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DIGITAL SUBSTATION  №2 · 2017 digitalsubstation.com FROM OPTICAL FIBER TO ELECTRONIC TRANSFORMERS 22 Cover Story CURRENT SENSORS FOR NOVEL PROTECTION, CONTROL AND METERING SOLUTIONS 26 Cover Story PROSPECTS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NON-CONVENTIONAL INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS 12 Brainstorm HOW TRANSITION TO DIGITAL SUBSTATIONS WILL BENEFIT FIELD OPERATIONN 36 Opinion PRACTICAL ANALYSIS OF CYBERSECURITY OF EUROPEAN SMART GRIDS 42 Cybersecurity MODEL FOR A SINGLE-PHASE CURRENT TRANSFORMER WITH SATURATION 48 Simulation № 2 2017

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IEC 61850 communications at glance Check IEC 61850 communications in your digital substation at park.tekvel.com

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Asking the question: What do you mean when you say digital substation?  you can often hear in response: the IEC 61850 standard and digital transmission of measurements. It is the transition from analogue to digital that many consider to be a new stage in the development of technologies in the energy sector (to be frank, not only in the energy sector). This task is solved by using various analogue to digital converters (ADCs) connected to traditional current and voltage transformers or those that are present within relay protection and automation (RPA) and technological process control system (TPCS) devices or non-conventional instrument transformers (NCIT). There are more and more measuring instruments based on alternative principles and, in some cases, possessing built-in digitisation functions: optical transformers, Rogowski coils, voltage dividers, Pockels effect transformers. Despite a number of advantages, their implementation is extremely slow and cautious. Personally, I believe that this is due to a greater degree, to conservatism and some inertness of the system called the energy industry, rather than to the unacceptability of technology. Everything new is often perceived with hostility, not only by the regulations, but also by everyone in the chain of approval: we aren't used to it, the staff is not trained, and actually...  the mice have eaten all our cables (you can put any convenient cataclysm here). But I think that progress should be helped along. And to make it easier, in this issue, dedicated to non-conventional instrument transformers, we have prepared a lot of interesting things for you. When we decided to understand what is hindering the widespread use of NCITs and whether they have a future, we interviewed experts and readers of digitalsubstation.com. We asked two well-known engineers to share some facts about Rogowski coils and optical transformers. However, we did not confine ourselves to the topic of electronic transformers. In the new column Opinion two well-known engineers from Russia and Belarus share their ideas about digital substations. In Cybersecurity column a group of information security researchers gives their view of cybersecurity of Smart Grids in Europe. So we study, discuss, argue, but never stop! I remind you that at digitalsubstation.com, as well as in our social networks, all conditions are created for this). —— Ekaterina Kvasha, Editor-in-Chief Published by Digital Substation Ltd. General Manager / Editor-in-Chief Ekaterina Kvasha kem@digitalsubstation.com Advertising Manager Elizaveta Votyakova vem@digitalsubstation.com Editor Roman Voronin vrv@digitalsubstation.com Graphic Design Oleg Drozdov Design Layout Andrei Tulnov-Sokolov If you want to subscribe or become an author please contact us editorial@digitalsubstation.com If you want to advertise please contact us vem@digitalsubstation.com Address Varshavskoye shosse, 1, str. 1–2, flor 6, room 33, Moscow, Russia, 117105 Digital Substation All published articles express solely the opinion of the authors. Reprinting, copying in whole or in part of any material is allowed only with reference to the publication. digitalsubstation.com digitalsubstation.com  DIGITAL SUBSTATION 1

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CONTENTS 5 NEWS ENEL SIGNS AGREEMENT WITH AMBER KINETICS ON INNOVATIVE FLYWHEEL STORAGE SYSTEM 6 NEWS THE WORLD’S FIRST OFFSHORE WIND FARM IS RETIRING 7 NEWS DRAFT OF FIRST AMENDMENT TO IEC 62351-3 PUBLISHED 8 FACTS AND FIGURES NON-CONVENTIONAL INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS 10 ATTENTION TERMS AND DEFINITIONS 36 OPINION HOW TRANSITION TO DIGITAL SUBSTATIONS WILL BENEFIT FIELD OPERATION 40 OPINION IT'S TIME TO MOVE ON TO DIGITAL SUBSTATIONS 12 BRAINSTORM PROSPECTS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NON-CONVENTIONAL INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS 22 COVER STORY FROM OPTICAL FIBER TO ELECTRONIC TRANSFORMERS 26 COVER STORY CURRENT SENSORS FOR NOVEL PROTECTION, CONTROL AND METERING SOLUTIONS 34 ARTICLE HOW TO SPOOF PROOF YOUR GPS TIMING NETWORK 42 CYBERSECURITY PRACTICAL ANALYSIS OF CYBERSECURITY OF EUROPEAN SMART GRIDS 48 SIMULATION MODEL FOR A SINGLE-PHASE CURRENT TRANSFORMER WITH SATURATION 54 SIMULATION REAL TIME DIGITAL SIMULATION: A CRITICAL TOOL FOR DIGITAL SUBSTATIONS, GRID MODERNIZATION AND SMART GRID DEVELOPMENT 2 DIGITAL SUBSTATION  digitalsubstation.com

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DSUIGBITSATLATION oBfecaopmreopgarretssive community! taihDsbaioagtnuibttoardinlnilggiSnistueatbolrsgetteseacothhtuneirocronelporagonifedessasinipoetnhraieolsdeiancreaorlugpnyrdiinnttdheuedswtmroyarglda.zine ·····DSAFRpisisenekcadauqdksuusiosenceustuftteuirrorleenisnnstitfanoingsrmdsfuaareectsticoseanianvbdeotquoutparielciscfieendtaandsvwaenrcses in the industry All this is And on all freely social available media: at digitalsubstation.com DigitalsubstationEN @61850in @digitalsubstation Digital Substation ƻ /digital_substation

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FROM OUR READERS Christoph Brunner it4Power Convenor of IEC TC57 WG10 Digital substations based on IEC 61850 are an important next step in the evolution of the electrical grid towards a smarter grid. However, these new technologies require education of the stakeholders that will design, commission and operate these new substations. The magazine Digital Substation provides an important role with regard to this education by having many interesting and informative articles related to these technologies. It also provides a platform for sharing experience with digital substations and with IEC 61850 projects in general. IEC 61850 is still growing in new domains. Besides, new functionality that is further improving the multivendor interoperability is related to engineering of IEC 61850 systems. For that reason, the IEC TC57 WG10 which is responsible for the development and maintenance of the core parts of IEC 61850 standard, meets three times a year for a week. We are pleased that the Digital Substation magazine is helping to organize the February 2018 meeting of WG10 which will take place in Sochi, Russia  

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NEWS ENEL SIGNS AGREEMENT WITH AMBER KINETICS ON INNOVATIVE FLYWHEEL STORAGE SYSTEM Enel signed a two-year agreement with Amber Kinetics, the US-based start-up born out of an initiative of professors and researchers from UC Berkeley, with the aim of jointly assessing the start-up’s innovative flywheel storage technology, which is an electromechanical system consisting of a large rotating mass able to store energy. Under the agreement, Enel will study and test the technology and identify full-scale, business applications for the technology’s grid integration. Upon completion of a threemonth test phase on two synchronised flywheel units (both with a nominal power of 8 kW for a storage capacity of 32 kWh) in one of Amber Kinetics’ test sites in California, Enel will evaluate the possibility of utilizing the 40 kW/160 kWh model of the technology in a demo-scale project in one of its thermal power plants. Solid-Steel Long Lifecycle Rotor Enrico Viale Enel Through this agreement, Enel expands its exploration of the innovative solutions within the evermore promising energy storage sector. It represents a step forward in Enel’s quest for the integration of energy storage at all levels of the electricity value chain and a clear example of the Open Innovation approach, which looks at opening up the Group to new technologies and new partnerships. Due to the growing energy demand on grids, it is increasingly important to find grid balancing solutions to peaks in demand. Amber Kinetics’ flywheel addresses this issue with an interesting alternative to traditional batteries, providing Enel with a flexible solution to energy demand peaks that can be applied across the company’s diverse generation mix. The 5,000 lb (approximately 2,267 kg) steel flywheel system is charged by converting the electric energy, which comes from the power plant it is coupled with or from a power grid, into the kinetic energy of the spinning wheel which can rotate for up to 4 hours on a single charge. In times of peaks in power demand, the flywheel turns a generator — automatically or through a control system — converting its kinetic energy back into electric energy which is delivered to the grid. Amber Kinetics’ flywheel unit maintains its full 32 kWh storage capacity over its expected 30 years of operation, a clear advantage over traditional batteries which gradually lose their storage capacity over their lifetime. The system developed by Amber Kinetics increases the efficiency of this technology by housing the massive flywheel in a near-perfect vacuum which, with the help of magnets and special bearings, allows the wheel to spin with almost no friction at up to 10,000 RPM. The flywheel can also compensate for minimal losses in velocity by taking a very small amount of energy — equivalent to what is needed to power a light bulb — from the network. Hundreds of megawatt hours can be stored when flywheels are combined in groups, making its applica- tion appealing for all kinds of energy sources, from renewable to traditional ones. In addition, the flywheel can be housed underground, making it adaptable to different environments. [enel.com]   Amber Kinetics' utility-scale energy storage systems are composed of multiple interlinked flywheel units Power Energy Duration Cooling Round-trip Efficiency (DC) Daily Cycling Limitation Design Life Input / Output Voltage Full Power Response Time Self Discharge (Avg.) MODEL 32 8 kW 32 kWh 4.0 hours Passive >88% None 30 years 800 Vdc < 1 sec 65 W digitalsubstation.com  DIGITAL SUBSTATION 5

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NEWS THE WORLD’S FIRST OFFSHORE WIND FARM IS RETIRING Today, offshore wind is a recognised and proven renewable energy technology, and the offshore wind turbines harvest the energy from the wind, transforming it into green power for millions of households. But it is some 25 years ago that the world’s first offshore wind farm was constructed close to shore in the low waters off Vindeby near Lolland in the south east of Denmark. Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm, consisting of 11 offshore wind turbines, was connected to the grid in 1991. After more than 25 years of service, DONG Energy — owner and operator of the wind farm — has now decided to decommission Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm. But even though the wind farm is now being decommissioned, and even though the Vindeby turbines are small compared to current standards, they have been of vital importance for the industry according to Leif Winther, responsible for DONG Energy’s Danish offshore wind farms. Leif Winther DONG Energy Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm is almost miniature-size in comparison with the giant projects which are now being realised in Northern Europe. But without the experience gained from the world’s first offshore wind farm, we wouldn’t be where we are today. It’s fair to say that Vindeby is the cradle of the offshore wind industry, and that this is where the industry was born. It was pioneers from the former Elkraft power company who experi- mented with installing wind turbines in shallow waters. Since the birth of Vindeby, offshore wind farms have reached utility-scale, and a single one of the largest turbines available today produces more power than the entire Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm. Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm has played a decisive role in scaling up the technology and reducing the costs to a level that makes offshore wind attractive to many countries facing 6 DIGITAL SUBSTATION  digitalsubstation.com

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NEWS replacement of end-of-life coal-fired power plants with new green energy sources, says Leif Winther. Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm has covered the annual power consumption of around 2,200 households. In comparison, DONG Energy’s future offshore wind farm off the east coast of England, Hornsea Project One, which when ready for commissioning in a few years will be the world’s largest offshore wind farm, will be able to supply green energy to approximately one million households. The offshore wind turbines at Vindeby are located 1.5-3 kilometres offshore. Today, offshore wind turbines are typically located much farther away from shore. Again, Hornsea Project One is setting a record as the 174 offshore wind turbines will be located an impressive 120 kilometres offshore where the strong winds will ensure a high level of power production from each of the large wind turbines. DONG Energy has installed more than 1,000 offshore wind turbines in Denmark, Germany and the UK and is continuing to invest heavily in offshore wind farm projects in these countries as well as in the Netherlands, the United States and Taiwan. Denmark is a pioneer in green energy transformation, and visionary politicians have secured the necessary scope to test new technologies. Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm marked the beginning of offshore wind power as an industry. The Danish wind industry in total employs 30,000 people, has an annual revenue of approx. DKK 90bn and an export volume amounting to around DKK 60bn. When the wind turbines at Vindeby were installed in 1991, they were lifted into place in one piece, but when decommissioning begins in March 2017, the blades, nacelle and tower will be dismantled and taken down individually by a mobile crane on board a jack-up vessel. The concrete foundations will be broken down on site, mainly by hydraulic demolition shears, and collected afterwards. All wind turbine components and foundations will be sent onshore to Nyborg Harbour where the components will be reused as much as possible as spare parts for other wind turbines. Some of the blades will become part of a research project at DTU Risø while others will be reused in an innovative noise barrier concept. One wind turbine will also become part of the exhibition at ’Energimuseet’ (the Danish Museum of Energy). Components that are not immediately reusable will be transported to a certified recovery company. During its entire lifetime, Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm has produced 243 GWh of power. This corresponds to what seven of the largest offshore wind turbines today can produce in a single year. The turbines for Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm were supplied by Bonus Energi, now Siemens Wind Power, and the foundations were produced by MT Højgaard. [dongenergy.com]   DRAFT OF FIRST AMENDMENT TO IEC 62351-3 PUBLISHED The draft of the first amendment to IEC 62351-3 (Power System Security) was published — IEC 62351-3/ AMD1 ED1 (57/1894/CDV). The draft, prepared by IEC TC57 Working Group 15, was released on the Committee Work programme page. Amendment 1 — Power systems management and associated informa- tion exchange — Data and communications security — Part 3: Communication network and system security — Profiles including TCP/IP. The crucial amendment to IEC 62351-3 will address the following: zz Definition of additional security warnings for TLS versions 1.1 and 1.0. zz Alignment of handling of revoked or expired certificates for TLS session resumption and TLS session renegotiation. zz Clarification regarding session resumption and session renegotiation invocation based on session time. zz Enhancement of session resumption approach with the option of session tickets to better align with the upcoming new version of TLS. zz Enhancement of the utilized public key methods for signing and key management with ECDSA based algorithms. zz Update of the requirements for referencing standards. zz Update of bibliography. The CDV ballot ends 3 November 2017. [blog.iec61850.com]   digitalsubstation.com  DIGITAL SUBSTATION 7

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FACTS AND FIGURES 6% It's pointless 9% It's necessary, but only because it meets the trends of the times 7% Not sure 78% It's necessary, there are prospects and advantages IS DIGITAL TRANSMISSION OF CURRENT AND VOLTAGE DATA NECESSARY? 2% In a 100 years 14% Never WHEN WILL THE COMPLETE TRANSITION FROM CONVENTIONAL TRANSFORMERS TO NCITS TAKE PLACE? This means that, during construction or modernization only NCITs will be installed 27% In 50 years 57% In 20 years 67% WHICH TRANSFORMERS ARE SUITABLE FOR WHAT VOLTAGE CLASS?  330—750 kV  110—220 kV  35 kV  6—10 kV According to survey results of more than 90 specialists at digitalsubstation.com. 8 DIGITAL SUBSTATION  digitalsubstation.com 41% 19% 13% Conventional CT/VT without additional digitization 39% 34% 26% 27% Conventional CT/VT with additional digitization using MU

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ADVANTAGES OF NCIT IN COMPARISON WITH ANALOG TRANSFORMERS BARRIERS TO THE WIDE INTRODUCTION OF ELECTRONIC TRANSFORMERS Average score on a 5-point scale Mass-dimensional parameters 3,3 The smaller number of current and voltage intermediate conversions 4,3 No secondary converters in the relay protection and automation devices 4,2 The same accuracy class for Protection, Metering and Power Quality 4,0 Reduction of capital investments 2,7 Reducing operations & maintenance costs 3,0 High cost Low qualification of operating personnel Imperfection of existing technologies Absence of financial effect from adoption of NCIT We have plenty of other problems! 3,9 2,9 3,3 3,2 2,0 72% 56% 62% 52% 17% 11% 51% 43% 28% 36% 17% 9% Optical CT (the Faraday effect) and electronic VT Non-conventional CT/VT (such as Rogowski coils current transformers, capacitor voltage transformers) with a digital interface Optical CT (the Faraday effect) / VT (the Pockels effect) 4% 7% 4% 8% 11% 21% What is your specialisation? 45%  Relay protection 6% 4% 3% 11% What is the direction of your activity 11% in the industry?  Automated process control systems  Design  Development  Metrology, Metering, 25%  Setup  Sales/Marketing Power Quality Control  Diagnostics of electrical equipment  Field use 21%  Manufacturing  Installation/Mounting - 0%  Inspection  Automation of power distribution systems  Power equipment 6% 13%  Research  Testing  Small generation and power storage digitalsubstation.com  DIGITAL SUBSTATION 9

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ATTENTION TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Dear reader, we bring to your attention a series of standards being developed/already developed by the IEC/TC 38 within the IEC 61869 series under the general title Instrument transformers, which contains official terms and definitions developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission. The Digital substation editorial recommends using this terminology to avoid discrepancies. Product family standards Product standard IEC Products IEC 61869-2 Additional requirements for current transformers IEC 61869-1 General requirements for instrument transformers IEC 61869-3 IEC 61869-4 Additional requirements for inductive voltage transformers Additional requirements for combined transformers IEC 61869-5 Additional requirements for capacitor voltage transformers IEC 61869-7 Additional requirements for electronic voltage transformers IEC 61869-8 Additional requirements for electronic current transformers IEC 61869-6 Additional general requirements for low power instrument transformers IEC 61869-9 IEC 61869-10 IEC 61869-11 IEC 61869-12 IEC 61869-13 Digital interface for instrument transformers Additional requirements for low power passive current transformers Additional requirements for low power voltage transformers Additional requirements for combined electronic instrument transformers and combined stand alone instrument transformers Stand alone merging unit 10 DIGITAL SUBSTATION  digitalsubstation.com

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3-Day Conference, Exhibition & Networking Forum 30 January – 1 February 2018 Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.nextgenscada-europe.com

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BRAINSTORM Brainstorm is a collection of industry experts' opinions on actual problems. It allows specialists to look at different problems at different angles.  PROSPECTS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NON-CONVENTIONAL INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS 1.  How would you evaluate the prospects for implementation of non-conventional current and voltage transformers? How do you view the implementation strategy of non-conventional instrument transformers: what 2types of instrument transformers should be implemented in which types of bays and equipment?  . What prevents non-conventional current and voltage transformers from being widespread? Are there technical factors 3among them and what are they?  .  Please evaluate the prospects of the implementation of merging units? Do you think they will be implemented in the future in anticipation of mass adoption of non-conventional 4current and voltage transformers and for what purposes?  .  What type of current and voltage transformers are 5the most reasonable to use for what voltages and why?  . In what ways, do you think mass adoption of non6conventional current and voltage transformers will influence secondary systems of substations?  . How long do you think mass adoption of non-conventional current and voltage transformers will take and how would you evaluate the criteria for mass adoption (e.g. in terms of volume or market share)? Maxim Maltsev RusHydro, Russia 1. It is inappropriate to talk about the prospects of all types of non-conventional instrument transformers (NCITs). In power electronics, such devices have been used for decades and have shown only their best side. At our stations, dozens of excitation systems are equipped with so-called LEM sensors, and these are just electronic instrument transformers. The application of such measuring devices in high-voltage circuits of power plants and networks is more of a confirmation of the competitive advantages of technologies used in NCIT design, compared with conventional instrument transformers, which becomes more apparent with the advent of optical instrument transformers. However, we must not forget about the infantile sicknesses of new devices, which do not yet allow one to state that the optical electrical technologies (OET), according to their performance characteristics, have reached the level of conventional transformers. Nevertheless, currently, I believe that optical transformers are almost ready to be used in industrial facilities 12 DIGITAL SUBSTATION  digitalsubstation.com

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design modification, service, personnel The application of such measuring devices in high-voltage circuits of power plants and networks is more of a confirmation of the competitive advantages of technologies used in NCIT design, compared with conventional instrument transformers, which becomes more apparent with the advent of optical instrument transformers. training and subsequent organization of the production environment at equipment suppliers. I believe that at present we are in the stage of transition to single implementations of such equipment. 3. It should be noted, that even now, without mass implementation of NCITs, it cannot be said that MUs are widely used at power facilities. In the current under- of an average responsibility level. As for define the requirements of personnel standing, an MU is a device designed to power plants, in the next three years, qualifications, tooling and work dead- convert analogue measurements into dig- RusHydro plans to install such devices lines; ital form with subsequent transmission of in one of the facilities currently under 4) A lack of accumulated statistics the results via the SV IEC61850 protocol. construction. characterizing the operational indica- In this form, obviously, the need for such 2. Mass introduction of optical in- tors, in particular, life-time metrics. devices will be further reduced with the strument transformers is primarily It should be noted that these obsta- mass introduction of NCITs. However, in hampered by the following factors: cles are relevant for virtually any new addition to measuring circuits, there are 1) A lack of a single-industry, stand- solution and technology. The mecha- also signalling and monitoring circuits, ard documentation, establishing the re- nism for overcoming these issues is tra- the transfer of which into digital lines of quirements for NCITs. During the design, ditionally based on a gradual transition communication will remain a vital task. testing and certification of NCITs, manu- facturers currently apply regulatory doc- uments that establish requirements for traditional current transformers/voltage transformers (CT/VT), which eliminates several potential advantages of NCITs; 2) Designers lack an understanding of the qualities, characteristics and In the current understanding, an MU is a device designed to convert analogue measurements into digital form with subsequent transmission of the results via the SV IEC61850 protocol. In this form, obviously, the need for such devices will be further reduced with the mass introduction of NCITs. properties of new equipment; inert- ness in the development of new, spe- cific knowledge, computer networks, for from research and development (R&D) To solve this problem, perhaps, there are example, a shortage of computer-aided to single implementations at low-pri- good prospects in devices such as bay design (CAD) diagrams for designing ority facilities and then extend to wider controllers (connection controllers). At digital substations; applications in the industry. Meanwhile, the same time, I believe that develop- 3) An absence of reference mate- each next step should be followed by a ment of such devices is directed towards rials and methods of technical main- period sufficient for the collection and their combination with circuit breaker tenance of new equipment that would analysis of the obtained results, namely automatic monitoring and soon we will digitalsubstation.com  DIGITAL SUBSTATION 13

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