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PACIFIST JOURNAL WWW.PACIFISTJOURNAL.COM / WWW.JORNALPACIFISTA.COM.BR FOUNDER, PRESIDENT AND GENERAL CHIEF-DIRECTOR : DENISE RUMAN PACIFIST JOURNAL - EDIÇÃO 07 EDITORIAL INDEX EDITORIAL In this May 2014 edition, bride´s and also mother´s month, we will be talking a little bit about this marvelous state of “Being a mother”. Behavioral and biological relation inserted in this context. POLITICS “Being a mother” HEALTH BEHAVIOR EDUCATION SPORTS CULTURE AND MYTHOLOGY RELIGION AND SPIRITUALITY TRIBUTE Being a mother is not only a physical and biological state. Clearly, it is much more a behavioral, spiritual and convivial state. Being a mother is to be present in pain and lack of love; in difficulty and disease of one´s child; Being him biological or spiritual child! Being a mother is donation; It is abnegation; renouncing; Being a mother is to give your blood to another being, which is going to be born, and generating; Being a mother is to take a little bit from oneself; It is to donate this little bit of oneself to a new life who will give sequence to a new life on Earth; Being a mother is to give sequence to genetics; and to tradition; Being a mother is to educate; Being a mother is donation and mainly, the adoption, being this root coming from genetic roots; own ones or from third parties. Denise Ruman 01 SHUTTERSTOCK


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POLITICS Analyzing the daily News, I observe that some situations repeat more than they should. Corruption, violence and neglect for the country which goes from the district where people live. In the past, but not so long time ago, people revolted and were displeased with these situations; during militarism time, actions which aimed freedom and individual and collective rights respect, and a strong desire of a free , prosperous and evolved country were common. Over the years we see asleep, drugged, distracted with foolish things, wishing, sometimes, excess of rights, but not worried about their duties. People that seem to have lost pleasure to fight and conquer improvements in every sense and not only in soccer or on “Big Bobo” (T.N.: big foolish, allusion to Big Brother). People seem to deny our scientists´ acquiring as well as other professionals of several grades and different sectors in the world. It seems they are sleepy, besides waking up once in a while in manifestations, but they soon disappear. There are manifestations for justice and rights, laws, security, country´s reforms and necessary and urgent changings. Several statements show up and each one seems to state that violence and hard actions are the solution. But the root of all these problems, being whatever, from personal to country ones, are set onl y in one factor. Lack of Love Love for oneself and to the neighbor and mates, family, district, city, state and the country, to us as people in a whole, and not separated bycities, frontiers and illusory differences. Love for the most powerful personality, for the ones who decide our country´s directions and for the diseased ones who are in the hospital, for the child who is in the orphanage or on the streets, for the families who need work and education, and not charity, which keep them in the same situation, or for the criminal or supposed protection that turns them into exploiters. Love, and love means respect, valuation, duty before the right, give a hand to the one who needs it, justice, education, really wishing good to everyone and the country. When there is no love, there is no respect, justice, education, duties and rights or improvement in every sense. Love the country is not to cheer on the Cup, on the “Big Bobo”, love the country is willing to fight for it, and this, sometimes implies deciding, consciously and responsibly, to make choices relating our managers as well as accept misunderstanding in commerce, not allowing a child be hungry and not accepting some people receiving millions with drugs and things like that. Love oneself is wishing to have his rights respected, to value himself, but not in prejudice of others´ right or without complying with his duties. Religions, sects, institutions, enterprises and others talk about love, but the practice a little, or only among them; this is not love. Loving is simple. Maybe that is why it is little practiced. But we propose something. Loving ourselves increasingly, and extend this love to everyone, till loving the country. After all, we are the country. Love for the person who lives in a distant state from ours and for the one who shares our own street. Alcir Tonoli Cotia - SP - Brazil 02


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Brazil is passing through a historically delicate mo- ment, for this moment culminates with a strong planetary transmutation which we all are living in a personal level. Obviously, this means it will reflect in deconstruction of the old world so the new one can arise. Here we can feel vibrations of dissatisfaction of a criticism mass, and not the old accommodation with old thing, surpassed thins or ancient concepts any more. However, this transmutation and deconstruction stage requires every care needed from each one individually, and an individual conscience change to group one, or as you prefer to say, to the global one. Each politic and economic change in your country directly reflects in individual energetic levels of each citizen. Each difficulty imposed to citizens in their civil rights, and of being respected, and even life basic conditions, generates negative feelings flow which impair this transition of old to new world, and consequently, impairs Brazil´s progress as a New Nation in a New World. What must be overcome is the personal view on the country´s conditions, changes which must be made, laws that can and must be modified not to furnish selfish needs any more, but aiming the best to the WHOLE and to each individual, even if these changings do not directly reach your private life. It is a strict view that even shows silliness of spirit from many incarnated ones in your plane. Difficulty in seeing the consequences of impairing others as for elementary needs to a dignifying life, which can go on peacefully, really brings consequences to each one´s life. Hunger, misery, necessity and exclusion are means of stagnate the spirit of the ones who suffer in the lowest vibratory frequencies, for, when basic needs are suppressed, what comes up is the survival instinct and all other oppression feelings which only those who undergo such difficulties can state. Accepting life as it is, as for individual karmic adjustments cannot serve as excuse so the ones in better conditions do nothing to anyone. Once more, high teaching is distorted by selfish, proud and arrogance, which characterize many beings of this planet, yet. The one, who has a dignified life, holds back to give dignity to other life, and so generates the same debt, this same unbalance to himself, and now, not to incarnate in this planet any more, but to go to others in equal conditions as the ones of ancient Earth. A reflection moment is important now, beloved ones. Do work for the construction of a better country, a higher one. But work so this better and higher one Pacifist Journal – Edition n. 7 | be really aiming the good to everyone and each individual and not to your good, taken by your own ego. If we are all One, and each one must reach this conscience, this concept must be absorbed totally by you. While there are suffering people, in deprivation in the planet, this energy will also affect your individual life. While changing new from old, observe if these intentions are not still rooted in old patterns and power, of individualism and selfishness. New things cannot be constructed on old and surpassed selfish concepts. Only waking up the true universal love, of a true empathy for the neighbor can bring your country to this new Earth already constructed. Adriana Pasquinelli Santo André - SP - Brazil Sometimes I ask myself how some people can claim about injustice, corruption, theft, dishonesty, misery, betrayal they suffer from the government, from politicinas, from banks, from their bosses, if they act as they know they do, daily, with other people. How can they want to receive something they are not able to give not even to close people, to their relatives, to people they consider as friends, clients, work mates? Life is a continuous giving and receiving, in everything, and this is so simple to me. Action and Reaction are not mere words; they are the Universe´s laws which can be seen in material, physical world, at any moment. What I give is what I receive, and to get to this conclusion it is enough to have a little, just a little of conscience. At collective level, what are we giving? Are we really honest enough to demand anything back? Are we really upstanding in our daily relations, many times with people who are beside us? Sometimes, during short periods, humanity defeats me; I lose hope of seeing this world transformed. Some times… Adriana Pasquinelli Santo André - SP - Brazil 03


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HEALTH FLAPLESS PRECISION. DENTAL IMPLANTS WITHOUT PAIN A new technique of implants, developed in Brazil has arrived in dental offices. It is Flapless Precision. Its advantage is that it does not require interventions which result in gingiva retaliation, preceding that normally causes patient´s pain. The new method of implant propitiates more safety to patients. It also allows the teeth to be placed in only one session or in up to 5 days. Smile aesthetic restoring helps the patient recover his self-esteem and society reintegration. As a result of treatment, a positive change in habits follows, which takes to rejuvenation, and the person becomes happier in his personal and professional fields. The main difference between surgery of traditional implants and Flapless Precision is that in traditional surgery gingiva suffers incision (cut) of more than 20 mm, to each implant, and it is displaced when the bone is exposed, and the implant placed. After that, gingiva is repositioned and sutured with 3 stiches. Recover, in this process, takes more time, and it may swallow and cause pain. As for “Flapless Precision” it is more precise. A cylindrical blade is used to remove only part of gingiva, 4mm, and just after it implant is precisely inserted and it is not necessary to suture. With this proceeding, healing is quick, safe, with no pain or swelling. A computer program was developed, associated to images obtained by specific computer tomography, which helps planning the surgery virtually and in preparing the exact position of the implant in the patient´s mouth, so this technique can succeed in its entire precision. Through this composition it is possible to create a prototype of the mouth in resin and simulate surgery interventions, taking on account the several data. Or else, the whole surgery can be accomplished and remade in virtual way, in the computer, and then performed in a real form prototype, and finally in the patient, who will only go to the clinic for the definite implant placement. The great importance of this surgery is the absence of traumas. This technique diminishes the number of the patient´s consultations, surgery time, allowing the safe placing of provisory teeth after intervention, it is precise and predictable, and consequently has better esthetic and functional result. Dr. Eduardo Machado de Carvalho Dental Surgeon - CRO 7199 - São Paulo - SP – Brazil - One of the pioneers in eveloping this method in Brazil. 04


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BOTOX THERAPY IN DENTISTRY What is it? Botox is a much performed treatment in dentistry, nowadays. Botulinum toxin, popularly known as Botox, is a lot used in esthetic treatments, but also to therapeutic treatments in Dentistry, with approval of Sao Paulo Dentistry Regional Counsil and Sanitary Vigilance National Agency (ANVISA). The effects start from 72 hours after application and the final effect happens up to 15 days. Durability varies from 3 to 6 months. Treatment is counter-indicated to people with albumin allergy (substance present in eggs), which is in the toxin, besides pregnant and breastfeeding women, and the ones with diseases that affect muscles, as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. How does it work? Botox is applied through injections with extremely thin and painless needles in nervous terminations, provoking muscle relaxation. Use of botulin toxin can be allied to several dental treatments: Bruxism for headaches caused by muscle contraction excess, mainly in chewing. Muscle hypertrophy for masseter and temporal muscles, responsible for mouth overture and closing. Their excess of force causes pain, mainly in articulations and in face area beside the ear. Gingiva smile Excessive exposition of gingiva with smile, caused by the intense elevation of upper lip Pains Lumbar, nape and neck, caused by stress and tension Face asymmetry – when muscle activity is more intense at one side of the face, causing differences in facial outline and esthetic. Dr. Angela Novaes - Esthetic Dentistry São Paulo - SP - Brazil WHAT IS CRANIOSACRAL THERAPY? What is CranioSacral Therapy? Everything started at the beginning of last century, when osteopath physician William Sutherland, who observed the possibility of bones mobility, which constitutes the cranium, and decided to study how real this situation was. After 20 years of researches he stated the veracity of his intuition, developing a new system of examination and treatment known as Cranial Osteopathy. In 1970, Dr. John Upledger could observe, during a surgery, the rhythmic movement of craniosacral system. And from some Sutherland´s knowledge and techniques, Dr. Upledger understood this movement which extended from cranium to sacrum and the relationship there was between this flow and the mobility of cranium bones. It was as if a fluid which moved in this “circuit” served as oil so this mechanism went on functioning. After incorporating and refining William Sutherland´s techniques, he was able to prove the existence of a craniosacral system, scientifically, testing and documenting the influence of CranioSacral Therapy at Michigan State University. Rhythm movement of this system passes by the cranium, goes along the pinal column, and goes down to sacrum, back and forth, distributing fluids and sending messages so our body keeps healthy and balanced. Once this flow suffers arrhythmia due to some tension, restriction or any other reason, the movement is impaired as well as the balance and health and wellbeing. This therapy goal is to free this flow passage. This happens through the therapist´s subtle contact, which works as stimulus, so the brain turns its attention to the worked area, relaxing the region, opening space so that the movement goes back flowing in an interrupt rhythm, reorganizing the body´s homeostasis, internal property we have to maintain our systems in balance. CST is recommended to newborns and may avoid many post-partum complications, as well as to pregnant women, because it helps the baby´s position and to old people, doe to the very light touch. Craniosacral system heath is essential so our organism works well; therefore this therapy brings benefits to all of us! In the relieved unbalances list accomplished by this technique are: Headaches; Motor-coordination Impairments; Elimination of stress negative effects; Chronic Fatigue; Central Nervous System Disorders; Autism; Paralysis, Dislexy, Asthma, Bronchitis, Breathing Disosders, etc; Sinusitis, Dizziness and Buzzing; Temporomandibular Joint Syndrome (TMJ); Eyes disorders as strabismus, nystagmus, etc; Hiperactivity, attention disorders etc.; Arthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis, among others. May curiosities and institutions as the ones of William Sutherland and John Upledger go on being stimulated to humanity´s development. Gratitude makes me go on practicing, cultivating and valorizing medicine which is made with love for the patient and feeding the relation of giving and the so essential interdependence. Rafaela Rocha São Paulo - SP - Brazil 05


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THE BEGINNING OF AROMATHERAPY René Maurice Gattefossé was a chemist, in Grasse, Sou- thern France, who wrote the first book on aromatherapy, in 1928. His researches had, as basis, works started at the end of previous century, by French people as Cadéac and Meunir, as well as Italian physicians as Gatti and Ca- jola. In 1887, the first researches results were published about the antiseptic powers of vapors from many essen- tial oils. During the nineteenth century, perfume industry increased firm and considerably. At that time, perfumes were manufactured almost exclusively with natural es- sences. Searching for new aromatic plants as well as land to cultivate them around Grasse, in France, became the world center of essences cultivation and extraction. Due to industry growth, some of Grasse´s companies started to look for new appliances to the essences, and among them was Gattefossé´s Company. At the begin- ning, his interest was limited to the cosmetic usage of essences. All these works, since Gattefossé, attracted French, Ger- Some events helped amplify his interest: man, Swiss and Dutch interest. Scientists and therapists Cosmetics used to contain antiseptics: he noticed that from different places around the world, dedicate themsel- essential oils had more powerful antiseptic properties ves to the study. The major part of researches was perfor- than some of the chemical antiseptics used at the time; med on the antiseptic and antibiotic powers of essential During a small explosion in his laboratory, in an expe- oils. According to recent researches performed in Europe, rience, he burnt one of his hands. Immediately he im- the USA and Russia, odor effects in the psyche can be mersed it in pure lavender oil and was not very surprised very important. Scent sense acts rapidly in subconscious that the burnt healed in shorter time, without infection level, for sense of smell nerves are directly linked to the or scar signal. It is possible that the first mention of primitive part of the brain, the limbic system. Conside- the word Aromatherapy has been created by him. After ring rve is an extension of the brain itself, it is easy to publishing his book, he went on with a series of texts, understand that through the nose one can easily get to it, articles and many other booksreferrring to therapy with the unique entrance door to the brain. Limbic system is essential oils. Although his work stimulated a reasonable the brain´s part that regulates sense-motor activity and interest, it seems to be put aside by Second World War, is responsible for the primitive impulses of hunger, thirst for the following 15 years, few things were published and sex. Smell sense bulb sends electric signals to the about aromatherapy and the researches were small. that limbic system region responsible for visceral and beha- smell sense. It was not all lost. Another French man, vioral mechanisms, affecting digestive, sexual and emo- this time a physician, who worked with herbs therapeutic tional behavior systems. Brain´s electric reaction to smell usage for many years, stimulated by Gattefossé´s work, is almost the same linked to emotions. started the usage of essences in his treatments. During the war he used them a lot to treat combat wounds, Viviane Murari soon noticing, as Gattefossé, that there was enormous São Paulo - SP - Brazil potential in that therapy. In 1964 he published a book, Aromatherapy, and thanks to his works aromatherapy was accepted as a therapy with proper merits. YOGA´S 10 PANACEAS ... ITS TRUE COMMANDMENTS YOGA is said to be the true PANACEA or the cure for all ills. Why would that be so? At behavior level, Yoga states the convivial with all in harmony. There is is! This would be the first Panacea. Yoga´s second commandment would be respect for the neighbor that it also propagates…That is the second Panacea. Yoga propagates Communion Law and universal union, the word Yoga, itself, means union... union with the CREATOR first of all, and secondly, union with us. Maybe this was our major challenge... the called self-love. After that, it propagates the union with our fellow men, peoples and countries, without discrimination of belief, color or race. THERE IT IS ... the third Panacea.Fourth Panacea would be propagation of PEACE…peace with us and peace with our fellow men. Fifth Panacea is the beginning of the practice. Starting with breathing that oxygenates the whole body and its organs, bringing us increasing wellbeing. The sixt Panacea.Yoga states self-respect. Respect for ourselves. Seventh Panacea Psychophysical work of altering, overcoming physical body limits, so extending to overcoming our fears and barriers. Eighth Panacea would be as major oxygenating acts in improving reasoning and memory levels. Ninth Panacea would be higher SELFSTEEM due to SELF-CARE. Tenth Panacea…with oxygenating increase there is astral-spiritual relaxation making it possible to eliminate many pshych-physical-emotional-spiritual stresses and toxins. THERE IT IS…YOGA´S TEN COMMANDMENTS…THE REAL PANACEA AND MANY OTHER PANACEAS. NAMASTE. -Denise Ruman - São Pualo - SP Brazil 06


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ART OF EDUCATING DATING IS FUNDAMENTAL June 12, is the commercial Valentine´s day, day in which we materialize feelings for an object, I believe it valid, pleasing is part or the process. A couple´s life is the reflex of what goes on during dating. Dating was cre- ated by God so two creatures would know each other in every sense, sight was made to be felt not feared, words were made to be get into the soul, not to offend, hands were made to give affection and not hurting. Whi- le dating we discover the person´s way…how he/she is, what he/she eats and what he/she does not like to eat, his/her character, defects and virtues. A woman who ac- cepts that boyfriend drinks till become dizzy will be crea- ting, when married, an alcoholic at home, a woman that allows being verbally and physically harmed, certainly these aggressions will become serious to the point we see on the news, women being killed by their companions due to accepting being harmed during dating. So Live dating as it were a laboratory so that experiences in many families suffer due to an unhappy dating. I say so, convivial can help you become a couple full of true chebecause dating is fundamental, but we have seen that mistry and feelings and make a virtuous family for before the desire is ruling people, making them forget to look tomb, so after you do not cry from bitterness at your houat their companions. You, woman, are not perfect as well se´s corners. as he is not either, so do not charge perfection from your companion, charge Christian honesty and attitudes, a Ronaldo Faria (In Memorian) religious couple is a signal of a virtuous family. Divinópolis-MG-Brazil “NÃO DO NOT JUDGE ME FOR MY SUCCESS, BUT FOR HOW MANY TIMES I COULD FALL AND STAND UP AFTER”. Nelson Mandela INTERRUPTED PROJECTS One of Gestalt´s law states about the problem caused by started processes which are not finalized. Every process that had a beginning, a middle and did not have an “end”, tends to stay in the mind occupying space and wasting energy in its unuseful maintenance. A common human tendency (and self-destructive) is always start new projects, and after sometime get sick and simply abandon his proposal without giving a dignified end and a goal to it – letting it hung in a “hanger”, forgotten in a closet corner. What we do not notice, is that these unfinished projects (being them of whatever nature: material, emotional, intellectual, spiritual one) as they do not have a destiny, as they are not “solved”, they go on as problems waiting for solution, occupying our “bytes” of space and wasting our “watts” of energy. Better explaining: we get out and forget to turn the light off, which keeps on useless, and the energy company does not know if you are using it and goes on registering the waste, the bill is high and we waste our money (which is nothing but the energy resulted from our work). I do not want to say that every project has to be finished in the way it was proposed, you cannot oblige yourself to do what you do not want to, but you must be sure that it is your will. We get into the willing situation (one of the Magic laws). Willing is the same as wishing, not desire. Desire is an immediate and short lasting impulse, which, if not satisfied at the moment, over time it is forgotten. Willing is that project (what) which has a proposal (why), an objective to be reached in some way (how) and that will interfere in beneficial and effective way your future live (what for/when). When is a project given up in your life? Answer: when it does not give you any pleasure in achieving it. When another project interferes in this first one and becomes more important than that one, receiving priority in your interests. When we lose interest for something, we have the great opportunity to know more about ourselves, how we feel and react before some facts and challenges of life. If we really want to give up a project, we firstly must ask which path we use. In I Ching, one of the hexagrams states about “retreat”. In one case we abandon challenge because we notice and recognize our inferiority before it, we notice the complete impossibility of succeed and, if we persist, we will certainly lose. It is to retreat before losing everything. In this case, the mistake was in choosing the project or prepotency – I judged myself superior to what I am; or negligence – I did not dedicate myself as much as I should do and now there is no more possibility to recover lost time. In another case, when not everything is lost, you move away to resume and regain strength, to come back and fight. In this case, do not let life´s tribulations make you forget to try again. In both cases there is frustration, but if it is followed by facts observation and awareness there will be learning and you will succeed, because you learned a lesson which does not let you lose twice. But do not forget to advise yourself (or another one, whether it is the case), that you recognize the impossibility and consider the battle finished. All projects are important and must be finalized, but to the affective ones special attention must be given, for normally they 07


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volve other people, so, they cause double prejudice. In case you detect fault of initial project – every human being has the right to change ideas or fail – the solution is to give destiny to it, nothing is worse than the doubt or lack of solution, because it keeps the door opened while wasting energy, the solution can be painful or not, but it solves a problem and closes the door. In short, if you feel that you can have energy “draining”, look inside and discover what you have “hung” in the projects department´s hanger: what you thought but did not do, what you started but did not finish, what you procrastinated and forgot, and so on. Take the advantage to learn with them, start observing the reason which made you start the project; how much physical, mental, emotional or spiritual energy you placed on it and why you abandoned, interrupted and did not finish it, in which step failure happened, in which step pleasure finished. Do not allow you to be a loser, solve these pending matters and recover what is yours. In short, to have enough energy, always, to really important projects, never have in your mind, in your heart or in your wardrobe, something you do not use… Zelinda Orlandi Hypolito São Paulo - SP - Brazil ART OF EDUCATING Do you want a woman with no cellulites, with no PMT… who do not stress with your mistakes, the one who do not give you up, if you are not loyal to her, one that allows you shout at her, that accepts everything you say, without questionings…If you want one of buy a “Barbie” great friend. Now, if you want a “true” woman, first become a “man”, and accept all the items mentioned above, and be happy if you are able to keep one of those at your side...Beautiful woman is not that one who everyone praises for her breasts or hips, beautiful woman is that one with a so magnificent personality and character, who does not let possibilities to admire isolated parts. One who knows how to understand the companion´s needs and does not lose herself in desires. Beautiful woman does not allow doubts of who she Is. Ronaldo Faria (In Memorian) Divinópolis - MG - Brazil ANXIETY – PART II Ecently, DIAS DA SILVA (1999, p.129), wrote in his book that for the first followers of “biologic theory”, anxiety derived fundamentally from a failure in neurotransmitters substances which make a kind of “bridge” between psych and soma. As for the second followers, it would result from inner conflicts which threat individual “self” integrity and take him to search for defense mechanisms, aiming to take him far from danger. According to Genetic Theories the majority of anxiety disorders happen in families. Interviews made in patients’ families with GAT have confirmed that 20% of relatives suffer from GAT, PAPP & GORMAN (1999). These authors revealed that the respective proximate proportions to panic, specific phobia and social phobia disorders are of 50%, 31% and 7%. From the above considerations, we can define several factors responsible for the anxiety disorder happening as genetic predispositions, inner conflicts, anxiety like acquired response, physical factors, soliloquies, capability of facing problems and social determiners. To better understand the anxiety disorder causes, we must take all these factors under consideration. Psychic and physical manifestations of anxiety, according to SILVA (1999, p. 137) are: 08


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a) Psychical • Apprehension • Disagreeable sensation of alert and tension • Inquietude and impatience • Sensation of fatigue and dismay • Distraction and difficulty to concentrate oneself • Difficulty in memorizing • Insomnia b) Physical • Agitation and tremors • Sudorese • Dry mouth • Palpitations • Sensation of “chest thightness” • Vertigo and dizziness • Nausea • Intestinal constipation or diarrhea • Frequently need to urinate • Headache • Sensation of a “ball” in the throat with our without difficulty to swallow. According to Snaith, mentioned by SHELHAN (2000), there is a hereditary susceptibility to anxiety. The more vulnerable a person is in this way, less stress will be needed to provoke an anxiety disorder. To the ones who do not have this predisposition, only an extreme situation would trigger an anxiety state. Education can influence in the capability of facing stress. Insecure and super protector parents who consider the world a frightening place can lead their children to have irrational fears. Failure in making an affective link to one or more fundamental people, in the first childhood years, can result in a permanent anxiety relating abandonment and rejection, according to Bowlby mentioned by SHELHAN (2000). Psychoanalytic theory, which origin is Freud´s work, states that anxiety is developed when there is inner conflict, between instinct and social training and conscience. Individual can or not be conscious of this conflict. All phobias can be symbolic representation of resulting inner disturbance. A small capability of facing problems can lead the individual to a denying position or ignorance of the conflict. In case of anxiety phobic disorders, maybe that, for some people, a disagreeable happening, frightening or traumatic is linked to the phobia start. A feared reaction can, under conditioning, be bound to a stimulus that normally would not cause an anxiety reaction. When we refer to physical factors, we can state that any physical disease can generate an anxiety sensation. This is a normal reaction. Being diagnosed and treated the disease, anxiety related to it can decrease. However, certain diseases/drugs, can by themselves, increase the effects in the sympathetic nervous system, causing physical manifestations of anxiety. Soliloquy of an individual can influence in his mood and behavior. Generally, the one who suffers any anxiety disorder tends to have this soliloquy in negative and anxious way. A study accomplished by Clark, mentioned by SHELHAN (2000), shows that when there is or not a physical component in initial panic attack, it seems that apprehensive anticipation of near attack, irrational and fearful thoughts on physical sensations can create a vicious circle of anxie- 09 and, consequently, cause more panic attacks. It can be concluded that erroneous interpretation of physical sensations is the most important signal of subsequent and recidivist symptoms in patients with the kind of anxiety disorder. People who suffer anxiety disorder, show low capability of facing them. They avoid problems which affect them. This behavior generates anxiety or panic avoiding cycles; producing more fear and anxiety. Other factors referring anxiety disorder cause are the social determiners. There are cases of strong people, but, if the stress load is imposed for a determined time, maybe he feels unable to bear more. Stress is evident in changing times, when it is necessary to deal with inevitable disturbance that follows them. It is also seen that, in terms of anxiety and anguish, despite academic discussions, has been used indistinctly, and trying to distinguish them serves to cover basis common characteristics, or else, we can say that anguish is a psych and physical unease, while anxiety is a state of anguish. Anxiety exists in normal and responsible man, in instinct level, as well as in conscious and unconscious one. It is the one to push in the direction of personal achievements, creativity, work, and as a whole it is “generated”, by the fear of losing safety and love, or by the sensation of “losing the object”. The main function of anxiety is to protect and prepare the body to survival, starting the response of fight and runaway. When it does not let the person impotent, it can be considered a normal reaction; it makes part of human nature. It is difficult to separate it from pathologic anxiety, when the frequency and intensity of anxious manifestations disturbs the individual´s life, his adaptation to the world, his affective and intelectual balance. Emotions as happiness, sadness, anger, fear, uneasiness and anxiety represent, within affective life, special moments characterized for its subjective importance as well as psycologic disturbances. SILVA (1999), reported that our organism reacts before real or imaginary, somatic, psych, internal or external threat. This reactions processed in limbic structures generates anxiety, the imminent danger sensation. Physical component of anxiety is responsible foe the automatic activation of certain sensations so to prepare the body for action. Ana Cecília S. C. Rodrigues Cerquilho - SP - Brazil


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“ EDUCATE FEELINGS IS TO POSSESS OURSELVES, EDUCATE TO BE HAPPY IS GIVE SENSE TO EXISTENCE ”. By ERMANCE DUFAUX´s SPIRIT “ EDUCATE TO BE HAPPY IS GIVING SENSE TO THE EXISTENCE Ronaldo Faria (in Memorian) Divinópolis - MG - Brazil “ EDUCATION IS THE MOST POWEFUL WEAPON TO CHANGE THE WORLD “ Nelson Mandela Without Thinking Without Knowing. Without Thinking. Without Freeing. Without Freeing. Without Equality. Without Equality. Without Civilization. Without Thinking. Free Thinking. Freeing to be Free. Equality to be Equal. Brotherhood to be Fraternal. Civilization in Balance, in Progress, in Evolution. Only allowing knowledge, we can allow one´s thinking. Than we can allow being and happening with Knowledge and Knowing, by the Real Wish of Everyone´s Union of this Country´s beings We can grow up without sacrificing disabled ones. Social, Capital, Commerce and Industry can only be adequately constructed by thinking beings. To the Chamber of Deputies President… We are against Law Project n. 6.003, 2013 Because this is very important. Law Project n. 6003, 2013, aims changing items 9, 35 and 36 of Law n. 9394 of December 20, 1996, of national educatiodirectives and basis (LDB). Item 36 is related to obligation of Phylosophy and Sociology matters in school curriculum. And it intends to extinguish this obligation, creating a sole matter, in order to create the citizenship practice. The problem is, besides Treating as a sole discipline two knowledge areas that are completely distinct, it is a lost in school curriculum, once they are not compulsory, several school can chose not to make them available in their contents. And even if it is withdrawing the potential these natters have to offer, or else, reflexive and critic knowledge. We cannot allow them withdrawal learning which extrapolates the formality of the remaining matters. It is necessary the youth ones have the opportunity to learn how to think by themselves, however, with theoretical and practical basis to do so, and eliminating the obligation of Philosophy and Sociology in the curriculum, we are under risk of allowing, in high school, that alienated and with no critic basis teenagers are formed. Marcel C. de Siqueira Niterói - RJ - Brazil SPORTS - WORLD CUP YEAR AND THE CUP IS IN BRAZIL… How do we have to see and look at this great event that unites millions and millions of countries, athletes, fans and populations?! Several countries unite and shout in unison, they live one force, the combat one healthy combat…we can see this as a moment when we can, in alliance unite peoples and nations and not separate them, as normally, due to unnecessary disputes and diseased minds, who wish to destroy their Brothers and other countries through the creation and perpetuation of insane weapons…we can think about this event as a great moment, and through healthful congregation of many peoples, understand this as countries´ peoples´ and populations´ union…We must, for civic obligation, see this way, this great EVENT. Hugs to you all. Denise Ruman - São Paulo - SP - Brazil 10


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REST IN PEACE…O GREAT WARRIOR FOR A NOBLE CAUSE…SPORTS THE GREATEST SPORTSCASTER FOR NOBLE CAUSE… SPORTS OF BRAZILIAN TV … LUCIANO DO VALLE So many shouts of happiness he got from us with his vibration, his determination, his fight for sports in Brazil. A great and excellent humanity guardian through the participation in sports area improvement… Cries he got from the news, mainly in a World Cup year. Thank you Luciano. For the determination which you pushed sports in humanity. For the determination youtransmitted the games. And the happiness with the victory cries in several moments. A sports FATHER… a FATHER with several children that. Sons you let in sorrow. A spiritual FATHER a loved FATHER of humanity We are gratified for your help. Rest with merits and in PEACE. Dear friend of all of us!!! Denise Ruman São Paulo - SP - Brazil WORLD CUP The word CUP means GOBLET and GOBLET means TROPHY which means VICTORY. If WORLD CUP so means VICTORY IN THE WORLD, it means that the one who can detach himself for merits, and, therefore, becomes worthy receiving a GOBLET of TROPHY, meaning his VICTORY. Being the VICTORY in a WORLD CUP, a victory as the proper designation says WORLDLY, why not extending this HONORIFIC TITLE to social, personal and country´s policies questions?! Being so, has anyone already noticed or stopped to think that when a country, as mass fans vibrates with victory of his mother country, support, maybe hysterically, for its own victory? Personal? So let us stop to think about…If people commemorate as if it were their own victory, is it possible after parties and commemorations a certain frustration comes up, understanding the victory was not his own, but of his country tanding the victory was not his own, but of his country in a world context, and the ones of soccer players, then, who receive their millions?!! So, not to take the fact to a further frustration in mass after ommemoration, let us commemorate, surely, with HONOR and with GLORY; a victory of our countries, but understanding that this victory is not personal, but National and politics. Therefore, we do not live exaltation and further depression of a “false personal victory”. Denise Ruman São Paulo - SP - Brazil CULTURE AND MYTHOLOGY So, at the same time, this symbol represents the phallic HOLY GRAIL AND THE SACRED LINEAGE power of creator gods and the female life generator womb. Making a parallel with hermetic Kabbalah we have CORNUCOPIA the Path of Da´at between Hokhmah and Binah. One of the most common and known amulets in the world are pieces of horns (or metals and coral molded Cornu Copiae in the form of a horn). This amulet is also known as Amalthea Cornucopia and its origin comes from Greek As for Roman mythology, cornucopia derives from Latin celebrations. “Cornu copiae”. Cornucopia or abundance horn is one of the river-god Achelous´s horn, metamorphosed in bull, And who was Amalthea? whose horn was withdrawal by Hercules, when he fou- Amalthea was a goat descendent from the Sun that lived ght with it. According to other Roman texts, the legend in a grout on Mount Ida, in Crete. According to other follows the Greek original: it is a goat´s horn whose milt, sources, she was a nymph, Meliseo´s daughter, who fed nymph Amalthea, milked Jupiter in his infancy, when he Zeus with goat´s milk. was hidden from his father, Saturn, so he did not devour According to legends, when Zeus was small and was hi- him. It is said that Jupiter took the goat´s horn of when dden from his father, Saturn (Cronus) and he was taken he was playing, and offered it to Amalthea, assuring her care by Amalthea, in an anger attack, the baby god gras- that the horn would fulfill with fruit each time she wanted ped the goat´s horn, strongly, pulled it and took it off, to. Cornucopia is a lot shown attribute in Roman coins, producing great pain to his caregiver. When Zeus grew in beneficial divinities hands, as Ceres and Cibeles, or up, he gave the withdrawal horn the abundance gift; and with allegories as Abundance and Fortune. As curiosity, from then on, the horn would be full of food and assents cornucopia is nowadays used as the Banquet Master in his owner might desire. some cavalry orders and in Masonry. When Amalthea died, she was taken to Zeus, who trans- formed her into the Capricorn constellation. The horn Epona´s Horn and the Unicorn became known as “the cornucopia” or “the abundance horn”. Among Gallic peoples, the main divinity related to the equines is the Gallic goddess, or else, Gallic-Roman, cal- 11


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led Epona (or Epona Regina), whose name derives from Gallic epo, which means horse. Its cult was spread up to Britain, and to East Europe, especially the Burgundy region. At Iberian Peninsula some epigraphic vestiges which testimony her cult were registered. Epona has several references and numerous images of the goddess, general on the horse. The goddess was represented, many times, with a series of attributes, as the cornucopia of a patera (kind of ceramic bowl where offers were made, similar to a shallow caldron), which relates her with abundance and prosperity. She was also linked to the fountains and the spiritual world. From the gathering of these two characteristic of the same goddess arose the first medieval statements that an enchanted creature, which you have imagined who it is: the Unicorn. A White Horse, sacred symbol of Goddess Epona, associated to the magic horn which produces everything. Of course this creature does not exist in the Physical Plane, although many fraudsters, over thousand years have tried to forge unicorns with horses´, narwhals´, rhinos´ skeletons and the one of a particular creature called Orix. Till that time, Unicorn was associated to an OX with a sole horn, not to a horse. In the Bible, numbers 23:22 and Deuteronomy 33:17, a unicorn is mentioned as an extraordinary strong animal. In ancient rituals, it was common to cut the major and virile bull´s horns, from the herd to be used as ceremonial goblet to drink sacred wine at the end of Egyptians rituals, along with Bread. Marcelo Del Debbio São Paulo - SP - Brazil O MOVIMENTO ROSACRUZ NO PASSADO There have been several activities cycles of Rosicrucian Order. Within the same cycle, there is a plenty activity time, followed by a time of inactivity the same length. These cycles are necessary for several reasons. A cycle started in 1378, with the “birth” of Christian Rosenkreutz” When he “died”, in 1459, the Order started its phase of inactivity, turning back to activity with the “discovery” of Christian Rosenkreutz´s tomb and publishing of Manifestos, in 1614. So we have precise secret teachings cycles and others in which the order is promoted to public, as AMORC acts nowadays, with books. Lauched in Kassel, Germany, the book Fama Frater-nitatis. Lauched in Kassel, Germany, the book Confessio Fraternitatis. Lauched in Strasburg, Germany (annexed to France, in 1681), the book Chemical Wedding by Christian Rozenkreuz. Christian Rosenkreutz´myth. Many people believe Christian Rosenkreutz was a man that really existed and was the true founder of the Order, so denying the past of Rosicrucian Order in Ancient Egypt. In truth Christian Rozenkreuz was a fictitious character used by French Rosicrucian to promote the new cycle of the Order activities in France, using the Manifestos which were published in the country. In free translation, because the name is not translated, would be the same as Rosicrucian Christian. The Current Cycle of Activities AMORC was established by Harvey Spencer Lewis, in 1915, the firs Imperator, being himself its representative at FUDOSI, an independent federation of esoteric orders. Traditionally, Dr. Lewis was regularly initiated in Rosicrucian tradition in Europe, in Toulouse, at Ordre Rose-Croix, by Emille Dantine. As part of the initiation, Dr. Lewis was assigned authorizing letters to establish AMORC as a new Rosicrucian body in the United States. Through his several European contacts, Dr. Lewis was associated to Madame May Banks-Stacy, one of the last successors of the Rosicrucian original colony that migrated to America at the end of the seventeenth century. At the end of the 1920´s, he became a remarkable person and well known in the esoteric world. At the beginning AMORC headquarters was in New York City, having Lodges in San Francisco and Tampa, in Florida State. The Supreme Great Lodge headquarters was transferred, in 1927, to San Jose, California. Harvey Spencer Lewis died in 1939, and his son, Ralph Maxwell Lewis became the Imperator having served his father as Great Secretary, previously. Gary L. Stewart was pointed out to the Imperator place at the time of Ralph Maxwell Lewis retirement, in 1987. Current Imperator is Christian Bernard, who was elected for the Imperator position in 1990. L’Ordre Rose-Croix. It is the respected AMORC Great Lodge in France. Previously, before reappearance of current AMORC cycle, it was the main and most influent branch of Rosicrucian in Europe. His Last Great Master, before joining AMORC, was French Emille Dantine. Second World War had a devastating impact on the members of many esoteric orders, since such orders passed to illegality under Nazi laws of Adolf Hitler. Several known leaderships were imprisoned, chased, and in some cases, murdered by GESTAPO. Others found their sad end in concentration camps, as common prisoners. AMORC, being protected from such chasings, being well supported in the United States, grew immensely during this hard period. After the destruction caused by the war, many orders found the necessary support from AMORC to return to their works. Eventually, many orders were incorporated by AMORC management, in San Jose, as the case of Ordre Rose-Croix and Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel (Traditional Martinist Order – TOM). FUDOSI FUDOSI or FUDOESI (Fé-dération Universelle des Or-dres et Sociétés Initiatiques in French, Federatio Uni-versalis Dirigens Ordines Societatesque Initiationis, in Lastin) established in August 14, 1034, in Brussels (Belgium), was an autonomous federation of esoteric orders and societies. FUDOSI was dissolved in 1951, after misunderstanding among their members. Nowadays a similar organization hostile to FUDOSI, named FUSOFSI. Grand Lodges Grand Lodges of Order Rosae Crucis, AMORC, are divided in jurisdictions according the world´s idioms: Supreme Grand Lodge Walkway to Criosphinx (“Goats Sphinxes”) which comes before Egyptian Museum and Rosicrucian Supreme Grand Lodge The brotherhood has the world headquarters in San Jose, California, USA. The world Headquarters, also called Su- 12


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eme Grand Lodge, was established by Harvey Spencer Lewis, in 1927, when the headquarters was previously established in New York City. In 1990, the headquarters was transferred to Quebec City, in Canada. Grand Lodge of Portuguese Language Jurisdiction See main article: Grand Lodge of Portuguese Language Jurisdiction (AMORC). The headquarters for Portuguese Language is the Grand Lodge of Portuguese Language Jurisdiction (also named GLP), located in Bachacheri District, Curitiba, Paraná – Brazil. Monographs AMORC´s teachings are made by means of monographs, which are delivered to active members, through post office service. Such monographs cover all AMORC´S philosophy aspects and the studies and researches from its University, IRCU (International Rosea+Crucis University). The subjects are: Matter and Energy; Time and Space Illusory Nature; Human Conscience and Cosmic Conscience; Rosicrucian Technique of Meditation and Intuition Development; Human Aura; Metaphysical Healing; Mystic Sounds, Telepathy; Telekinesis, Vibroturgy; Radiestesy; Spiritual Alchemy; Creative Power of Visualization; Psych Projection; Awakening Psych Conscience; Reincarnation and Karma; Intuition; Inspiration and Illumination; Physical, Psychic and Spiritual Influence of Subconscious; Soul Incarnation; Soul Transition; Personal Healing and Distance Healing; Psychic Body and c Centers; Psychic Perception and Psychic Conscience; Psychic Projection; Dreams´ Nature and Symbolism; Physical, Psychic and Spiritual Auras; Mystic Power of Vocal Sounds and Mantras; Universal Soul and Human Soul; Reincarnation of Soul; Mystic Regeneration; Harmonizing with Cosmic Conscience among others. RELIGION AND SPIRITUALITY ART OF EDUCATING BEING A MOTHER IS ... THE STRONGEST WORD ON EARTH (My tribute to my mother and all mothers) As children we look at the world with so much innocence which disappears when we grow up, and if we have good memory, we, understand the lived moments of this period. I remember several facts, and in my search for personal discovery I always search for them to understand how I am today; there is a special that made me understand the greatness of the word mother. We lived in Fronteira City, in Triângulo Mineiro, and my mother used to take us to consultation in São José do Rio Preto, which was about one hour and a half between the two cities and because there were better medical resources there. I was 5 years old and my brother was 4. Going out of the hospital, my mother, my brother and I went to a street, she went to a house (I close my eyes here and I see the scene going on) with low walls, wooden gate painted in light blue, and clapping her hands she called the resident. woman wearing white shirt and blue skirt got out by the door, and asked whether my mother wanted and that was the dialogue: My mother: could you give us food to my two sons, because I only brought money to pay the tickets? My mother went on: See, it is food only for them; I do not need to eat. 13


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The woman: I will take it. You wait here. The woman came back with a plate of food with rice, beans and fried egg and waited my mother give us food. I remember the scene, I see myself and my brother eating without understanding anything, just eating, how we are innocent! When we finished eating my mother said: here is your plate and as I promised, the food was only to my sons. – God pay you, thank you very much, I will not forget this favor you made me to feed my boys. That is it friends, being a MOTHER is like this, being humble, renouncing to sacrifice herself for her children, is not only accepting motherhood, it is necessary to LOVE. When I remember this fact tears go down, I become sad when I see mother who accepted motherhood by half, and that feel uncomfortable because they cannot enjoy life, it is a pity. I have an unplayable debt to my mother; construct LOVE demands sacrifice, humbleness, renouncing. Being a MOTHER is that, and my mother was always like that and taught me that not with words but with example. Ronaldo Faria (In Memorian) Divinópolis - MG - Brazil Every woman, when bearing, brings sanctity with her, gets closer to more divine beauties, in terms of Love and Light Experience. It is much difficult to me to make any judgment concerning this question (whether mothers should be eternal) because I know God has his reasons, and nature is perfect; but I am obliged to agree, consciously, that every mother should really be eternal. And, tell me, as inspiration, that they are. And, when they get distant, they wait with arms open in the dimension of feelings, when we go to life reencounter, which is Eternal. BEING A MOTHER Being a Mother is a donation, transformation and generation process, it is to accept and prepare oneself to bring a baby to the world. It is a long training of inner and personal maturing, and, although it is made by two people the result falls on the woman. It is her body that adepts, transforms, models itself and cherish a new Being who develops to see the True Light. It is her voice he will listen to and will calm him down while he is safe and floating in the astral liquid which warms and protects him. She will live the strange sensations of her body reacting to the presence of a new body into her and will find strengths to keep him healthy and in constant transformation while her material body models and adapts to a new life he will have in this Astral Plane. She is so perfect, and as complete as Divine Being that she will be able to produce her first and best food and it will make him strong and immune to what is strange to him keep him healthy and in constant transformation while her material body models and adapts to a new life he will have in this Astral Plane. She is so perfect, and as complete as Divine Being that she will be able to produce her first and best food and it will make him strong and immune to what is strange to him. And, when the great moment arrives she will suffer the unbearable pain and even so will smile and cry with joy, and her only desire will be to see the angel´s face he made to be born, and grabbed to her child will not even remember that few moments before she cried in pain because Love she has for him is greater than any external thing. While she kisses him pitifully and gives him affection she had long dreamed with, she will feel accomplished and fulfilled and a Light Aura will cover her body and will complete every one with her fabulous creation energy, such as the worlds´ creator, she generated a new world. Congratulations to all the WOMEN for their marvelous day. Sincere votes of Light, Peace and Love Dedicate to all WOMEN and MOTHER Ricardo R Blomberg Porto Alegre - Brasil TRIBUTE TO MOTHERS The majority of mothers really deserves this title: Angel. Mothers are people who receive the divine incumbency of constituting a body inside her so we can come to the world. They carry us during nine months in their womb, with great worry and extreme care, and after they still follow us, guide us, protect us and take care of us while they are alive. Even being old, many mothers do not stop worrying about their children! Even with white hair, sons and daughters are still seen as a child to them. They are never apart from their children! Sometimes mothers exceed in care, in protection, and this, sometimes even impair children, but this is not made with bad intention. It is only the lack of love, care and protection instinct dosage. It is only excess care!have a regulator bottom to care and protect their children. Mother is a normally adored being for all life! She is our model of perfection, affection, care and love! She is our safe port! Mother never considers her child ugly! Mother continues loving their children even when they are lost in life, being criminals, or when they become corrupt for public service. Mother sometimes does not eat to see her child nou- 14


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rished and happy! Mother does not buy herself clothes so she can dress her children! Mother is able to face hell, if it is needed to protect her children! Mother is the greatest teacher, the greatest master we have in life! She teaches us many things in life, and the main taught are love and forgiveness. Mother always forgives her children! Mother is incarnated forgiveness! Mother is love synonym! So, and for much more, make a tribute to your mother, and tell her you love her very much! Give her flowers! Every mother loves them! Even if it is only a rose or a daisy caught on the bushes! It does not have to be much! However, do not forget to say, clearly, how much you love her, and how much she still is important in your life! Listening to children that she is loved is the greatest and best gift you can give to a mother! To you mother, who are an angel in your children´s life, I wish one. To my mother: I love you, my incarnated angel! Much peace. Luiz Roberto Mattos Salvador - BA – Brazil WOMAN... MOTHER... “When God created the woman, he was already at extra hours of the six work day. An angel appeared and asked: - Lord, why do you spend so much time with this creature? And the Lord answered: - Have you seen her “Specifications Sheet”? – She must be completely flexible, but will not be plastic, she must have 200 movable parts, round and soft ones and must be able to function with a rigid diet, has a lap to fit four children at the same time, have a kiss that can heal from scraped kees to hurt heart. The angel became admired with the requirements and asked curiously: - And is this only the Standard model? And thought: - Lord, it is a lot of work for only a day, wait till tomorrow to finish it. And the Lord answered: No, I almost finishing and this creation is the most favorite of My own heart. She heals herself, when she is sick; and can word for 18 hours a day. The angel got closer and touched the woman. – However you made her so gentle Lord! And God said: - She is gentle, but I made her strong. You have no idea of what she can bear or achieve. – Will she be able to think? – asked the angel. God answered. And God said: - Tears are a way to express her love, her happiness, her luck, her pities, her disenchantment, her solitude, her suffering and her proud. This impressed the angel very much. You are a genius, Lord. You thought about everything. The woman is really marvelous. – Yes, she is! The woman has the forces which enchants the men – They bear difficulties, carry great physical and emotional loads, however they have love and luck. – They smile when they want to shout. – They sing, when they want to cry. – They cry, when they are happy and laugh, when they are nervous. – They fight for what they believe. – They face injustice. – They do not accept “no” as response, when they believe that there is a better solution. – They hold back when their family needs something, - They go to the doctor with a friend who is afraid to go alone. – They love unconditionally. – Their heart breaks, when a friend dies, but they are even stronger when they thing there are no forces left. However, there is a defect I could not correct: - It is that sometimes they forget how much they value! Marlene Pizoni Teixeira São Paulo - SP - Brazil She is not only capable of thinking, but also reasoning and negotiating, even if she seems out of mind, she will pay attention to everything that is important. Then, noticing something, the angel extended his hand and touched the woman´s palpebral… - Lord, it seems the model has draining…I told you I was placing many things on her. This is not any drainage. It is a tear – Lord corrected him. What does a tear serve for? – asked the angel. A clown is a man painted in jokes. We dress, feel, we are, instinctively, happy and joyful beings. We are born crying, I know, but we smile with the soul to the world. When we are babies, we think everything is a joke. When we grow up, we make jokes. Therefore, we need to paint, paint and play as clowns. I do not say clown in the sense of those used to subjugate by others, but the one who sees color where the majority sees black and white. That one, who sees the blue sky as the whole world roof. And why do we stop dreaming as children, who see and is happy with their fantasies, when we grow up? A child think he/she is the Super Man only because she wears a towel around the neck and this is enough to see her running happily around all the house´s rooms. The dream is something that stays inside my pillow. After all I do not know who I really am! PH Alves - São Paulo - SP - Braz 15



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