Destructive Powers of Water

 

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Project Poszukiwanie skarbu - Treasure Hunt 2017 Erasmus+

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Poszukiwanie skarbu Treasure Hunt 2015-2018 Destructive Powers of Water

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Water Disasters in Hungary made by: Debreceni Egyetem Kossuth Lajos Gyakorló Gimnáziuma és Általános Iskolája Debrecen, 2017.

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Floods in Hungary ● In the Hungarian Great Plain’s large area there is no natural drainage . ● About one quarter of the country is exposed to floods, which is exceptional in Europe. ● Flood dykes of 4200 km length protect 700 settlements, 2.5 million people, 2000 industrial plants and indirectly about 30% of the GDP. ● Flood protection has been successful in the past, but recently the Tisza Basin has exhibited new signs of increasing risks: peak flood levels show a clearly increasing trend. ● The reasons are : -land using changes -climate alterations -- flood plain bed should be added. -further increases in peak water level are anticipated . ● Niki Kathi and Johanna Lakatos

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● One of the most serious floods of Central-Europe was in Hungary in 2013. Flood disasters in Hungary: Flood of Pest 1838: In 1838 on the watershed area of the river Danube the amount of precipitation was high. In March there came a huge ice drift and a sudden flood. Flood of Szeged 1879: In March Tisza river broke into Szeged due to THE bursting of a dam. It swallowed most of the city, caused terrible damages and killed 151 people.

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Summer flood on Danube 1954: It started in July due to the bursting of a dam as well. Water flooded the whole Szigetköz. Tisza river 1970: In the 20th century one of the greatest floods of Tisza river started in April. Flood on the river Danube 2002: In August over the watershed area of Danube there formed a huge cyclone full of moisture. This formation was enclosed by 2 anti-cyclones and therefore a great amount of moisture fell. to the ground. Spring flood on both Tisza and Danube 2006: This flood was so special because it is rare that floods start on Tisza, Danube and their affluents at the same time. Dávid Böttkös

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What was the red sludge? The red mud-like industrial byproduct was being held in a containment pond owned by the Hungarian Aluminum Production and Trade Co. The byproduct is produced when bauxite rocks are processed to make aluminum. The wall collapsed and released a toxic torrent that swept cars off roads . Farmland soil had to be removed and replaced . The dried sludge is also toxic .

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2000 Baia Mare cyanide spill ● The 2000 Baia Mare cyanide spill was a leak of cyanide near Baia Mare, Romania, into the Someş River by the gold mining company Aurul. ● The polluted waters reached the Tisza and then the Danube, killing large numbers of fish in Hungary and former Yugoslavia. The spill has been called the worst Large quantities of fish died due to the environmental disaster in Europe since the toxicity of cyanide in the waters of the Chernobyl disaster. rivers, affecting 62 species of fish, of which 20 are protected species. In Hungary, volunteers participated in removing the dead fish to prevent the disaster from spreading across the food chain, as other animals, such as foxes, otters have died after eating the toxic dead fish. Niki and Johanna

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Hail destroyed the fields. In Veszprém in 2016 June hail ravaged 10% and damaged 80% of vineyards. In 2012 June hail caused serious damage in corn,sunflowers, and destroyed 50% of wheat and varley yield.

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Sleed Driving in sleet is very dangerous. Roads become slippery, that can cause accidents. A truck slid in the highway(M5) in January in 2016. Balazs Zalai

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DISASTERS CAUSED BY WATER IN SPAIN Elena García, Alejandra Mira, Ainhoa Hernández

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THE COLD FRONT The cold front is a mass of cold air that comes into contact with warm air on the surface producing intense and strong precipitations. The south-east part of Spain, in the Mediterranean, suffers every year the cold front because of the warm temperatures of this sea and the atmospheric instability of its environment. It normally occurs in autumn and there are more or less 20 or 30 cold fronts each year. The cold drop phenomenon is due to the maximum precipitation record in 24 hours of Spain on November 5, 1987, when there were 817 mm of precipitations in Oliva, Valencia.

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FLOODS IN SPAIN Floods are commonly caused by torrential rains and they affect many parts of the world. The south-eastern of Spain is the most affected part. Alicante was hit by the worst flood in 20 years last March 2017. Half of the average annual rainfall fell in Alicante in just one day as more than 150 litres of water per square metre hit the area. Schools had to close down and nearly no one could get out of their house. Everything was destroyed and many people got stuck in their cars.

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Droughts in Spain A drought is a period of below-average precipitation, resulting in prolonged shortages in its water supply. A drought can last for months or years. Droughts in Spain mainly happen in the south east. All types of drought cause issues across all sectors, with impacts extending to the ecosystem, agriculture and the economy of the whole country in severe cases of drought. The south east usually suffers most, as it has the lowest average precipitation per year. The drought, along with high winds and fallen cables, is a prime cause of the massive forest fires that we suffer every summer.

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RIBADELAGO’S DAM DISASTER This dam was called Vega de Tera reservoir,and it was placed in Zamora (Spain). On the night of the 9th of January of 1959, a gap of 150 meters wide was opened in the dam. This caused 8 million m3 of water leaving the reservoir downhill at an enormous speed and carrying along everything on its way. Ribadelago, a village 8 km away from the dam, was caught up by the water and dragged into Sanabria’s lake within seconds. 144 people died, but as the whole village fell in the lake, it was only possible to find 28 bodies. Also, most of the houses and buildings were destroyed. The overthrown was caused by the use of bad quality materials in the construction of the dam.

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Spain, a territory on the way to desertification Almería is the driest region in all of Europe but that has been the case for thousands of years.The real cause for concern is how whole new areas are now succumbing to desertification. In a desertified area, everything is in vain; even the vegetation dies off. Desertification progresses in places where excessive watering takes place. The area in most serious danger is El Ejido, in Almería – a sea of plastic greenhouses devoted entirely to growing fruit and vegetable crops for export to Europe. The intensive agricultural activity here is depleting the aquifers and raising salt levels in the soil.

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