Journey Toward Appropriate Technology Use at School and at Home


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feature addressing appropriate technology behavior digital citizenship by mike s ribble gerald d bailey and tweed w ross subject appropriate technology use grades k­12 ages 5­18 standards nets·s 2 nets·t vi nets·a vi http standards supplement http 6 learning leading with technology volume 32 number 1 copyright © 2004 iste international society for technology in education 1.800.336.5191 u.s canada or 1.541.302.3777 int l all rights reserved.


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r feature ecently the popular press has pointed to increasing evidence of misuse and abuse of emerging technologies in u.s schools some examples include using web sites to intimidate or threaten students downloading music illegally from the internet plagiarizing information using the internet using cellular phones during class time and playing games on laptops or handhelds during class how can we address these issues iste s national educational technology standards nets give us a starting point the standards for students teachers and administrators all address social and ethical issues for example nets for students 2 social ethical and human issues covers three very broad areas 1 students understand the ethical cultural and societal issues related to technology 2 students practice responsible use of technology systems information and software 3 students develop positive attitudes toward technology applications that support lifelong learning collaboration personal pursuits and productivity all three of these areas are very important and help form students technological development however iste created these standards to guide in-school behavior with increasing reports of student misuses of technology student behavior in and out of school has become an issue for educators they must prepare students to be members of a digital society or digital citizens in this article we discuss nine areas of digital citizenship and provide strategies for teachers to employ and teach appropriate behavior next month we provide questions and answers to help technology coordinators and administrators implement digital citizenship a definition of digital citizenship digital citizenship can be defined as the norms of behavior with regard to technology use as a way of understanding the complexity of digital citizenship and the issues of technology use abuse and misuse we have identified nine general areas of behavior that make up digital citizenship 1 etiquette electronic standards of conduct or procedure 2 communication electronic exchange of information 3 education the process of teaching and learning about technology and the use of technology 4 access full electronic participation in society 5 commerce electronic buying and selling of goods 6 responsibility electronic responsibility for actions and deeds 7 rights those freedoms extended to everyone in a digital world 8 safety physical well-being in a digital technology world 9 security self-protection electronic precautions to guarantee safety digital citizenship speaks to several levels of responsibility for technology some issues may be of more concern to technology leaders while others may be of more concern to teachers topics within digital citizenship are wide and varied so you will need to use these topics as a buffet and take what you need realizing that the other themes are there examples and strategies etiquette digital behavior makes everyone a role model for students the problem with teaching digital technology is not all the rules have been written about uses for these devices as new technologies have proliferated users have not had the opportuni ty to catch up with all of their uses some rules or policies are assumed while others have been created by an individual user or group according to a 2003 cingular wireless survey of users and mobile phone etiquette 42 in the south atlantic region of the united states said they would answer a ringing phone while having a face-to-face conversation editor s note find this and other resources mentioned in this article on p 11 the online supplement contains further resources on the issues addressed here when students see adults using technologies inappropriately they can assume it is the norm this leads to inappropriate technology behavior on the part of students inappropriate etiquette · students use handhelds or instant messaging im to send nonclass-related messages back and forth in class strategies · follow rules and policies established by the school or district for appropriate technology use · use case studies or scenarios such as those included in the paper steal this test posted on our digital citizenship site to illustrate appropriate and inappropriate ways of using technology · model appropriate uses of technology in and out of the classroom communication cell phones im and e-mail have changed the way technology users communicate these forms of communication have created a new social structure of who how and when people interact inappropriate communication · students use cellular phones as the new digital clique to exclude other students for example excluding when students see adults using technologies inappropriately they can assume it is the norm this leads to inappropriate technology behavior on the part of students september 2004 learning leading with technology 7 copyright © 2004 iste international society for technology in education 1.800.336.5191 u.s canada or 1.541.302.3777 int l all rights reserved.


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feature educators need to encourage students to use technology in a responsible way to prevent various physical injuries certain students from their cellular phone books · students use im and e-mail shorthand in class assignments using poor grammar and inappropriate slang or abbreviations can lead to bad habits in formal writing strategies · model good use of electronic communication e.g sending messages that are to the point avoiding shorthand when it is not appropriate · encourage students to use digital communication but correct them when they are doing something inappropriate · use e-mail in situations where short responses are most appropriate · use cell phones for learning purposes e.g accessing information in real time education technology-infused teaching is becoming more commonplace every year technology in the classroom is becoming as transparent as the chalkboard and pencil however teaching how to use this technology has not grown accordingly technology-infused teaching does not always include teaching about appropriate and inappropriate uses of technology inappropriate education · students use cell phones or handhelds to get test/quiz answers from other students · teachers do not teach students how technology can be used to find credible resources and materials strategies · create activities and exercises that allow students to use pdas to retrieve store and share information in a responsible fashion · encourage students to come up with new and alternative uses for the internet and digital technolo8 learning leading with technology gies e.g im or online discussion boards · provide learning opportunities in different technology modes e.g web sites chat rooms course management systems · teach information literacy e.g identifying accessing applying and creating information by using technology-infused projects access technology provides many opportunities for large numbers of people to access and use alternative forms of communication but not everyone has the ability to use or access the tools in the new digital society often these opportunities are only available to a small group of students even though the price of technology is rapidly dropping and access to technology is greater than ever before the disparity of who does and does not have access to technology in america is widening a 2003 report by the u.s department of education showed that only 41 percent of blacks and hispanics were using a computer in the home compared to 77 percent of whites inappropriate access · schools ignore or overlook the digital needs of disenfranchised groups · school districts do not provide specialized technologies for special populations e.g unavailable because of lack of funds · teachers fail to accommodate students who do not have access · teachers shy away from assignments that require technology for fear that students do not have access strategies · explore web sites and materials to learn more about accessibility issues the world wide web consortium snow and the special needs and technology page are good places to start volume 32 number 1 · identify students who have special needs or circumstances and explore ways to accommodate their technology needs e.g assistive technology seri s special needs and technology resources page can help you identify technology tools · advocate the creation of web sites that enable everyone to have equal access both in language and structure · advocate for technology access for all students irrespective of disabilities for example either adhere to the world wide web consortium s guidelines for web site creation or ask that those in your school or district who create web pages adhere to these guidelines · provide time for students to use school technology to work on assignments · allow students to work together on assignments i.e pair students with no or limited access to technology with others who have significantly greater access commerce online purchasing is rapidly becoming the norm and students need to understand this process according to the e-commerce times report there s money in teen web surfers 29 of teens research products on the internet before purchasing them in stores if our goal is to produce literate citizens then a discussion of digital commerce is important inappropriate commerce · students purchase goods online without knowledge of how to protect their identity identity theft · students fail to realize the consequences of poor online purchasing practices e.g impulse buying although poor purchasing practices are common to face-to-face and electronic exchanges students are at greater risk online because of ease of access unscrupulous sellers and targeted maketing copyright © 2004 iste international society for technology in education 1.800.336.5191 u.s canada or 1.541.302.3777 int l all rights reserved.


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feature strategies · engage students in a dialogue about using technology to purchase goods and services · engage students in a discussion about good and bad experiences of purchasing goods online · ask students to read comparison shopping web sites such as cnet or addall to analyze comparative shopping strategies · teach students about the dangers of identity theft and how to protect themselves responsibility at an early age students found it easy to locate and download material from the internet however they have not learned what is appropriate or inappropriate legal or illegal when using the internet for example a 2003 business software alliance report indicated that twothirds of college faculty and administrators say it is wrong to download or swap files while fewer than one-quarter of students at the same colleges say it is wrong recently the recording industry association of america riaa filed suit against students and others for downloading music illegally this action has caused technology users to think twice about what is appropriate and legal inappropriate responsibility · students download illegal mp3 music from sites · students copy material off the internet for class projects without giving credit to the author strategies · use materials from junior achievement to illustrate the cost of illegal downloading from the internet · open a dialogue on students feelings regarding their material being downloaded without permission · discuss with students the school s codes of conduct as well as specific laws as they relate to illegal use of technology and the consequence cost for the breaking those rules laws · begin discussion on student perceptions of ethical/unethical technology use · discuss fair use and copyright laws rights when creating or publishing anything digitally students have the same copyright protection as any other content creators inappropriate rights · schools do not protect the rights of users working with school technology · students violate school acceptable use policies aups because they view them as unfair strategies · teach faculty about student digital rights · teach students about their digital rights · engage the school community in discussion of why school and district policies regarding technology exist · provide students with information about appropriate and inappropriate use of technology in school · engage students about the differences between rights in school and outside school when using technology safety students need to be aware of the physical dangers that are inherent in using technology carpal tunnel syndrome is one though not the only such danger eyestrain and poor posture are not uncommon in technology-related activities educators need to encourage students to use technology in a responsible way to prevent various physical injuries having proper ergonomics can help protect students from long-lasting problems related to unsafe use of technology inappropriate safety · teachers are unaware of possible negative physical effects of technology on students · teachers do not teach ergonomics when using technology strategies · explore web sites e.g ucla s ergonomics site to learn new ways for using technology safely · make sure that rooms are well lit and provide appropriately sized furniture for the technology use · make students aware of the longterm physical effects of certain technology use security as more and more sensitive information is stored electronically a corresponding strategy to protect that information must be created students need to learn how to protect electronic data e.g virus protection firewalls off-site storage protecting one s equipment is not only a matter of personal responsibility but also necessary for protecting the community e.g keeping one s virus software up to date however digital security goes beyond protecting equipment it includes protecting ourselves and others from outside influences that would do us physical harm inappropriate security · students and educators assume there is no need to protect electronic data · students and faculty fail to maintain current software updates or patches on their home computers that protect us from viruses · students do not protect their identities while using e-mail chat or im strategies · contact organizations e.g i-safe america to obtain materials about protecting one s equipment is not only a matter of personal responsibility but also necessary for protecting the community september 2004 learning leading with technology 9 copyright © 2004 iste international society for technology in education 1.800.336.5191 u.s canada or 1.541.302.3777 int l all rights reserved.


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feature protecting online users · research what your school does to provide protection from possible outside digital harm · teach students to back up data and protect their equipment from damage · teach students how to conduct regular checks for viruses or other software intrusions using approved software the national cyber security alliance stated that 67 of broadband users don t have properly installed and securely configured firewalls conclusion digital citizenship has become a priority for schools that see technology integration as a major teaching and learning strategy for preparing students to live and work in the 21st century using the nets to help understand how technology should be used in the curriculum and applying digital citizenship to help define students behavior will facilitate the development of well-rounded technology-savvy students as the years pass and new digital technologies appear a framework of codified principles will be harder to create society will need guidance on how to act with respect to technology laws will be enacted but they will not be enough groups and organizations including schools have created rules and aups but they too fall short there has been no universal agreement on how we should act in relation to digital technologies will reaching an agreement be easy quite the opposite it will be very difficult to come to a consensus on how everyone will deal with digital technology we must begin somewhere and because the schools encompass our future this is where the discussion begins in his 1975 book fifty-four landmark briefs and arguments of the supreme court of the united states u.s supreme court justice thurgood marshall helps place the importance and urgency of teaching digital citizenship in proper perspective education is not the teaching of the three r s education is the teaching of the overall citizenship to learn to live together with fellow citizens and above all to learn to obey the law resources reports business software alliance 2003 internet piracy on campus available http www eturnurl resources/loader.cfm?url commonspot/security/getfile.cfm&pagei d=2396&cfid=88560&cftoken=8 7295225 cingular wireless 2003 cingular wireless survey reveals regional differences in courteous use of cell phones available http 03_10_27 enos l 2003 report there s money in teen web surfers e-commerce times available http 12095.html national cyber security alliance 2003 fast and present danger in-home study on broadband security among american consumers available http ribble m s bailey g d n.d steal this test available http digitalcitizenship/compassart.pdf u.s department of education national center for education statistics 2003 computer and internet use by children and adolescents in 2001 available http pubid=2004014 web sites addall http http i-safe america http junior achievement s digital citizenship materials http programs_supplements_citizenship.shtml mike ribble and gerald bailey s digital citizenship site http digitalcitizenship seri s special needs and technology resources http snow http products special needs and technology http and_technology.htm ucla ergonomics http world wide web consortium http mike s ribble serves as the instructional services coordinator for the college of education at kansas state university he has worked as a network manager at northeast community college in norfolk nebraska he was an assistant principal and before that a science teacher at bishop carroll high school in wichita kansas dr gerald d bailey is a professor of educational leadership in the college of education at kansas state university his areas of specialty are technology leadership and staff development prior to earning his doctorate at the university of nebraska he worked as a classroom teacher demonstration teacher and supervisor in the lincoln nebraska public schools dr tweed w ross is an associate professor of educational technology in the department of educational administration and leadership and director of the catalyst center at the college of education kansas state university his research interests include the ethical issues of information technology and the preparation of undergraduate preservice educators to use information technologies in k­12 classrooms let us know what you think l&l accepts and prints letters to the editor send your responses to articles by e-mail to or by regular mail to kate conley l&l editor iste publishing dept 480 charnelton street eugene or 97401-2626 usa september 2004 learning leading with technology 11 copyright © 2004 iste international society for technology in education 1.800.336.5191 u.s canada or 1.541.302.3777 int l all rights reserved.


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online supplement this is a supplement to digital citizenship by mike ribble et al further resources general ermann m d williams m b shauf m s 1997 computers ethics and society 2nd ed new york oxford university press lessig l 1999 code and other laws of cyberspace new york basic books mccain t d e jukes i 2001 windows on the future education in the age of technology thousand oaks ca corwin press rights and responsibilities of computing users 1993 available http rightscomputerusers.html etiquette batista e 2003 new privacy menace cell phones wired available http 0,1367,57692,00.html jackson m 2003 march 2 turn off that cellphone it s meeting time new york times available http 2003/03/02/business/yourmoney/02exli .html?ex=1063339200&en=3c1c4fad2b3 a67ba&ei=5070 editor s note you must register at the new york times web site to access these articles registration is free communication kahney l 2003 gag rules bloggers report anyway wired available http 0,1284,59116,00.html education cyber bullies target girl 2003 available http nottinghamshire/2933894.stm guernsey l 2003 july 24 in the lecture hall a geek chorus new york times available http 24/technology/circuits/24mess.html?ex 1063339200&en=cb2ce8fa99f86fe0&ei =5070 guernsey l 2003 august 14 a young writers round table via the web new york times available http 2003/08/14/technology/circuits/ ml?ex=1063339200&en=d04e36ad35b84 7c6&ei=5070 mackenzie h 2003 stay home highland laddie wired available http 0,1284,59678,00.html toppo g 2003 august 11 who s watching the class webcams in schools raise privacy issue usa today available http 5396054s.htm access dean k 2003 gesture your mouse away wired available http news/gizmos/0,1452,58978,00.html hafner k 2003 april 17 eluding the web s snare new york times available http technology/circuits/17shun.html?ex=106 3339200&en=b2b9d72b27138633&ei 5070 male m 2003 technology for inclusion meeting the special needs of all students 4th ed boston allyn and bacon commerce greenspan r 2003 more spending more available http markets/retailing/article/0,1323,6061 3079601,00.html responsibility dean k 2003 upload a file go to prison wired available http news/digiwood/0,1412,59654,00.html harmon a 2003 september 1 digital vandalism spurs a call for oversight new york times available http technology/01net.html?ex=1063339200 &en=6c9adcbdd0cb5f11&ei=5070 harmon a 2003 september 10 new parent-to-child chat do you download music new york times available http technology/10musi.html?th rimer s 2003 september 3 a campus fad that s being copied internet plagiarism new york times available http 03chea.html?th safety manjoo f 2003 carpal study stress syndrome wired available http 0,1283,44400,00.html security foderaro l w 2003 sept 5 man charged with raping girl he met on internet new york times available http 05net.html?th fryer w a 2003 a beginner s guide to school security technology learning 242 9 play it cyber safe http learning leading with technology volume 32 number 1 copyright © 2004 iste international society for technology in education 1.800.336.5191 u.s canada or 1.541.302.3777 int l all rights reserved.



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