Socrates Almanac – Science Articles – 2017-8/3

 

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Socrates Almanac – Science Articles – 2017-8/3

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Socrates Almanac

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Socrates Almanac Publisher: Europe Business Assembly 2 Woodin’s Way Oxford OX1 1HF Tel: +44 (0) 1865 251 122 Fax: +44 (0) 1865 251 122 Website: http://www.еbaoxford.co.uк http://almanac.ebaoxford.co.uk First published in Great Britain in 2013 ISSN 2053-4736. (Online) All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, including electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written permission of the Publisher or a license permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom. This book may not be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise disposed of, by way of trade, in any form of binding, or cover, other than that in which it was published, without the prior consent of the Publishers. Printed and bound in Great Britain by Europe Business Assembly. The information contained in this publication has been published in good faith and the opinions expressed here are those of the authors and not of Europe Business Assembly. Europe Business Assembly cannot take responsibility for any error or misinterpretation based on this information and neither endorses any products advertised herein. References to materials used in creating this publication are included. © Socrates Almanac. 2017 Contents: The Academic Union.......................................................................................4 Academic Union Expert Centre.......................................................................6 Our Speaker....................................................................................................8 High Education Management for Education Leaders....................................10 Events 2018...................................................................................................12 Participants....................................................................................................14 Best universities in the world.........................................................................18 World’s most Beautiful Universities...............................................................20

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Socrates Almanac 2017- 8/3 Information review The Academic Union, Oxford Materials of the International Conference ‘High Education Management for Education Leaders’ November, 2017 Oxford , UK

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The Academic Union is an international academic association of over 200 University Chancellors, Scientists and Researchers. The committees and the Union as a whole pursue the ideals of Academic Excellence, Innovation and Accessibility and are committed to disseminating these core values through its worldwide community. The primary aim of the Union is to consolidate the efforts of scientists, educators, industrialists, and manufacturers on science, education and business integration and development in the XXIst century. Leaders of higher education, institutions, colleges, researchers, scientists, teachers, and representatives of higher education and business structures can join the Academic Union, regardless of ethnic or religious backgrounds. In addition, educational organizations and institutions can join the Academic Union as associate members. The Academic Union members are invited to attend the annual Union gathering - Summit of Leaders, which is traditionally held in Oxford since 2000, as well as other activities of the Union’s partners to share experiences, discuss new research and gain support from each other. MISSION AND VISION The Academic Union mission is integration and coordination of the educational institutions, scientific research institutes and business structures to enhance and improve educational research, educational and cultural activities, and to provide scientific ideas and inventions implementation. Its vision is to support the endeavours of its members, for the innovative projects and programmes, as well as raise interest and funding for such projects. Members are joined to actively participate in the following international projects: • Develop a common agenda on education, scientific and technical cooperation, modern technologies • Establish an International Center for Educational Programmes in Oxford (UK) to organize education and training on its basis for Top Managers and students from Union members with the corresponding issuance of certificates -4-

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• Organisation of the Rector’s Office (Rectors’ Lounge Service) in Oxford (UK) • Annual gathering of Union members - Summit of Leaders, Oxford • Inclusion of AU member information research and accomplishments in the ‘The Socrates Almanac’, CD, subscription to Socrates Almanac and E-magazine ‘The Leaders’ Times’ • Interactive Leaders Network with access to the websites of its Union members • Recommendation of the Union members to the Speakers Bureau • Presentation of the Academic Union members’ interests as well as their patronage at prestigious forums, symposiums, conferences and exhibitions • Establishment of nominal grants and scholarships to Union members’ universities promoting scientific, creative and social activities of its members • Organisation of the international competition of professional advancement • Nominations for honorary titles and awards will be presented to AU members who are prominent scientists, teachers, managers and students • Academic Visits to Oxford: meeting with Academic Union representatives, organizing of presentations, meetings and events, private excursions • A high-quality consultancy service in the fields of business, finance, auditing, law, certification, recruitment, education and property investment. • Access to the Academic Lounge in Oxford ACADEMIC COUNCIL Dr. Vincenzo Costigliola Honorary President of the Academic Union Oxford President of the European Medical Association, Belgium Ivan Savvov Executive Director of the Academic Union Oxford Director of International Relations, EBA Conferences, UK Ms. Christina Briggs A Founder of a prestigious group of senior executives, called Business Alliance under auspices of Thames Valley Chamber of Commerce. CEO ‘New World Insight’, UK. Dr. Rui Verde Head of the Law and Economics Department of the Academic Union Oxford PhD Law. University of Newcastle, UK Heinz Wehrle CEO, Prime Business Destinations Managing Partner of Horwath HTL, Switzerland – Global Prof. John W.A. Netting Director General of European Business Assembly, UK Dr. Iain B. McIntosh President of the British Global and Travel Health Association, UK Diana Berezanska Coordinator of the Academic Union Oxford, UK -5-

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Academic Union Expert Centre ‘High Education Management for Education Leaders’ 6-8 November, 2017. The Academic Lounge, Oxford, UK Advanced Programme in Higher Education Management & Leadership Academy Gathering is dedicated to the overview of effective strategies for educational management and leadership roles of the senior staff. The participants acquire a thorough knowledge about education policies, pedagogical planning, evaluation of performance and skills, financial planning, etc. The Academy gathering is traditionally held in the VIP-format in the modern interactive comfortable learning environment of the Academic Lounge in the heart of Oxford. Certificate of Attendance is guaranteed for all participants. The programme addresses the following key points: 1. Educational Administration and Policies 2. Management of Educational Organizations 3. Pedagogical Organization and Diversity 4. Human Resources Management in Education 5. Financial Planning, Budgeting Management 6. Raise Funding Tasks 7. Governance and Leadership Skills for Leaders of Higher Education -6-

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AGENDA A 3-day agenda includes a proprietor cutting edge training unit ‘OXFORD ADVANCED PROGRAMME IN HIGH EDUCATION MANAGEMENT & LEADERSHIP’ by Dr. Rui Verde, Author, Professor of Law, Human Rights Adviser, Head of Law & Economics Department, AU Oxford, Ph.D. Law, University of Newcastle, UK. It also combines panel discussions, case studies from the lead regional higher education institutions, peer networking, partnership agreements, college visiting, and sightseeing in Oxford. November 6, Monday Workshop Day 1 Topic: ‘Educational Administration and Management’ Key points: - Education Policies - Management of Educational Organizations - Pedagogical Organization and Diversity - Human Resources Management in Education November 7, Tuesday Workshop Day 2 Topic: ‘Financial Management’ Key points: - Budgeting revenues and expenses - Planning financially - Control and Auditing - Raise funding tasks November 8, Wednesday Social visit to Oxford -7-

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Our Speaker RUI VERDE Author, Consultant and Professor of Law (PhD Law. University of Newcastle, UK) Areas of interest: - Constitutional and Public Law; - Human Rights Law; - Regulation and International Finance - African Studies (Angola); - European Law; -Transitional Justice; Grades: 2000- Doctor of Law (PhD) at Newcastle University, UK. 1992-Diploma in Public Law- Universidade Autónoma, Lisbon. 1990-Diploma in Business Strategies – Universidade Autónoma, Madrid and Universidade Autónoma, Lisbon. Final grade: Very Good. 1989- Degree in Law (5 years) Universidade Católica, Lisbon. 1972 / 1989- primary and secondary studies in the Colégio São João de Brito, Lisbon. Professional Experience: 2008- ... -Senior Teacher at Escritório Privado de Educação do Ensino Superior (Higher Education Private Office). Institution for advanced studies. Supervising master and doctoral dissertations and thesis. 2014-…- Leading Legal adviser and collaborator of Rafael Marques/MakaAngola (leading Human Rights activist in Angola, recipient of Percy Qoboza Award of the US National Association of Black Journalists; Civil Courage Prize from the Northcote Parkinson Fund; Index on Censorship Freedom of Expression Award; Allard Prize for International Integrity) 2015-…- Chief- Consultant at Global S. Prospective. Small boutique consultancy staffed by scholars and professionals that assess the political, economic and legal risks concerning investments and activities in South America, Southwest Europe, and Africa -Generic forecasts -Law surveys -Investment risks reports -Companies specific risks -Tailored consulting and advisory services. 2014- …-Research Consultant- King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Working with the team of Dr. Theeb Alkahtani. 2013- ... – Human Rigths Department Coordinator in Companheiro. NGO for the promotion of individual development of former prisoners. 2013- 2015- Publisher of Tomate e-magazine of political and cultural ideas. The first and only 100% online magazine of political and cultural ideas in Portugal. 2009-2011- Scientific and pedagogical Director-Coordinator of College Lisbon. 2001-2006- Visiting Fellow of Newcastle Law School, Newcastle University, UK. Teacher of Comparative Constitutions and International Financial Regulation- Masters in Law. 2000-2007 Vice-Dean and Professor of Law – Universidade Independente, Lisbon. Professor of Philosophy of Law, Constitutional -8-

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Law, European Law, Political Economy and Public Finance in undergraduate and master’s degrees. Oversaw the development of undergraduate and master’s thesis. 2000-2007- Visiting Professor UDESC- State University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil, lecturer of International Finance. 2004-2005- Vice-president of the Universidade Independente de Angola. Prior to 2000, Lecturer at various institutions of higher education. 1993-2004 / 2006-2007- Director and then Chairman of the Board SIDES, a company that operated in the field of higher education. Legal 1992-1993 Director of IPG-SGPS group. 1990-1992- Chief of Staff and of Planning at the Rectory of the Universidade Autónoma, Lisbon. Publications: Academic VERDE,R-2015-Juízes: o novo poder. Lisboa: RCP Edições VERDE,R-2013-Helicópteros com dinheiro. Sair do Euro, da Crise e Mudar o Estado. Lisboa: Chiado Editora VERDE, R- 2002-Direito da Liberdade. Discussões de Filosofia do Direito. 2 editions. Lisboa: Ed. Estúdios Cor. VERDE, R- 2002-The Harmonious Constitution. Judges and the protection of liberty. Lisboa: Ed. Estúdios Cor. Non-fiction VERDE,R-2016-Os Três Magníficos, Lisboa: RCP Edições VERDE, R- 2013- Angola e Dinheiro. 3 editions. Lisboa: RCP Edições VERDE,R-2011-O Processo 95385.Como Sócrates e o poder político destruíram uma universidade. 2 editions. Lisboa: Livros D`Hoje-Leya, Research articles and top queries (sample): VERDE, R- 2014-2016- Several articles about the rule of law in Africa, Judicial independence, finance and economics in Angola and Africa in Maka Angola (makaangola.org) VERDE, R-2016-A regulatory body to complementary, alternative, and traditional medicines, and other different forms of medicine in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A policy proposal. VERDE, R-2015-Human Rights in Angola. New York: Human Rights Foundation VERDE, R-2015-Outline of a standard form for Death Certificates in Saudi Arabia, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. VERDE, R- 2014- Parecer a S.Exa. O Presidente da Comissão Nacional Eleitoral de Angola acerca do registo eleitoral e a aplicação da Lei 3/05, de 1 de Julho. VERDE,R-2006-Valores e princípios do Constitucionalismo Europeu. Liberdade, Revista de Cultura e Contra Cultura, nº1, III série. Lisboa. VERDE,R-2003-El Poder Judicial en las constituiciones de Portugal e España. Anuario de la facultad de Derecho, Universidad de Extremadura. vol21. Cáceres. VERDE, R-2003-The Hidden Principle of the British Constitution. Liberdade, Revista de Cultura e Contra Cultura, vol2,n3,Inverno.Lisboa. VERDE, R-2003- Influence of the independentist movement along the 19th century and its repercution in European compilations. Com Julio Gerardo Martinez Martinez (Universidad de Extremadura).Cáceres. VERDE,R-2002-Notas sobre a reforma da educação para a liberdade. Itinerários. Revista do Instituto Superior de Ciências Educativas. Ano 4, Fevereiro. Odivelas VERDE,R-2002-Dirty Dogs don’t win. O conceito e função do Direito. Liberdade. Revista de Cultura e Contra Cultura. Vol .1,3. Lisboa. VERDE,R-1993-O regime de transparência fiscal. Parecer para o Conselho da Administração do Grupo IPG. Lisboa. VERDE,R-1992- O Problema estratégico da indústria portuguesa nos anos 90.Análise e discussão dos diversos tipos de estratégia face às empresas portuguesas. Working papers UAL. Lisboa. VERDE,R-1992-Cidadania Europeia. Notas e pontos de partida para uma definição dos direitos e deveres do indivíduo na Comunidade Europeia. Working papers UAL. Lisboa. VERDE,R-1990-A não actualização de pensões devidas por acidentes de trabalho.Working papers UAL. Lisboa. Textbooks: 2006-Súmula dos seminários de Direito Constitucional Europeu para os alunos de Mestrado de Ciências Jurídico-comunitários. 2003-“Handout” International Financial Regulation. Post Graduates Courses, Newcastle Law School, Newcastle, 2003. 2000- Finanças Internacionais. Manual para os alunos do MBA em Administração Global – UDESC. Florianópolis. Brasil. 1997- Sumário das Lições de Filosofia do Direito. Lisboa. _____________ Between 2000 and 2007 wrote weekly for several newspapers (Independente, Expresso, Público, and Diário Económico) and reference journals (Valor) on economy, education and law. -9-

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High Education Management for Education Leaders 6-8 November, 2017. The Academic Lounge, Oxford, UK ‘High Education Management for Education Leaders’ Advanced Programme in Higher Education Management & Leadership On the 6th-8th of November Educational Management Academy held the Academy Gathering dedicated to ‘Higher Education Management for Education Leaders’. The overview of effective strategies for educational management and leadership roles of the senior staff was highlighted and discussed. The agenda included the two day seminar on: ‘Educational Administration and Management’ and ‘Financial Management’. The topics covered such key points as ‘Management of Educational Organizations’, ‘Pedagogical Organization and Diversity’, ‘Human Resources Management in Education’, ‘Budgeting Revenues and Expenses’, ‘Financial Planning, Control and Auditing’, ‘Raise Funding Tasks’. The Academy gathering was held by Dr. Rui Verde, Author, Professor of Law, Human Rights Adviser, Head of Law & Economics Department, AU Oxford, Ph.D. Law, University of Newcastle, UK. It also combined - 10 -

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panel discussions, case studies from the lead regional higher education institutions, peer networking. Amongst the attendees there were representatives of such organizations as ‘Empathy Schools’, Mongolia, ‘University of Humanities’, Mongolia, ‘Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University’, Pakistan and ‘Private Educational Institution of the New Type “Foundation for the Arts and Humanities “Lingua”’, Russia. All participants gained effective modern tools for educational management and a solid background for academic leadership. They also acquired a thorough knowledge about education policies, pedagogical planning, evaluation of performance and skills, financial planning, to name a few. The Certificates of Attendance were given to all the participants of the Academy Gathering. The Educational Management Academy congratulates all attendees and expresses gratitude for participation. We believe that the Academic Gathering will catalyze professional connections with representatives of leading regional educational institutions, help upgrading of professional skills and competences, and engage the participants into the partnership projects of the Academic Union Oxford. - 11 -

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Events 2018 ‘INNOVATIVE LEAP TO THE FUTURE. IN FOCUS DUBAI, UAE’ Date: 29 - 30 January 2018 / 9 am - 4 pm Venue: Dubai, United Arab Emirates Organisers: Europe Business Assembly (Oxford, UK) THE ACHIEVEMENTS FORUM 2018 Date: 17 April 2018 / 10.00 am - 10.00 pm Venue: Home to the Institute of Directors, London, UK EBA BUSINESS MISSION. INTRO TO THE SMART INNOVATION. IN FOCUS SINGAPORE Date: 29-30 August 2018 / 09.00 am - 10.00 pm Venue: The Republic of Singapore BUSINESS TRIUMPH FESTIVAL 2018 Date: 10-11 October 2018 / 10.00 am - 10.00 pm Venue: Cannes, France https://ebaoxford.co.uk/ - 12 -

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THE ACADEMIC UNION EXPERT CENTRE CALENDAR 2018 Academic Union Oxford together with the Academic Union Expert Centre launches a brand new learning programme in 2018 to highlight the latest field trends and modern challenges, and by the joint effort of presenters and programme participants to elaborate effective practical solutions in 4 main subject areas: business processes’ improvement, higher education administration, healthcare and city management. Lead British professors and European practitioners will provide quality overviews, case studies and moderate group discussions during the 2-3 day dedicated expert sessions in Oxford. 4 topical learning modules Only the most in-demand topics are united into 4 learning modules aiming at improving of participant’s professional skills and leadership competences. 4 dedicated topical modules include the following: • The Executive Development Programme - for Business processes’ improvement • The Educational Management Academy - for Educational management in the University • The Healthcare Management Programme - for Healthcare administration in the Clinic • The City Management Platform - for City managers and municipalities Expert sessions in Oxford Academic Lounge and online The expert sessions aim at executives in public and private sector, C-level management roles in healthcare facilities and the rector’s office of a Higher Education Institution. Oxford Academic Lounge hosts VIP format seminars and panels with limited participation providing the personalized attention to every attendee, high profile learning and networking environment. Distant participants can benefit from the online broadcast of the expert session, commenting and asking questions in the web-conference mode. The Executive Development Programme key sessions • ‘Successful Strategies of Expanding into Emerging Markets’ • ‘Managing Effective Change for Business Leadership & Organizational Success’ • ‘Digital Strategies for Successful Retail’ • ‘Developing an Effective Internal & Cross-cultural Team’ • ‘Modern Financial Techniques or How to Bring Profit to Your Company?’ • ‘Marketing for Senior Executives ‘ • ‘Financial Regulation in the UK: Framework & Practice During & After Brexit’ • ‘The Power of Effective Executive Communication’ The Educational Management Academy key sessions • ‘Marketing & Branding in Higher Education. Personal Branding for an Academic Leader’ • ‘Internationalisation in Higher Education. Education for Sustainable Development / Multicultural Education’ • ‘Educational Management & Leadership’ • ‘Education Technology & Modernisation in Higher Education’ • ‘Grant Management in Higher Education. Quality Assurance in Higher Education’ The Healthcare Management Programme key sessions • ‘Healthcare & Hospital Management: How to Run an Effective Clinic?’ • ‘Medical Travel. Best Practice in International Patient Flow Management’ • ‘Quality, Accreditation & Safety in Healthcare’ • ‘How to Run a Successful Dental Practice’ The City Management Platform key sessions • ‘City Excellence Master-Class’ • ‘Smart City: What Is It & How To Be One?’ • ‘City Branding: How to Create the Unique Identity to Your City?’ • ‘Place Management: the Complex Art of Attraction Development’ • ‘Eco City: How to Improve the Quality of Urban Life?’ http://www.oxford-expertcentre.co.uk/ - 13 -

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Participants SHAHEED MOHTARMA BENAZIR BHUTTO MEDICAL UNIVERSITY Ghulam Asghar Channa, Vice Chancellor Larkana, Sindh 77150 Pakistan phone: +92-74-9410908 +92-74-9410724 e-mail: info@smbbmu.edu.pk www.smbbmu.edu.pk • Shaheed Mohtarma Benaznir Bhutto Medical University Larkana is one of the prestigious Public Sector Medical University, situated in the well-known city “Larkana”, the home of great leaders, Ex-Prime Minister of Pakistan, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and the lady with great vision, intellect and international fame, Benazir Bhutto. • Our goal is in consonance with the vision and mission of the University, to assist in producing not only graduates but also post Graduates who are creative, problem solvers, imbued with social conscience, committed to serve the ailing humanity. • Conforming to the vision and Mission Statement of SMBBMU, the University is committed to counter the growing demand of the people for »» The Quality Medical Education, »» Specialized Training, »» High Quality Health Care; and »» Promotion of Medical Research • The University renders Medical and Health Education at Under-Graduate, Post Graduate and Doctorate level, besides specialized clinical services for the vast population. • There are following Constituent Colleges: »» Chandka Medical College, Larkana »» Ghulam Muhammad Mahar Medical College, Sukkur »» Bibi Aseefa Dental College, Larkana. »» Benazir Institute of Nursing & Community Health Sciences, Larkana »» Institute of Pharmacy • SMBBMU offers Post Graduate Degree Programs - M.Phil, M.D/M.S - F.C.P.S. - Diploma in Number of Basic and Clinical Departments - MBBS, BDS, Pharm.D, B.S Nursing. • An important mission of the SMBB Medical University Larkana is to develop coordination in research, education and knowledge with National and International Institutions through active linkages and collaboration, which is evident from the fact that number of MoUs with renowned International Universities for joint coordination. - 14 -

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LINGUA FOUNDATION FOR THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES Prof. Liudmila Zhuravleva, Surgut, Russian Federation phone: +79824138040 e-mail: lingua-omp@mail.ru www.lingua-surgut.ru LINGUA is an international network of innovative companies in education. Throughout its 25-year history, LINGUA has been providing its students with opportunities and tools to succeed offering educational programmes both from Russia and other countries in Russian, English, German and French. A bright constellation of cities: Surgut, Moscow, London, Khanty-Mansiysk, Lipetsk hosts our subsidiaries offering thousands of Russian citizens life-long education. LINGUA researches and develops the latest advanced technologies in education, chooses the best and implements the most effective ones in order to provide the best for its students. This approached aids them to apply their knowledge to the real world. This results in a large number of LINGUA alumni achieving success in their lives through received thinking skills, open-minded world view and ability to solve problems. Who we are. The D.I.C.C.E is the major department in the Lingua International Education Consortium, an organisation with 25 year experience. Our department serves as a beacon to the minds of the people. We strive to help our community and the world in general to understand the importance of teamwork in all aspects, benefit of travelling and communicating with other peoples from different countries and cultures in preparation for whatever the future has to offer. We greatly value the importance of languages in our world today and the role languages will play in all spheres of operation in the rapidly rising new world. We understand that, teamwork and effective communication are the paths to solving all global problems, and the question is, what is communication without languages? Our vision. We see the future of our world at risk of extinction due to ineffective communication that persists around us, and lack of a system of education which opens the door to self-realization. In preparation for the future, our team is willing and ready to work with residents of the garden called earth in promoting true friendship through effective education, peace, stability and security among ourselves for the betterment of the world. What we do • We promote self-development and awareness, team building, friendship, community awareness and world citizenship ideology through our educational programs. • We present to our students benefits of experiencing life among other cultures around the world and communicating with people from other nations. • We also help youths by equipping them with necessary skills in preparation for their future professions. We understand the necessity of change, hence we constantly work on how to develop our current activities, and at the same time we develop new ways of satisfying our students. Our aims • To find people with the same spirit as us, who share similar ideas and vision for the future. • To establish a link of effective communication with individuals, organizations, educational institutions and public entities in developing a truly effective system of education which gives room for intercultural communication and future dialogue. Team: President - Lingua International Consortium - Professor ZHURAVLEVA L.V., Head of Department - Graduate in Management TIJANI N.O. Deputy Head of Department - KAZAKEEVA M. N., Tutor, advisor - LICHMAN Y. V., Tutor, advisor - ROSTOVA V.A. THE WORLD IS FULL OF “BELIEVERS” TIJANI N.O, Graduate in management, Lingua international education consortium, Head of department Yes, I know! I read it in a textbook! Google says it! Siri mentions it! My father told me! My professor gave a lecture about it! I heard it in the news! These are popular phrases I have grown up to hear from people day in day out. I have been to many countries and I hear those phrases everywhere I go. This is not true because I am telling you now, but it is because we all use them from time to time. As a young and inquisitive man, I spend most of my free time thinking about the world around me, trying to figure out why people behave in certain ways. I am interested in practical philosophy and psychology in the sphere of education. One of the things I have come to understand is that ; We are what we “know” and Education plays a major role in shaping our personality. Before moving any further, a quick philosophical clarification of what educational process entails will bring us a step closer to understanding what I’m trying to put forth. Many people associate the word education with sitting in classrooms and listening to a teacher and so forth. However, the fact is education is everywhere and is met in every aspect of our life. Most of the time, we don’t even notice that we are been taught something. I believe we all can agree that, there isn’t education without communication. Hence, we receive information or education both consciously and unconsciously through what we see, hear, smell, taste or touch. Furthermore, during the process of education, a line of communication is established between the stakeholders. This line could be a monologue or a dialogue. When this happens, the receiver of the information is left with two choices, either to “believe” through trust or “know” after self-conviction. Who is a “Believer”? In today’s world, a believer is understood as one who accepts other people’s points of view without doing his or her own research to convince his or her heart that the inputted information is in fact true or false. People most of the time believe a piece of information to be true because they trust the source. At this point, we can say that trust plays a great role in getting people to believe what is being communicated to their brains. Several examples can be drawn from different aspects of our life; be they family, work, social, religious and even political. The good side is that if the information is true, the receiver will act appropriately, however if the information is false, the receiver will act inadequately and as a result will promote chaos in the society. Knowledge After a deep thought on the simple concept behind the word knowledge, I came to “know” that knowledge is a result of individual research when one applies thorough logical and scientific scrutinization. Knowledge must be individualistic, otherwise one is nothing but a believer. Here comes the question; Are you a knower or a believer? - 15 -

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