives were properly informed and used.


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innovation and clinical research in brazil 9 in 2008 and wants to reach 16 thousand in 2011 in absolute numbers the result is expressive and the country is at a level similar to england india and south korea however in relative numbers the situation is quite different brazil graduates 5 phds per group of one hundred thousand inhabitants compared to 12.1 in japan 13.6 in south korea 14 in the united states 24 in the united kingdom and 30 in germany see figure 1 figure 1 number of phds graduated each year per 100 thousand inhabitants country brazil japan south korea united states united kingdom germany percentage of phds working in industry country brazil south korea united states source fapesp capes oecd 5.0 12.1 13.6 14.0 24.0 30.0 23.0 54.0 80.0 what do the specialists say at this moment brazil faces three fundamental problems the first is the formation of critical mass the second is time because transformations do not take place overnight and the third which must be initiated is to draw up inductive policies and put them in operation underscores public health physician gonçalo vecina neto corporate superintendent of hospital sírio-libanês vecina was also director of the central institute of the hospital das clínicas in são paulo the largest medical center in latin america and president of anvisa ­ national health surveillance agency paulo hoff oncologist and director of strategies at the oncology center of hospital sírio-libanês says it is no longer possible to work in isolation without exchanging information and experience you should try to reinvent the wheel affirms hoff also clinical director of the octávio frias de oliveira cancer institute of são paulo of usp s college of medicine great human developments were the result of a sum of efforts we want to be part of that sum today we already have areas of excellence where we are at the same level as developed countries we are improving and the difference is getting smaller and smaller but i think it is process that will still take a few decades for our whole to be equivalent to the more developed countries adds the oncologist publications one indicator that shows brazil s evolution in innovation is the number of scientific publications produced by the country nearly 30 thousand papers in approximately 10 thousand indexed journals ranked 15th in the world and 2.6 of the global total in 1981 this participation didn t reach 0.5 china for example publishes 8.4 of the world s papers and its production grew sixty-fourfold between 1981 and 2008 source prospectiva consultoria


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10 the sírio-libanês model of `inventing one of the country s cutting-edge hospitals the sírio-libanês is among the reference institutions chosen by sus single health system for investing in professional training and research this fact which gives the hospital the status of philanthropic with the respective fiscal benefits has been permitting the application of r 10 million per year in research besides its own budget of r 5 million in this area the hospital maintains the institute of studies and research iep and its portfolio includes at least half a dozen inventions in the patent process the institution has just protected an endoscope internationally in the european community it has also already patented a pectide a biomolecule and it is going to test a low frequency laser for sterilizing oral cavity infections very common in patients who undergo chemotherapy behind this innovative spirit luiz fernando reis director of the iep cites sírio libanês s differential a policy of intellectual protection approved by the hospital s board the researcher assumes the commitment that the hospital owns any invention made within the institution we establish rules for remuneration and we have something that is little disseminated in brazil you cannot get proper protection for a product if you don t have proper documentation on how you got to that point laboratory notes of every phase and of every registry are extremely strict and rigorous so the invention cannot be contested later reis says the option and investment in research and teaching permit holding on to great talents and cutting-edge doctors because they are in constant update mode and involved in research most of the hospital s professionals have strong academic ties and this environment feeds excellence without an academic environment a hospital becomes a mere reproducer of technology with this environment it generates knowledge today we have 46 clinical studies taking place inside the hospital brazil advances without celebrations even with the evolution in patent requests abroad brazil s total barely exceeds 1 in comparison to american requests brazil advance 5.1 in international patent deposits with 496 in 2009 compared to 472 in 2008 this result is more expressive when compared to 2005 when brazil had 270 requests between 2005 and 2009 international patent registration by brazilian institutions increased nearly 84 according to wipo ­ world intellectual property organization our gap is so great that any increase seems bigger than it really is even considering the advances it is still very little says the president of biominas eduardo emerich although it almost doubled the number brazil s deposits represented only 1.08 of the american total for example we cannot compare with the united states there you learn to be an entrepreneur in school to transform technology and innovation into product brazil is heading that direction but that type of learning has yet to be established explains emerich the country would need to invest very much in innovation to bridge the gap between those in front in this area or to get close in china for example and always in china expansion exceeded 215 between 2005 and 2009 to 7906 in 2009 and 29.1 when compared to 2008 see figure 2 over recent years the government has invested a lot to transform china into a high-tech country they have a lot of money and political power when the government decides it is going to head a certain direction it


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innovation and clinical research in brazil 11 really does explains emerich for whom brazil s policy for stimulating innovation is too encompassing when it is too broad the resources regardless of how great ­ and that is not the case they are scarce cannot do everything maybe we should discuss areas of priority many countries like canada did that and it has worked says the president of biominas a sign that even in times of crisis protecting and preserving intellectual property in the international context is important and necessary the united states still leads the ranking with almost one-third of the deposits in 2009 or 46,079 a 10.8 drop compared to the year before among emerging countries brazil lags far behind south korea with 8,049 requests in 2009 and a 1.9 increase over 2008 east asian countries continued to grow despite the global crisis japan ranked second in number of registrations grew 3.6 with 29,807 with a total of 122 out of 142 countries who signed the pct ­ patent cooperation treaty ­ emerging countries represent 14 of the total number of registered patents with china and south korea responsible for 10 brazil is ranked ahead of mexico 193 and poland 174 but lags behind emerging competitors india 835 and russia 662 in the set of nations that are part of the wipo classification brazil is ahead of 127 countries see figure 2 effects of the crisis taking into account all of the countries and sectors there was a 4.5 drop in the total deposit of patents between 2008 and 2009 falling from 163,247 to 155,900 according to wipo an entity that does not conduct patent registrations and analyses but promotes them when a company or institution wants their invention protected in other countries wipo general director francis gurry says the drop was already expected due to the international crisis but nevertheless it was smaller than recorded in previous experiences figure 2 world ranking of patent deposits país 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 participation over total for 2009 variation over 2008 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 23 united states japan germany south korea china france united kingdom netherlands switzerland sweden italy canada finland australia israel brazil 46,857 24,870 15,987 4,689 2,512 5,756 5,095 4,504 3,294 2,887 2,349 2,320 1,893 2,001 1,461 270 136,753 51,296 27,023 16,734 5,946 3,937 6,264 5,092 4,550 3,613 3,333 2,702 2,573 1,844 2,003 1,599 334 149,669 54,037 27,748 17,824 7,065 5,465 6,570 5,539 4,422 3,814 3,658 2,948 2,847 1,994 2,053 1,747 397 159,949 51,653 28,785 18,853 7,901 6,128 7,074 5,514 4,339 3,749 4,136 2,885 2,913 2,223 1,946 1,905 472 163,247 45,790 29,827 16,736 8,066 7,946 7,166 5,320 4,471 3,688 3,667 2,718 2,572 2,173 1,800 1,578 480 155,900 29.4 19.1 10.7 5.2 5.1 4.6 3.4 2.9 2.4 2.4 1.7 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.3 -11.4 3.6 -11.2 2.1 29.7 1.3 -3.5 3.0 -1.6 -11.3 -5.8 -11.7 -2.2 -7.5 -17.2 1.7 total deposits source wipo estimate


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12 biggest slice from companies in the wipo classification american companies have 29.4 of total patent registrations followed by the japanese with 19.1 germans 10.7 koreans 5.2 and chinese 5.1 the organization points to four japanese companies among the top ten with the biggest number of pct applications in 2009 first is panasonic corporation with 1,891 huawei technologies of china is second with 1,847 the top ten companies alone in number of registrations account for 13,363 or 8.56 of the total each of these companies alone has more registrations than 121 countries individually including brazil those companies tied to telecommunications and electronic equipment dominate the list of industries with the greatest number of application the only one tied to a university research center regents of the university of california appears in 40th with 321 and a 26 drop compared to 2008 when adding the pharmaceutical 12,200 registrations fine organic chemistry 8,841 and biotechnology 7,446 we get 28,487 applications or 18.3 of all registration requests together they exceeded those areas where there are more investments in the market worst position among the brics brazil drops sharply in innovation ranking when compared to russia china and india say researchers the most recent world ranking for innovations places brazil in 68th compared to 50th in 2009 on this scale iceland sweden and hong kong are the three most innovative centers in the world among latin americans brazil ranked 7th losing to countries like costa rica chile and uruguay when compared only to the four brics brazil russia china and india the country was ranked third in 2009 but fell to last place on 2010 this information is part of the third reports conducted by the world business school insead in partnership with the confederation of indian industry cii the 2010 edition of the global innovation index has a specific chapter on brazil which is treated as a latin american success story estimating that by 2014 the country should be the fifth largest economy in the world passing great britain and france the study published by the news agency bbc brazil calls attention to the country s perspectives highlighting deep-water oil exploration tropical agriculture and manufacturing of regional aircraft insead and cii believe brazil has an advantage in relation to the other brics despite its last place ranking contrary to china brazil is a democracy contrary to india there are no insurgents no ethnic and religious conflicts and no hostile neighbors contrary to russia it exports more than just oil and weapons and it treats foreign investors with respect says the report another fact calls attention one out of every eight brazilian adults has already tried to open a business however the study registers the obstacles to innovation in brazil especially social inequity brazilian infrastructure is worse than china s and south korea s analysts defend that brazilian innovation would benefit greatly if intellectual property protection was stronger in the country the report also states that the government s role in stimulating innovation and its policies in this sense lack coherence and those institutions responsible for managing the innovative processes such as the inpi national institute for industrial property ­ still have bureaucratic and inefficient tendencies the study classified 132 countries based on 60 different indicators such as patents per million inhabitants,


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innovation and clinical research in brazil 13 investments in research and development broadband internet and cell phone users and average time for opening a business in the country the study also tried to measure innovation s impact on social well-being including data on spending on education per capita gdp ­ gross domestic product and the gini index for social inequality in brazil little enthusiasm in the national congress most brazilian congressmen consider intellectual property a fundamental factor for the country s development but the theme is little discussed in congress advantage of the small iceland sweden hong kong and denmark lead this year s edition of the report the global innovation index highlights the fact the top ten in its ranking are relatively small nations each with less than 0.3 of the world population in insead s and cii s analysis smaller populations can make public policies more effective the united states which led the study last year fell to 11th place the study points to the drop in investment in innovation and the recent economic crisis among the main causes singapore ranked seventh also deserved a special chapter the country s impressive success is described as a consequence of government action public investment in education research and the technological industry made singapore the innovative country it is today according to the study governments should interfere to formulate efficient rules in relation to patents copyrights and problems with piracy affirm the analysts the report concludes that today s leaders are not necessarily tomorrow s leaders therefore innovation can ­ and generally should ­ eliminate obstructions to catalyze the process a survey conducted by ibope in 2009 involving 100 congressmen at the request of the brazil intellectual coalition ­ a group of companies and representative entities such as the federation of industries of the state of são paulo fiesp and the brazilian intellectual property association abpi ­ reveals that most of the senators and federal deputies consider the intellectual property issue a fundamental factor for development however 90 of the congressmen say the congress debates intellectual property and innovation themes very little only 26 of the deputies and senators interviewed cited technological innovation as a window of opportunity for brazil s development the numbers also reveal that the congressmen consider investment in infrastructure 64 more important for brazil than technological innovation and scientific research 19 it is also important to point out that the last item saw a drop compared to 2008 when 30 of those interviewed said the application of resources to research would represent a window of opportunity for the country only 15 of those interviewed said they were well aware of brazilian legislation that deals with intellectual property but when questioned they revealed little knowledge concerning the theme only 3 cited the technological innovation law of 2004 which creates incentives for companies to invest in research and new technologies as an important mechanism for development forty-one percent actually said they were unaware of legislation about intellectual property and the number of congressmen who declared having any interest in the matter fell from 54 to 44 between 2008 and 2009 the lack of knowledge and inconsistency in opinions and perceptions about intellectual property appeared as the main result in the survey repeating the 2008 sce-


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14 nario even among congressmen who declared interest and knowledge about intellectual property incoherent perceptions and opinions on the subject were observed despite the results or perhaps because of them a movement of concern can be seen in congress which is creating the parliamentary front for innovation and intellectual property to debate the matter institutionally and politically arch assistance and support although the horizons are still distant the country is beginning to look at robotics and combinatory chemistry it has been untying knots in many areas and investment in research and innovation has been ceasing to be a risk contract to become necessary and healthy policy for good business development that is slow and lacking in learning brazil invests and has untied some knots in research but it cannot repeat its errors of the past advise specialists if the number of patents grew little and the policy of innovation has still not taken off this is because of policies still found in the business environment the country had no laws that guaranteed intellectual property for a long time and furthermore economic instability and the abrupt opening of the market after 1991 did little to stimulate innovation for many years business owners did not think about innovation because they could make a lot of money with copies what has changed now is that if they don t innovate they won t move forward outside brazil if there is no patent companies will not even begin to negotiate if you have no patent you have nothing explains eduardo emerich president of biominas today we have an open and stabilized economy but the involvement with innovation and research on the part of companies is still slow and in need of learning says carlos henrique de brito cruz scientific director at fapesp ­ research support foundation of the state of são paulo specialists say the country is on the right path by launching lines of credit through the bndes ­ national bank of economic and social development creating sector funds and stimulating research through development agencies like finep financer of studies and projects the faps funds and foundations for rese health complex in the health area despite the obstacles there is direction brazil invests in biotechnology which has already resulted in vaccines growth hormones and many other drugs and genetic engineering as has been taking place in some centers of excellence the federal government has focused on innovation and medication production areas in brazil with fiscal incentive programs and financing creation of specific laws and development of partnerships with foreign companies for the transfer of technology the so-called public-private partnerships or ppps for health through a program called the industrial complex for health we are working on guaranteeing market for national pharmochemical companies and strengthening public laboratories and industries installed in brazil whether national or foreign says the secretary of science technology and strategic inputs of the ministry of health reinaldo guimarães part of the multinational industry that invests in the research and development of new drugs considers the initiative correct joão sanches director of corporate affairs for msd of the us says that in the past initiatives in this sense were punctual and today brazil has a favorable regulatory and innovation environment that will permit the country to make quantum leaps in the future in the pharmaceutical sector that is also good for industries nearly 80 to 90 of growth in the global pharmaceutical market in coming years will come from emerging markets of which brazil is part and it will be between the eighth and sixth largest market in the world in a few years it is very important for companies to participate in this market says sanches.


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innovation and clinical research in brazil 15 example of waste if brazil has potential and global companies seek opportunities here the specialists expect the country to at least stop repeating the errors of its recent past at the beginning of the decade brazil missed the chance to have a new therapy center for treating diseases considered neglected and of high incidence such as dengue fever malaria and tuberculosis very common here as well novartis of switzerland which idealized the center set up the novartis research institute on tropical disease in 2003 in singapore a country that focuses on attracting new technologies that episode is an example of waste we have informed the government that we are before opportunities that are being wasted because of bureaucracy and because although the country has improved brazil s attitude still falls short of what is necessary observes antônio britto ceo of interfarma brazil has been successful in expanding its capacity in producing vaccines and some basic medications this is clearly important from the social perspective from the technological perspective and from the economic perspective but it is just a beginning the big challenge is how to develop capacity to generate innovation and attract research in more complex medication and technologies that is the challenge before us today adds the executive.



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