Socrates Almanac - Science Articles 2017-8/2

 

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Socrates Almanac - Science Articles 2017-8/2

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Socrates Almanac

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Socrates Almanac Publisher: Europe Business Assembly 2 Woodin’s Way Oxford OX1 1HF Tel: +44 (0) 1865 251 122 Fax: +44 (0) 1865 251 122 Website: http://www.еbaoxford.co.uк http://almanac.ebaoxford.co.uk First published in Great Britain in 2013 ISSN 2053-4736. (Online) All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, including electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written permission of the Publisher or a license permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom. This book may not be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise disposed of, by way of trade, in any form of binding, or cover, other than that in which it was published, without the prior consent of the Publishers. Printed and bound in Great Britain by Europe Business Assembly. The information contained in this publication has been published in good faith and the opinions expressed here are those of the authors and not of Europe Business Assembly. Europe Business Assembly cannot take responsibility for any error or misinterpretation based on this information and neither endorses any products advertised herein. References to materials used in creating this publication are included. © Socrates Almanac. 2017 Contents: Switzerland......................................................................................................4 Lucerne............................................................................................................6 Review of materials of International Conference ‘Excellence in Quality’.........8 The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine...................................................10 World Health Organization............................................................................12 Most Important Medical Discoveries..............................................................14 Countries with the Best Health Care in 2017.................................................18 Scientific articles - Kalyani Chimajirao Patil...................................................20 Scientific articles - Panchenko Tatiana Yurievna...........................................23 Scientific articles - Oleg Vyrva.......................................................................24 Scientific articles - Y. Ulyanov........................................................................36 Scientific articles - Agasiyev, Abil Rzakulu ogly.............................................38 Scientific articles - Maximilian Kravchik.........................................................40

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Socrates Almanac 2017- 8/2 Information review The Academic Union, EBA Materials of the International Conference ‘Excellence in Quality’ July 2017, Lucerne, Switzerland

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Switzerland Official name: Swiss Confederation (Confoederatio Helvetica (lat.)) Continent: Europe Area: 41,285 km2 Capital: Bern Currency: Swiss Frank Population: ~8,401,000 Official Languages: German, French, Italian, Romansh Type Of Government: Democratic federal republic One of the most beautiful and picturesque countries in the world, Switzerland has been the dream destination of many tourists since decades and is also known as the birth place of the ‘Red Cross’. Located in Central Europe, to the East of France and North of Italy, the country stands seeped in natural splendor. So mesmerizing is the beauty of Switzerland that it has become a favored shooting location amongst film makers, especially Indian. From snow-clad Alps and serene lakes to rustic countryside and mystical castles, the country offers its visitors a diversified and enchanting experience. Interesting Facts About Switzerland • There are 26 cantons in Switzerland. Each one of them acts as a separate state and has its own constitution, legislature, government and courts. • In Switzerland, a new president is elected every year, while seven members of the Swiss Federal Council (Executive branch) are elected every four years. • Switzerland is the first and only country to implement people’s rights system of government, also called direct democracy, involving the constitutional initiative (public petitions) and referendum. • Geneva is the seat of the European headquarters of United Nations (UN), World Health Organization (WHO), the World Trade Organization (WTO), United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR), World Economic Forum (WEF), Airports Council International (ACI), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) & World Wide Web Virtual Library. • Switzerland has the second highest employment rate in the OECD, after Iceland. • Switzerland has the second highest life expectancy in Europe, after Sweden. • Switzerland is widely recognized as an international -4-

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research center, which strongly promotes technology and science. • Switzerland borders 5 other countries: Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Liechtenstein. • Zurich, Basle, Geneva, Berne and Lausanne are the five major cities of Switzerland. • The Jura, the Plateau and the Alps form the three main geographic regions of Switzerland. • Switzerland is home to more than 1500 lakes. • Switzerland has 48 peaks above 13000 feet. • Switzerland has 63,577km of walking paths. • Lac leman (Lake Geneva) is the largest land locked lake in Western Europe. • The longest Glacier in the Alps, the Aletsch glacier, can be found in Switzerland: it is more than 14 miles long and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. • The largest edible chestnut forest in the Alps is in Malcantone near Lugano, Switzerland. • In Switzerland, people are either Roman Catholics or Protestants. Longines, Patek Philippe, Piaget, Rado, Rolex, TAG Heuer, Tissot, Vacheron Constantin, are Swiss. • Jungfraujoch, at an elevation of 11330 feet is the highest train station in Europe. • Grande Dixence in Switzerland is the highest manmade cement dam in the world, with a height of 935 feet. • Switzerland has the densest railway system in the world with 3107 miles of tracks. • Some of renowned luxury watch brands, like Audemars Piguet, Baume et Mercier, Breitling, Chopard, Franck Muller, Jaeger-LeCoultre, http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/facts-aboutswitzerland-1360.html -5-

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Lucerne Lucerne – The Switzerland City That Offer Natural Beauty Lucerne lies on the shores of Lake “Four Cantons”, in central Switzerland, which is actually the cradle of the Swiss Confederation. Lucerne is according to many, the most beautiful Switzerland city, which has boating lake, snow-covered hills, bridges, churches and castles. It is known as one of the most famous tourist destinations. Must-see places in Lucerne Chapel Bridge - The town’s landmark Constructed in first half of the 14th century as a part of the city’s fortifications and named after St. Peter’s Chapel, which is located nearby. The paintings that were added in the 17th century illustrate scenes of Swiss and local history, including the biographies of the city’s patron saints, St. Leodegar and St. Maurice. Water Tower - Archive, treasury and prison This octagonal tower - over 34 meters high (111.5 ft.) was built around 1300 as part of the city wall and used as an archive, treasury, prison and torture chamber. It is Lucerne’s landmark and the most frequently photographed monument in Switzerland. Lion Monument - The dying Lion of Lucerne «The dying Lion of Lucerne» is one of the world’s most famous monuments. It was carved out of natural rock in memory of the heroic deaths of the Swiss mercenaries at the Tuileries in 1792. Mark Twain described the Lion of Lucerne as the saddest and most moving piece of rock in the world. KKL Luzern - Culture and Convention Centre The KKL Luzern (Culture and Convention Centre Lucerne) at Europaplatz is the work of the Parisian architect Jean Nouvel. The concert hall (1800 seats) is one of the finest concert halls in the world. The Lucerne Hall, the Convention Centre with the auditorium, and the Museum of Art - the fourth largest in Switzerland are also part of this sensational construction. Jesuit Church - Sacral Baroque Church The first large sacral Baroque church in Switzerland; constructed in 1666 by Father Christoph Vogler for the Jesuits. The vault was redecorated in the mid-18th century. The original vestments of Brother Klaus, a famous Swiss patron, are stored in the inner chapel. Franciscan Church - Gothic mendicant architecture Typical medieval Gothic mendicant architecture, built -6-

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in the second half of the 13th century. The church has the most ornate pulpit in Switzerland, built between the Renaissance and Baroque eras. Flag frescoes represent Lucerne’s conquests in the Middle Ages. Water Spike - Regulation of the water level Technically, this is a unique sight. The so-called «spikes» are lowered into or withdrawn from the water manually to regulate the water level of Lake Lucerne. The so-called «spikes» are lowered into or withdrawn from the water manually to regulate the water level of Lake Lucerne. It was built in 1859-60, replacing the Reuss steps that channeled the water over the city mills. Spreuer Bridge - City fortification This bridge was completed as a part of the city fortification in 1408. Between 1626 and 1635, Kaspar Meglinger added 67 paintings which represent the “Dance of Death”. It is called the Spreuer Bridge because this was the only place that the chaff from wheat (Spreu) could be dumped into the river. Musegg Wall - Nine Towers A part of the rampart walls built in 1386; the wall is still almost entirely intact. Four towers are open to the public: Schirmer, Zyt, Wacht and Männli. A part of the rampart walls built in 1386; the wall is still almost entirely intact. Four towers are open to the public: Schirmer, Zyt, Wacht and Männli. The oldest city clock, built by Hans Luter in 1535, is in the Zyt tower. This clock is allowed to chime every hour one minute before all the other city clocks. Old City Squares - Weinmarkt, Hischenplatz, Kornmarkt Historical buildings clad in frescos border the Old Town on the right bank of the River Reuss at a few picturesque squares.The Weinmarkt, where Lucerne swore a federal oath with the cantons of Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden in 1332, is especially attractive. Equally attractive is the Hirschenplatz square, named after an old inn dating from the Middle Ages, and the Kornmarkt square, which features the Town Hall and the beautifully painted Pfistern guildhall. Town Hall - Italian Renaissance style Built between 1602 and 1606 by Anton Isenmann in the Italian Renaissance style and covered with an overhanging roof, representing a typical style from the canton of Bern. The open arcades facing the Reuss are still used today as a weekly marketplace. Above the arcades is the Kornschütte hall, formerly a trading hall, which is now used as a concert and exhibition hall. Hof Church - Religious center Main cathedral for the city, as well as the St. Leodegar and St. Maurice religious center. A Benedictine monastery was founded here in the 8th century. In 1633, a fire destroyed the church; it was rebuilt in 1645. It is the most important Renaissance church in Switzerland. Especially noteworthy are the façade, Mary’s alter (with a relief panel dating from 1500), and the souls’ altar. Ritterscher Palace - Palazzo Built in 1557 in the Italian Renaissance style as a private residence for Lucerne’s mayor Lux Ritter. The city later completed the building. Living quarters for the Jesuits who were called to Lucerne in 1574. Today it is the seat of the cantonal government. Railway Station - Santiago Calatrava Following the fire in 1971, the entire railway station was rebuilt between 1984 and 1991. The transparent entrance hall of the new station, with its elegant curved roof designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava, is architecturally unique. The main portal of the former station, which survived the fire, now stands as an impressive arch in the middle of the square in front of the station. http://www.luzern.com -7-

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Review of materials of International Conference ‘Excellence in Quality’ 3 July, Hotel Schweizerhof, Lucerne Switzerland International Conference ‘Excellence in Quality’ has become an annual joint effort of Europe Business Assembly (UK), Academic Union Oxford (UK), European Medical Association (Belgium), Swiss Institute of Quality Standards (Switzerland). The conference was held in Lucerne on 3 July 2017 and gathered together more than 200 regional business, professional and academic elite representatives from 52 countries. Acclaimed Swiss and international professionals shared and learnt from each other for business improvement and positive social transformation. The forum was dedicated to ‘From Quality to Excellence – Models of Excellence’. The main focus was kept on the role models of excellence in 4 sectors: city management, corporate, healthcare / medical travel and education management. The discussion was concentrated on quality philosophy and top trends, strategies and quality management practices from the leadership and competitiveness perspective. Key participants represented high-profile executives and seniors, business excellence leaders, top experts on quality and strategic management, leading healthcare services’ providers, city managers, University rectors, chancellors and educational management. Switzerland as a country host of the forum has been specially chosen as Swiss quality finds worldwide recognition for the highest standards, excellence, reliability, solid business and financial reputation. The agenda of the forum consisted of the Official Opening and welcome addresses from Prof. John Netting, Director General, EBA and from Official and VIP Forum Partners: • Monspace Multinational Corp, E-Commerce, Malaysia • CHC HOTELS - Chnaris Hotel Management, • Development & Consulting S.A, Greece • ORB Corporate SDN BHD, Malaysia • Port Autonome de Dakar, Senegal • PT Taspen (Persero), Indonesia • Tarabya British Schools, Turkey • University of Mpumalanga, South Africa • Dozzy Oil & Gas Limited, Nigeria Acclaimed experts and professors from Oxford Business Expert Centre (Oxford, UK) introduced the advanced learning courses for business processes & quality improvement and expert sessions. The Business Working Session was moderated by Michael Derrer, Director General of Ascent Swiss Business Management AG (Switzerland) and Director of the Swiss Institute of Quality Standards (SIQS).Key-note presentations -8-

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highlighted all aspects of quality as the key driver of the social change, a global business trend and an effective tool of reputation management and customer loyalty. Lead regional companies provided case studies and presentations of the national and global brands bespoke for quality management. Life quality characteristics from the quality of labour organization, production quality to quality standards in education, healthcare, cultural tendencies, infrastructure and ecological safety are inclusive to the territory investment attractiveness profile. The business working session also hosted dedicated presentations of the city municipalities recognized as the investment attractive and tourism favourable regions: • Kaunas District Municipality • Midvaal Municipality • Municipality of Knjaževac • Municipality of KoceljevaMunicipality of Ludbreg • Municipality of Zhelino • The Municipality of Elbasan Modules & Panels section consisted of Module 1 on ‘Quality in Education: Trends, Strategies, Practices’. A Workshop on ‘OXFORD ADVANCED PROGRAMME IN HIGH EDUCATION LEADERSHIP’ was presented by Dr. Rui Verde, Author, Professor of Law, Human Rights Adviser, Head of Law & Economics Department, AU Oxford, Ph.D. Law, University of Newcastle, UK. Educational excellence examples and regional academic institutions’ cases were provided by rectors and senior management of regional Universities and higher educational institutions participating in the workshop, and following panel discussion about ‘How to implement Oxford education quality standards to national University management and learning process?’ The module also contained presentations from lead regional higher educational institutions, members and partners of the Academic Union Oxford highlighting professional achievements and innovative developments. Admission of new members to the Academic Union, Oxford and Club of Rectors of Europe followed the academic session. Module 2 ‘Quality in Healthcare Services: Global Standards for Medical Travel Facilitators’ was held as an Expert Meeting and Q&A with Vincenzo Costigliola, President of the European Medical Association (Belgium) parallel to the academic session. The agenda of the section included the key-note presentation of ‘The Best Medical Practice Project’ – a popular joint initiative of EBA and EMA and addresses from the leading regional healthcare centers, hospitals, medical travel agents, clinical doctors. ‘Excellence in Quality’ Award Ceremony came as a climax of the forum, honouring regional leaders in the quality sphere. -9-

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Facts The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine “The said interest shall be divided into five equal parts, which shall be apportioned as follows: /- - -/ one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery within the domain of physiology or medicine ...” (Excerpt from the will of Alfred Nobel) Alfred Nobel had an active interest in medical research. Through Karolinska Institutet, he came into contact with Swedish physiologist Jöns Johansson around 1890. Johansson worked in Nobel’s laboratory in Sevran, France during a brief period the same year. Physiology or medicine was the third prize area Nobel mentioned in his will. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded by the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Did You Know? 107 Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine have been awarded between 1901 and 2016. 39 Medicine Prizes have been given to one Laureate only. 12 women have been awarded the Medicine Prize so far. 32 years was the age of the youngest Medicine Laureate ever, Frederick G. Banting, who was awarded the 1923 Medicine Prize for the discovery of insulin. 87 years was the age of the oldest Medicine Laureate ever, Peyton Rous, when he was awarded the Medicine Prize in 1966 for his discovery of tumourinducing viruses. 58 is the average age of the Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine the year they were awarded the prize. - 10 -

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Last year’s Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016 was awarded to Yoshinori Ohsumi “for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy”. Last year’s Nobel Laureate discovered and elucidated mechanisms underlying autophagy, a fundamental process for degrading and recycling cellular components. The word autophagy originates from the Greek words auto-, meaning “self”, and phagein, meaning “to eat”. Thus, autophagy denotes “self eating”. This concept emerged during the 1960’s, when researchers first observed that the cell could destroy its own contents by enclosing it in membranes, forming sack-like vesicles that were transported to a recycling compartment, called the lysosome, for degradation. Difficulties in studying the phenomenon meant that little was known until, in a series of brilliant experiments in the early 1990’s, Yoshinori Ohsumi used baker’s yeast to identify genes essential for autophagy. He then went on to elucidate the underlying mechanisms for autophagy in yeast and showed that similar sophisticated machinery is used in our cells. Ohsumi’s discoveries led to a new paradigm in our understanding of how the cell recycles its content. His discoveries opened the path to understanding the fundamental importance of autophagy in many physiological processes, such as in the adaptation to starvation or response to infection. Mutations in autophagy genes can cause disease, and the autophagic process is involved in several conditions including cancer and neurological disease. http://www.nobelprize.org - 11 -

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WHO global health days World TB Day, 24 March World Health Day, 7 April World Malaria Day, 25 April World Immunization Week, 24-30 April World No Tobacco Day, 31 May World Blood Donor Day, 14 June World Hepatitis Day, 28 July World Antibiotic Awareness Week, 13-19 November World AIDS Day, 1 December World Health Organization History WHO’s Constitution came into force on 7 April 1948 – a date we now celebrate every year as World Health Day. Structure More than 7000 people from more than 150 countries work for the Organization in over 150 WHO country offices, 6 regional offices, at the Global Service Centre in Malaysia and at the headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. Goals WHO’s goal is to build a better, healthier future for people all over the world. Working through offices in more than 150 countries, WHO staff work side by side with governments and other partners to ensure the highest attainable level of health for all people. Together they strive to combat diseases – infectious diseases like influenza and HIV and noncommunicable ones like cancer and heart disease. They help mothers and children survive and thrive so they can look forward to a healthy old age. They ensure the safety of the air people breathe, the food they eat, the water they drink – and the medicines and vaccines they need. News New President of the Health Assembly On 22 May 2017 the Health Assembly elected Professor Veronica Skvortsova, Minister of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, as its new President. Five Vice-Presidents were also appointed from Cabo Verde, the Cook Islands, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Somalia and Suriname. Some 3500 delegates from WHO’s 194 Member States – including a large proportion of the world’s health ministers - attend the Health Assembly. They debate ways to advance the 2030 agenda, focusing on building better systems for health. - 12 -

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Recent WHO reports: World Health Assembly elects Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus as new WHO Director-General The Member States of WHO elected Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus as the new Director-General of WHO on 23 May 2017 in Geneva Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus was nominated by the Government of Ethiopia, and begins his five-year term on 1 July 2017. Prior to his election as WHO’s next Director-General, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus served as Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ethiopia from 2012–2016 and as Minister of Health, Ethiopia from 2005–2012. He has also served as chair of the Board of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria; as chair of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) Partnership Board; and as co-chair of the Board of the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. As Minister of Health, Ethiopia, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus led a comprehensive reform effort of the country’s health system, including the expansion of the country’s health infrastructure, creating 3500 health centres and 16 000 health posts; expanded the health workforce by 38 000 health extension workers; and initiated financing mechanisms to expand health insurance coverage. As Minister of Foreign Affairs, he led the effort to negotiate the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, in which 193 countries committed to the financing necessary to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. As Chair of the Global Fund and of RBM, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus secured record funding for the two organizations and created the Global Malaria Action Plan, which expanded RBM’s reach beyond Africa to Asia and Latin America. Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus will succeed Dr Margaret Chan, who has been WHO’s DirectorGeneral since 1 January 2007. http://www.who.int/ - 13 -

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Most Important Medical Discoveries Medicine is an ever-evolving field. New breakthroughs are being made all the time, but there are some discoveries that will always stand out as changing human thinking forever. Thanks to medicine, diseases have been eradicated, babies have been created and illnesses that used to be serious are now relatively mild. So, be grateful for living in the 21st century as we take a look at the Top 10 Most Important Medical Discoveries. Anesthetic If you’ve ever visited a museum of naval history, you will inevitably have come across a display that shows how they used to do surgical procedures on board ships in the 1800s. Amputations were done on a table, with the injured man biting on a piece of wood to stop from screaming. You probably shuddered then and are probably shuddering now. Fortunately, the late 19th century saw the discovery of anesthetia, which numbs all sensation in the patient. An early anaesthetic was cocaine, first isolated by Karl Koller. It was an effective numbing agent, but as we now know it is also addictive and open to abuse. Around the same time, chloroform was also being used to numb pain (as demonstrated by John Snow during one of Queen Victoria’s births), but this too had potentially lethal side-effects. Luckily, today’s anesthetics are both effective and safe. Birth Control Another huge difference that occurred in the late 19th century was the drop in birth rate as people started choosing to have smaller families. In the UK, for instance, the birth rate was 35.5 births per 1,000 people in 1870 and was down to 29 per 1,000 in 1900. This was, in part, due to better education about sex and reproduction but it was also due to better methods of birth control. In the US, the “birth control movement” started a few years later, when a group of radicals, led by Emma Goodman (above), decided to start educating their fellow women about contraception to try and control the number of unwanted pregnancies. Their campaign was eventually successful and the Planned Parenthood Federation of America was formed in 1942. Birth control remains unpopular with some religious groups, but it has had a profound and undeniable social effect. MMR Another controversial one now, with the combined vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella. It was licensed in 1971, by Maurice Hilleman and immediately had a significant effect on the number of measles cases - 14 -

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reported, with hundreds of thousands in the US during the 1960s (1966 saw 450,000) reduced to thousands by the 1980s. The controversy occurred much later, in 1998, when Andrew Wakefield was paid by lawyers to find a way to discredit the MMR. He did this effectively, by publishing a paper claiming that there was a link between the MMR vaccine and autism. The research has since been entirely discredited, but the effects on vaccination rates was devastating, with the officially eliminated disease reoccurring in the US. Similarly, in the UK the number of measles cases had dropped to 56 in 1998 and was up to 1348 in 2008. There is also an epidemic in the UK in 2013, largely around Wales. MMR rates are now increasing again, thanks to emergency vaccination programs and it can be safely said that the MMR is a significant medical breakthrough. X-Ray Insulin A medical procedure that is now so common that we take it for granted, the X-Ray was discovered by accident. Its inventor was Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen and on 8 Nov, 1895 he discovered that his cathode ray tube could produce some unusual images. A week later, he x-rayed his wife’s hand and the resulting image was close to our modern x-rays – her bones and wedding ring were clearly visible, but flesh was not. He named it “X-ray” as the x stood for “unknown”, but they are occasionally known as Röntgen rays in his native Germany. He was awarded the first Nobel Prize in 1901 and his invention continues to be used in hospitals everywhere. Another breakthrough that is used on a daily basis by diabetics, insulin is the life-saving hormone that keeps our blood sugars in check. Diabetics are either missing this hormone entirely (with type 1 diabetes) or produce it but not in a way their bodies can use (type 2). It was first isolated in 1921, by scientists from the University of Toronto, who were later awarded the Nobel Prize for their discovery. The following year, a 14-year-old called Leonard Thompson (above) became the first human to receive artificial insulin after coming close to a diabetic coma. He rallied after his second dose (the first was found to be impure) and lived another 13 years. IVF While birth control was a major breakthrough in limiting unwanted pregnancies, its opposite in many ways, is - 15 -

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