NANO Newsletter - Vol 1 - September, 2011


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nano news nano shinbun nf-pogo alumni network for oceans becoming part of the solution this issue from the editorial board message from makoto wada message from trevor platt message from shubha sathyendranath message from sophie seeyave nano in numbers by lilian krug report on chlorogin meeting by trevor platt some experiences in capacity building by trevor platt research communications by nfpogo alumni meeting announcements


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nfpogo alumni enewsletter ­ volume 01 september 2011 from the editorial board it is with great pleasure and pride that we publish this inaugural enewsletter nano news the editorial board expresses its warm and heartiest congratulations to venetia stuart for winning the enewsletter naming challenge by proposing the name nano news alumni of the nippon foundation and pogo are a group of highly motivated and hard working young scientists as well as not so young scientists who like to enhance and broaden their research interests as well as to disseminate their wellfounded knowledge to the society at large one of the primary aims of this enewsletter is to open up dialog to share knowledge to communicate research findings and to develop and exchange research ideas among the alumni communication of research enhances quality and leads to new and innovative avenues for landmark research also this would be a platform for all alumni to share research and development activities that take place in their own institutions as well as in their home countries in the related fields of oceanography and marine science the editorial board is indebted to the patrons trevor platt shubha sathyendranath and sophie seeyave for their persistent efforts in initiating nano and for the invaluable input and support given throughout also this would not be possible without the financial moral and sincere support from nippon foundation and pogo we are very grateful to mr makoto wada for his constant support and for sending his wishes through a message to this inaugural enewsletter we convey our gratitude to all those who sent messages articles and short research communications to the enewsletter we received more research communications than we could include in one enewsletter and thus only a handful was selected randomly to publish in the inaugural publication others will be published in the up coming enewsletters nano news will be published thrice a year and we take this opportunity to invite all alumni to contribute to this enewsletter regularly the editorial board extends its sincere thanks to lilian krug for designing the nano news for web publication the editorial board wishes nano news a bright and an enduring future patrons trevor platt /executive director ­ pogo shubha sathyendranath /assistant executive director ­ pogo sophie seeyave scientific coordinator ­ pogo makoto wada public relations officer nippon foundation editorial board kanthi yapa editorinchief vivian lutz margareth kyewalyanga heather bouman olga shatova web designing lilian anne krug contact us nano website 1


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nfpogo alumni enewsletter ­ volume 01 september 2011 this issue from the editorial board 1 message from makoto wada 3 message from trevor platt 3 message from shubha sathyendranath 4 message from sophie seeyave 5 nano in numbers by lilian krug 5 report on chlorogin meeting by trevor platt 8 some experiences in capacity building by trevor platt 9 research communications by nfpogo alumni muhammed fatih sert 11 lailah gifty akita 12 sebastian krieger 13 rafael rasse 14 f guamánguevara 15 ravidas k naik 16 meeting announcements 17 have any nice photos to share email us your seascapes underwater photos or photos of field work and we ll include them in nano news contact us nano website 2


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message from the public relations officer/nippon foundation mr makoto wada on the launch of the nano e newsletter as a program officer at the nippon foundation i was involved with the pogo visiting professorship and the centre of excellence when i saw the coe fellows discussing their papers and research during the break at the autumn 2010 london meeting i knew that this project would be indispensible for the oceanography field i believe the launch of the nano newsletter has confirmed my previous confidence in the project i sincerely wish the very best of success for the enewsletter in the years to come regrettably i was reassigned from my post as pogo administrator on june 1 however from left mr.ogiue mr.unno mr.wada mr.aoki mr unno mr ogiue and mr aoki will be doing all they can for this project and pogo with best wishes makoto wada congratulations message from the executive director/pogo prof trevor platt frs it is an auspicious time as we launch the first issue of our infant e newsletter we are indebted to kanthi yapa as editorinchief and as midwife for this new baby the name of the network is nano which as everyone knows has the connotation of being small it is true we are small and our members are relatively young but small does not mean ineffective just consider the phytoplankton of the ocean a community of microscopic plants individually they are very small cells but very active ones they are distributed over all the world s oceans and collectively as a community they have an enormous impact on the earth s carbon cycle similarly junior scientists tend to be full of energy active eager to make an impact as a community of young scientists distributed worldwide and increasing in numbers every year the nano network has the potential to make a strong impact on the future of ocean observations in the global oceans it is up to the vision creativity and dynamism of the members to make it happen so although nano is small we should not see it as a limitation rather it is an opportunity for us to show the world how much can be achieved with minimal resources the key will be the sense of community that we can foster through the nano network contact us nano website 3


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message from the assistant director pogo dr shubha sathyendranath for many years now pogo and the nippon foundation have been working together to redress the acute deficiency in trained oceanographers especially in the southern hemisphere the capacity building however has not been limited to the southern hemisphere or even to developing countries or to economies in transition in fact the nfpogo centre of excellence hosted at the bermuda institute of ocean sciences is open to dedicated ocean scientists from anywhere in the world with a thirst for learning more just as the oceans recognize no political boundaries our efforts at stewardship of the oceans must also go beyond national boundaries and unite the whole world in a common cause that is what we are trying to do here through various nfpogo initiatives the problems facing the oceans are many our dependence on the oceans is huge and the deficit in human resources is enormous in the face of the magnitude of the issue we are trying to address the achievements to date may appear modest so how can we make a real difference the answer depends on each one of you who had the benefit of learning about the oceans from experts from all over the world but the benefits of nfpogo training go beyond that you have had the opportunity to get to know each other to make friends with each other to share your visions and your dreams if you can now work together towards a common goal then your collective impact would be much greater than if you worked alone in isolation furthermore if you could take the time to pass on your knowledge and your passion to those around you then the capacity for ocean stewardship will grow exponentially by working hard working together and sharing your knowledge you now have the potential to become an important part of the solution the nfpogo alumni network for oceans nano is yet another strand of the nfpogo efforts to enhance the capacity for ocean observations for the common benefit of our society and of our planet it brings together the teachers and the students who have been part of nf pogo capacitybuilding efforts it is a very important step because it gives the former students the opportunity to become leaders to become part of the solution to find the way forward what nano can achieve will depend very much on what you can put into it i sincerely hope you will grasp this opportunity with both hands and work together to learn more about the ocean and to look after it for our collective good the nano newsletter is a key instrument to keep each other informed of our activities and to share our ideas i thank kanthi yapa for taking the leadership to realize this vehicle of communication and i thank all the contributors to this first issue please contribute actively to the future issues so that we can keep them dynamic and informative none of this would have been possible without the continued support and help from the nippon foundation on behalf of pogo the pogo secretariat and the alumni i thank the foundation sincerely for their grand vision and their longterm commitment contact us nano website 4


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message from scientific coordinator pogo dr sophie seeyave the organisation of the founding meeting for the nfpogo alumni network was one of the first tasks assigned to me when i started working for the pogo secretariat in july 2010 i have since then been deeply involved in the development of nano with invaluable help from two alumni lilian krug and olga shatova who were instrumental in gathering information from the other alumni and creating the nano website the most recent development has been the creation of this newsletter for which we are greatly indebted to kanthi yapa it has been an exciting project for me to be involved in and a great satisfaction to see the enthusiasm of some alumni to develop this network i strongly believe that international collaboration is vital for oceanographic research and that scientists should be encouraged to participate in networks such as nano from an early stage in their careers nano will bring together the new generation of top scientists from around the world with participation from countries that have hitherto been underrepresented in international programmes and organisations in my view this is what makes it so special i would like to acknowledge the nippon foundation for all their support over the years as well as all the scientists who have devoted their time to capacity building and who continue to provide support and enthusiasm for the development of nano nano in numbers by lilian anne krug the nfpogo network of alumni for oceans nano was launched less than a year ago with the positive feedback received from the nfpogo scholars participants of capacity building programmes held in the last several years funded by nippon foundation and pogo about 60 of the alumni returned their updated information and submitted a number of proposals for joint projects with the possession of more than 100 completed questionnaires it was possible to obtain some important statistics about nano which we present here age gender female male 25 43 ages 42 58 5 13 6 7 4 2 56 or older 25 or younger 26 30 31 35 36 40 41 45 46 50 51 55 contact us nano website 5


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distribution of the alumni by gender and region asians male and female represent about 47 of the alumni 15 8 11 africa europe female geographical distribution from five out of the eight nfpogo courses we had a satisfactory level of contribution with more than 50 of attendees becoming members of nano by now vp vietnam 2007 vp tunisia 2007 nano members no repplies africa europe male 19 15 32 asia female vp sri lanka 2006 asia male latin america female latin america male vp brazil 2006 vp kochi 2004/05 vp fiji 2005 cofe brazil 2009 cofe bermuda 2008-2012 0 10 20 30 40 nano has members from thirty two countries and the table below gives a geographical distribution of the current membership among the countries where the nf pogo visiting professorship courses were held majority of the scholars from brazil india and vietnam have become members of nano already as opposed to the countries like sri lanka fiji and tunisia angola argentina bangladesh brazil china ecuador egypt fiji ghana india iran ivory coast japan kiribati mexico nigeria 1 pakistan 1 5 peru 1 1 philippines 2 22 poland 1 2 portugal 1 1 russia 3 2 senegal 1 1 solomon islands 1 2 sri lanka 5 19 tanzania 1 1 thailand 2 2 tunisia 4 2 turkey 1 1 ukraine 1 3 venezuela 4 1 vietnam 13 education the level of education of nano members is very encouraging as 31 of them are having a phd degree and another 32 are currently engaged in phd programs 84 of the members have a degree education 6 underway concluded 108 91 35 34 nano members msc phd 6 10 postdoc research interests biological oceanography and biooptics remote sensing and geographic information systems gis are the most engaged areas of research among the nano members when observing the statistics according to geographical regions similar predominance is found in asia and latin america however in general there is a good balance of research expertise in other fields as well in all the three regions as seen below this information could be used in the design of project proposals taking the advantage of our member expertise contact us nano website 6


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research areas coastal processes ocean circ phys oc and models clim change ocean acidif sea level rise ocean-atmosphere interactions environmental management ecosystem health biogeochem proc and models bio-optics rem sensing and gis food web and ecological models fisheries and aquaculture coastal ecosystems biological oceanography 0 10 20 30 40 32 24 17 17 35 18 20 52 14 17 28 50 50 60 africa/europe asia latin america in nano wiki one can see lists of the alumni working on each of these individual research themes we encourage you to share announcements publications and other useful information on the discussion tabs go to http www.nfpogo emes and click on the research theme of your interest in the left figure colors represent research areas and numbers given as percentages represent members from a particular region engaged in a particular research area nano wiki spaces the main purpose of nano wiki is to offer a virtual space where the alumni can interact with each other with pogo and invited scientists also known as nano friends there are descriptions of the network the nippon foundation pogo the nfpogo courses alumni profiles list of alumni per region research thematic pages alumni publications and an opportunities page where advertisements of fellowships funding and other interests of alumni are posted on daily basis one can navigate through the wiki by following the navigation tree however access to personal information is available exclusively to members associated with the nano wiki members are encouraged to post any comments on the discussion tabs of any page within nano wiki currently 84 alumni and 19 nano friends are members of nano wiki since the launch of the network there has been a monthly average of about 30 visits to our website figures are given below nano wiki visits per day 140 nano wiki members 120 40 37 32 99 108 100 22 20 80 20 60 40 20 58 32 4 prior to launch june july august september 1st-8th 0 june july august september 1st-8th 0 contact us nano website 7


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chlorogin meeting ­ halifax nova scotia by trevor platt is a globallyintegrated network devoted to chlorophyll measurements in situ and from satellites and related in situ biooptical measurements chlorogin held a plenary meeting in halifax canada from august 9 to 11 20011 a total of 25 participants from fourteen countries attended the threeday chlorogin workshop participants were updated on the status of the seven regional chlorogin nodes chlorogineurope chloroginindian ocean chloroginantares chloroginafrica chlorogincanada chloroginse asia and chloroginne asia as well as global chlorogin the new fisheries applications of remotely sensed ocean colour faro initiative which is funded by the canadian space agency and overarches both the chlorogin and safari societal applications in fisheries and aquaculture using remotelysensed imagery projects it provided support for the chlorogin workshop the status of the proposal submitted to the group on earth observations geo for additional funding for various chlorogin activities was reviewed by geo secretariat the expansion of the chlorogin network to new countries such as the philippines and other regions of the globe was discussed proposed chlorogin lakes initiative related geo/goos initiatives and relevant esa initiatives were also discussed the group also considered i development of southeast asia node ii further development of chlorogin africa iii future development of antares iv improving in situ data availability and sharing v how to improve the chlorogin website recently the group has published a handbook of satellite remote sensing image interpretation 293 pages with many case studies it is in the ioccg report series chlorogin has subscribed to the new blue planet initiative an umbrella task for oceans in geo established under pogo leadership chlorogin provides an ideal basis for research projects such as might be undertaken within the nano network it encourages the development of local time series for in situ chlorophyll and bio optical measurements that can be carried out at relatively modest expense chlorogin attendees of the 2011 chlorogin meeting contact us nano website 8


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some experiences in capacity building how i came to be involved in international training for marine science by trevor platt frs executive director /pogo scientist plymouth marine laboratory scientist emeritus bedford institute of oceanography teaching has never been my official job but it has always been enjoyable to me over the years i have been a visiting professor at université laval scripps institution of oceanography the academy of sciences in estonia the university of messina sicily the state university of new york at stony brook the university of puerto rico the university of mallorca the national institute of oceanography regional centre in cochin india and the university of bristol in 1980 i was invited to participate in teaching international courses in chile at the university of talcahuano and at the university of concepción the students were from across latin america it was during the pinochet regime when things were generally not very good for students a couple of years later i was asked to go there again for teaching a surprising number of the students in these courses went on to make a good career in marine science some became my graduate students in canada and returned to latin america to become professors but these were courses organized by other people in november 1992 shubha and i had the idea to offer a course in oceancolour theory and applications including the estimation of primary production the intent was to provide a broad view of the field that was internally consistent rather than to give a comprehensive and exhaustive survey it was to be held at the bedford institute of oceanography not a teaching institution we had a budget of exactly zero we advertised the course through the internet and were somewhat astonished by the response we had some fifty participants from nineteen countries there was clearly a demand for this kind of course it lasted a week consisted only of lectures and was taught entirely by shubha and me taking turns around this time i founded the international oceancolour coordinating group ioccg to build a working link between the providers of ocean colour data the space agencies and the users of the data the ioccg also filled a need it is still going stronger than ever and has become an authoritative voice in the marine community well known for example for its series of monographs on topics related to ocean colour a major goal of the ioccg was to broaden the user base for ocean colour data one way to accomplish this was to provide training courses it was decided that they would be modeled on our earlier course at the bedford institute except that in future we would have a budget the series of courses still exists to this day through it some 400 students coming from 85 countries have been taught the courses have been held in argentina australia canada chile china germany india indonesia italy kenya new caledonia south africa tanzania thailand turkey venezuela uruguay and aboard the japanese vessel mirai on its circumnavigation of the southern hemisphere many graduates from ioccg courses now hold influential positions in the oceancolour community the joint global ocean flux study was also running at this time and i chaired its scientific steering committee for three years one of the activities was an international training course in biogeochemical modelling which shubha and i organized in bangalore india in 1999 we were also invited several times by the indian space research organisation to give training courses in ocean colour ahmedabad bangalore hyderabad the partnership for observation of the global oceans pogo was created in 1999 shubha became its first executive director one of its goals is to increase the number of skilled professionals in the field of ocean observation under shubha s guidance pogo decided to accomplish this with the aid of a fellowship programme and in cooperation with the nippon foundation a visiting professor programme i had the privilege to serve as the first of the nfpogo visiting professors teaching for three months at the national institute of oceanography regional centre in cochin india eventually this programme metamorphosed into contact us nano website 9


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the nfpogo centre of excellence in marine observations run by the bermuda institute for ocean sciences an outstanding success pogo still maintains the visiting professor program using its own funds during one ioccgpogo training course held in concepción chile in 2002 for participants from latin america we discussed how the trainees might use their new knowledge when they went back to their home institutions it was clear that they were not short of ability but were short of resources to help them apply it also we saw the value that the contacts the students had developed during the two weeks of training would be maintained into the future in short the idea of a network was born with money contributed by pogo and by the ioccg we organized a meeting the following year in mar del plata argentina with the express purpose of making a latin american network for ocean colour and related in situ measurements the network became known as the antares network it is still very active meanwhile the group on earth observations geo an intergovernmental initiative had been founded to promote the societal value of earth observation through her position in pogo shubha made geo aware of antares and was able to persuade geo to cosponsor jointly with goos a meeting at which an international network for ocean ecosystems would be formed to be modeled on antares and also on the remote sensing time series programme that shubha and i were running for the north west atlantic ocean the meeting took place in plymouth in 2006 leading to the creation of the chlorogin network an important geo task which is now funded by the canadian space agency another geo task using oceancolour data is safari which is concerned with applications of remote sensing in fisheries and aquaculture it has been funded by the canadian space agency from the outset in 2010 safari organized the first international symposium on fisheries and aquaculture which was held in cochin india it was preceded by a threeday international training course which attracted some sixty participants after several years of collaboration between pogo and the nippon foundation in capacitybuilding activities it was decided to create a network of former scholars of these initiatives with the goal of nurturing a community of young energetic and excellent scientists distributed world wide who would work together to help secure into the future the use of ocean observations for the benefit of society this is the origin of the nano network it has been a source of continuing interest to be involved in the planning and teaching of international training courses in marine science shubha and i have done our best to maintain contact with the stronger students from each course to reinvite them to later courses and to look out for opportunities for them to advance their careers it has been endlessly rewarding the network whose newsletter is issued for the first time now provides tangible evidence that something positive has been achieved although this short account has been a personal one it should be made clear that what has been accomplished would not have been possible without the excellent and continuing professional collaboration and help contributed by shubha sathyendranath and venetia stuart for which i am eternally grateful we have undertaken many things together most recently the raising of funds from the canadian space agency to support safari and chlorogin we see the nano network as one of the keys to the future a way to mobilise the former scholars in a coordinated manner in finding ways to establish the network we have been very fortunate to have the outstanding collaboration of sophie seeyave to whom much credit for the success of the network is due the network offers the first chance we have had to nurture the former scholars as a group collectively the represent enormous scientific capability the future is in their hands contact us nano website 10


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research communications ­ nfpogo alumni muhammed fatih sert reading for ph.d middle east technical university institute of marine science po box 28 33731 erdemli mersin turkey email wikipage http muhammed+sert research interests biogeochemical cycles of marine nutrients with emphasis on nitrogen and phosphorus during my i studied total nitrogen tn and total phosphorus tp fractions in the north eastern mediterranean basin i tried to develop a method for simultaneous determination of tn and tp also don and dop distributions were assessed at the sea surface and in the water column at the study site master s thesis title determination of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the north eastern mediterranean water column regional and temporal variations of principal hydrophysical temperature salinity density and hydrochemical nutrients chla dissolved oxygen properties were examined at fifty selected stations on the shelf zone of the northeastern mediterranean between september 2008 and october 2009 tp and tn in the collected samples were analyzed by a phcontrolled wet chemical oxidation wco method seasonal and spatial distributions of the hydrophysical parameters in the ne mediterranean water column were dominated by general circulation pattern of the basin thermohaline properties of the bay were highly influenced by the river discharges surface water heating/cooling and windinduced coastal processes nutrientreplete seyhan and berdan discharges markedly enhanced the nutrients and algal biomass in terms of chla concentrations in the shallow zone 15 m depth of the bay however this regional effect appeared to weaken during the dry summerautumn period due to significant decreases in flow regimes of the major rivers in the region the mean concentration of tn varied regionally between 4.82 and 8.19 m having the greater values in the near shore zone tp concentrations were markedly high in the surface waters of the nearshore zone 0.200.70 m the offshore values were lower 0.100.12 m displayed vertically uniform distribution in the euphotic zone and increased slightly towards the bottom nfpogo programme pogo observational oceanography program at the bermuda institute of ocean sciences bios in august 2010 completed in may 2011 research project biological controls of the ocean c:n:p ratios ph.d study biogeochemistry of eastern mediterranean key processes that govern current conditions in terms of primary production and nutrient compositions contact us nano website 11


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research communications ­ nfpogo alumni lailah gifty akita reading for ph.d current affiliation international max planck research school for global biogeochemical cycles imprsgbgc email wikipage http lailah+larteyantwi research interests benthic ecology/biological oceanography chemical oceanography palaeoclimatology/palaeooceanography phdproject holocene and late glacial monsoon and lake system changes on the tibetan plateau this is part of the project entitled lake systems response to late quaternary monsoon dynamics on the tibetan plateau is in joint cooperation with the institute of tibetan plateau research and chinese academy of sciences the tibetan plateau is located in the interaction zone of the indian summer monsoon asian winter monsoon and the westerlies owing to its average elevation of 4.5 km above sea level it is considered to be a major driver of the global climate system also the ecosystems of the plateau are highly sensitive to changes in the water balance ostracods small bivalve crustaceans 0.5 2.0 mm are environmentally sensitive organisms which are readily preserved as fossils because of their calcitic shells ostracoda are far the most abundant calcareous organism remains on the tibetan plateau although other organisms such as cladocerans diataoms mollusks are also present their calcite shells provide a discrete source of biogenic carbonate extremely valuable quaternary palaeoenvironmental indicators our study will explore the climatic history of lake systems in central tibetan plateau by examining ostracoda assemblages developing and using ostracodabased transfer function coupled trace element and stable oxygen and carbon isotope signatures of their valves from tangra yumco and /or taro co lakes in the tibetan plateau the main objective is to obtain the geochemical records on environmental hydrological and climatic variations on the southern tibetan plateau over late glacial and holocene period and the onset of modern climate in the study areas specific objectives ·increasing bioindicator s potential of microfossils especially ostracods for palaeolimnological work on the tibetan plateau ·palaeoenviromental reconstructions for lake systems of the southern tibetan plateau palaeoclimatological synthesis for the late glacial to holocene it is anticipated that analysis of trace element and stable isotope records from ostracoda shells within the holocene sediment of southern tibetan plateau would provide further insight into the environmental and/or hydrological changes of this region for the last glacial and postglacial cycle reconstruction of the environment history of southern tibetan during the late quaternary may thus lead to better knowledge of variations in monsoon strength finally we also hope that this study would serve to deepen our understanding of global environmental/climatic change for the late quaternary contact us nano website 12


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research communications ­ nfpogo alumni sebastian krieger laboratório de oceanografia por satélites instituto oceanográfico da universidade de são paulo email wikipage http sebastian+krieger research work carried out i have been involved with ocean remote sensing during last few years and increasingly interested in climate change and its impacts i analyzed remotely sensed sea surface height data from the topex/poseidon and jason1 satellites to verify the spectral variability of rossby waves preliminary results indicate that these waves are globally significant contribute about 48 of the total observed spectral power depending on the scales and study areas one or more wave type can become more important in estuarine regions for example currents are dominated by tides river discharge and by cold fronts recently i have been involved in studying variability of speeds of surface currents in the itajaíaçú river estuary in southern brazil using wavelet analysis as expected the surface currents are governed by the semidiurnal tide and show peak spectrum with periods of approximately 12 hours the spectrum also indicates modulation every 16 days associated with the spring and neap tidal cycle on a larger scale i have also analyzed the spectrum of the sea surface height ssh anomaly from the merged multisensor dataset provided by aviso also applying modern wavelet analysis and selecting events with periods centered at 3 6 12 and 24 months i calculated the relative contribution of each range to the total spectra in the atlantic ocean at this scale only the events with periods of more than 10 days could be observed mainly due to inherent limitations of the instrument applying wavelet analysis to a timeseries enables us to construct a new timeseries of its spectral power content other interests biophysical interactions during my nfpogo training at bios i tried to identify if rossby waves influence the nutrient availability in the sargasso sea and their effect on the primary production i used timeseries of in situ measurements of the bats study as well as remotely sensed ssh and chlorophylla estimates in future i expect to extend my knowledge in the field of marine biooptics and try to understand the biological response to the effects associated with climate change since a major part of my work has been analyzing continuous measurements i would be interested in contributing to strengthening the established timeseries of oceancolour data contact us nano website 13


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research communications ­ nfpogo alumni rafael rasse instituto venezolano de investigaciones científicas laboratorio de química atmosférica caracas venezuela email wikipage http rafael+rasse research work influence of river discharge and atmospheric deposition on the water column total dissolved nitrogen content of the cariaco basin venezuela river discharge of total dissolved nitrogen tdn to the coastal ecosystems has been increasing in the last century as a consequence of human activities as a result of this discharge eutrophication is increasing and `dead zones have been extending along the coastal areas at regional continental and global scales the scenario is more complicated in developing countries because wastewater discharges are largely untreated and thus wastewater enhances the supply of nitrogen and other nutrients to coastal areas also anthropogenic atmospheric deposition of total nitrogen in the ocean has increased by 10 fold and its influence can alter ocean primary productivity on regional scales for the cariaco basin in venezuela little information is available on how the river discharge could affect the primary production and the total suspended sediment export we measured tdn fluxes from the atmosphere and four tropical rivers tuy unare neveri and manzanares and tributaries of the cariaco basin river water samples were collected from september 2008 until september 2009 atmospheric deposition samples were collected during wet and dry seasons for one month period in each season total annual river tdn discharge ranged from 11400 to 15200 tonn and tuy river had the largest contribution 94.3 atmospheric tdn wet deposition was between 2400 to 4800 tonn/year and the relative contribution of dissolved organic nitrogen don was between 60 and 80 indicating a low atmospheric anthropogenic influence the elevated tdn fluxes observed from the tuy river are associated with the urban and industrial untreated wastewater discharges from caracas metropolitan area the large export of tdn from tuy river is likely producing changes in water quality in marine ecosystem near the river mouth therefore it is necessary to develop mitigation actions to decrease the export of tdn from urban and industrial wastewater and prevent eutrophication processes in these coastal ecosystems contact us nano website 14



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