THE ENTEBBE DECLARATION
CALLING FOR GLOBAL ACTION TO PROTECT AND PROMOTE TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE HERITAGE, ESPECIALLY WITHIN THE LEAST ECONOMICALLY
The overarching mission of the International National Trusts Organisation (“INTO”) is to promote the conservation and enhancement of the cultural and
natural heritage of all nations for the benefit of the people of the world.
In furtherance of this mission, INTO has objectives, amongst others, to pursue advocacy in the interests of conservation of cultural and natural heritage and to formulate and promote conservation best practices.
At the 10th International National Trusts Conference in Edinburgh, Scotland, in
September 2003 members of the then International Network of National
Trusts and allied organisations adopted the Edinburgh Declaration for the
Improved Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage at the National and Local Levels (“Edinburgh Declaration”)
At the 12th International National Trusts Conference in New Delhi, India, in
December 2007, on the occasion of the formal launch of INTO, the Charter of INTO was agreed, in which it was specified that one of INTO’s objectives is to
advance the objectives of the Edinburgh Declaration.
The objectives of theEdinburgh Declaration remain vitally relevant globally but no more so than within and amongst the Least Economically Developed Nations where progress has been far too slow in achieving the necessary reforms to secure the conservation of cultural and natural heritage and to formulate and promote conservation best practices within these Nations.
AND NOTING That UNESCO, the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation, convened an International Congress “Culture: Key to Sustainable Development” in Hangzhou China in May 2013 at which the
participants adopted the Hangzhou Declaration Placing Culture at the Heart of Sustainable Development Policies (“Hangzhou Declaration”)
which is highly relevant to the concerns of INTO.
NOW BY THIS THE ENTEBBE DECLARATION members of INTO and other delegates representing cultural and natural heritage organisations gathered in Entebbe, Uganda, and those who subsequently endorse it, both embrace the Hangzhou Declaration and reconfirm the Edinburgh Declaration whilst stressing that particular challenges facing the Least Economically Developed Nations must be overcome in order to achieve the conservation of tangible and intangible heritage.
With respect to tangible and intangible heritage urge the global community, including in particular its leaders, to:
(a) Accept the importance of the propositions in the Hangzhou Declaration and act on the urgent need to implement the identified actions to ensure that heritage conservation is central to sustainable development;
(b) Recognise that the National Trust movement has identified relevant actions, as set out in the Edinburgh Declaration, that if facilitated are consistent with the Hangzhou Declaration;
(c) Facilitate the means, including identifying and applying the required financial resources, to enable the identified actions to be implemented;
(d) Accept that governments, especially within the Least Economically Developed Nations, would be assisted in fulfilling their responsibilities if the role that National Trusts and other non-government organisations can perform in preserving, conserving and promoting heritage is both recognised and facilitated;
(e) Recognise that the preservation of and freedom to express intangible heritage is an important element of human rights, particularly with respect to minority peoples and the retention of oral traditions;
(f) Accept that the freedom to access and thereafter promote heritage, through education and other proactive means, has both societal values and human rights ramifications which should be respected;
(g) Devise programmes which take into account the particular needs of minorities, gender balance and youth, and specific indigenous peoples’ concerns;
(h) Endorse the importance of and so facilitate collaboration between governments, non-governmental organisations - including National Trusts and other heritage organisations – and the corporate sector, reflecting the shared obligations of all nations and all peoples with respect to their shared inheritance;
(i) Accept the importance of and so facilitate as a function of democratic civil society, heritage organisations, such as National Trusts, being duty bound to engage with governments, such as campaigning for the enactment of necessary heritage laws and the promulgation of appropriate heritage policies;
(j) Act on the particular urgency to implement strategies to support the Least Economically Developed Nations in building the capacity to safeguard their heritage;
(k) Accept that failure to take the actions recommended in this Declaration will see irreparable loss of both tangible and intangible heritage at an exponential rate.
The Human Rights context
We reconfirm that the entitlement of all people to access, understand, learn from, participate in and celebrate cultural activity and cultural creations is an inherent component of the social stability of all nations and of all peoples – the protection of cultural integrity is therefore a fundamental human right.
The destruction of culture is a fundamental breach of the principle of intergenerational equity, in that a culture, or a component of it, destroyed or diminished within the time of the current generation will deprive members of future generations of their right to their cultural inheritance.
These principles are enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and have been restated and expanded upon in many Conventions and Declarations of the United Nations. We note in particular that:
Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights confirms that “everyone, as a member of society … is entitled to realization … of the social and cultural rights indispensable to dignity and free development of personality”;
Article 27 provides that: “Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits”; and
Article 28 provides that “Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized”.
The Entebbe Declaration Calling for Global Action to Protect and Promote Tangible and Intangible Heritage, especially within the Least Economically Developed Nations was adopted by members of the International National Trusts Organisation („INTO‟) and other delegates representing cultural and natural heritage organisations gathered in Entebbe, Uganda, on 30 September – 4 October 2013 for the 15th International Conference of National Trusts: the theme of which was “Our Heritage, our Future – Cultural Diversity for Responsible Development”.
TheInternational National Trusts Organisation („INTO‟) occupies a unique role within theglobal heritage movement, bringing together natural and cultural heritage organisations from around the world, representing a constituency of well in excess of six million individual members across some 60 countries and growing. Through alliances and affiliations with other organisations sharing a common concern for the global environment, the INTO “voice” speaks for tens of millions of people globally.
INTO member organisations and INTO‟s associates, affiliates and partners have pledged to work with governments and agencies worldwide to protect the world‟s natural and cultural heritage now and for future generations. Conscious of their role as custodians and repositories of heritage, which is the manifestation of evolved and evolving culture, INTO member organisations have and will at all times strive to be exemplars of best practice.
THE HANGZHOU DECLARATION PLACING CULTURE AT THE HEART OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
1. Integrate culture within all development policies and programmes
Development is shaped by culture and local context, which ultimately also determine its outcomes. The cultural dimension should be systematically integrated in definitions of sustainable development and well-being, as well as in the conception, measurement and actual practice of development policies and programmes.
2. Mobilize culture and mutual understanding to foster peace and reconciliation
In the context of globalization, and in the face of the identity challenges and tensions it can create, intercultural dialogue and the recognition of and respect for cultural diversity can forge more inclusive, stable and resilient societies. They should be promoted notably through educational, communication and artistic programmes, as well as through dedicated national councils, to foster an environment conducive to tolerance and mutual understanding.
3. Ensure cultural rights, including access rights, for all to promote inclusive social development
Guaranteeing cultural rights, access to cultural goods and services, free participation in cultural life, and freedom of artistic expression are critical to forging inclusive and equitable societies. A rightsbased approach to culture and respect for cultural and linguistic diversity should be promoted within national and regional policies and legal frameworks, including consideration for minorities, gender balance, and youth and specific indigenous peoples’ concerns. Cultural values, assets and practices, including those of minorities and indigenous peoples, should be integrated into educational and communication programmes, and they should be safeguarded and given adequate recognition.
Cultural literacy in schools is an integral part of quality education, and it should play an important role in the promotion of inclusive and equitable societies. Special support should be provided to cultural programmes that foster creativity and artistic expression, learn from the experiences of the past, and promote democracy and the freedom of expression, as well as address gender issues, discrimination, and the traumas resulting from violence.
4. Leverage culture for poverty reduction and inclusive economic development
Culture, as knowledge capital and as a resource, provides for the needs of individuals and communities and reduces poverty. The capabilities of culture to provide opportunities for jobs and incomes should be enhanced, targeting in particular women, girls, minorities and youth. The full potential of creative industries and cultural diversity for innovation and creativity should be harnessed, especially by promoting small and medium-sized enterprises, and trade and investments that are based on materials and resources that are renewable, environmentally sustainable, locally available, and accessible to all groups within society, as well as by respecting intellectual property rights. Special attention should be given to supporting responsible, culturally-aware, inclusive and sustainable tourism and leisure industries that contribute to the socio-economic development of host communities, promote cross-cultural exchanges, and generate resources for the safeguarding of tangible and intangible heritage.
5. Build on culture to promote environmental sustainability
The safeguarding of historic urban and rural areas and of their associated traditional knowledge and practices reduces the environmental footprints of societies, promoting more ecologically sustainable patterns of production and consumption and sustainable urban and architectural design solutions. Access to essential environmental goods and services for the livelihood of communities should be secured through the stronger protection and more sustainable use of biological and cultural diversity, as well as by the safeguarding of relevant traditional knowledge and skills, paying particular attention to those of indigenous peoples, in synergy with other forms of scientific knowledge.
6. Strengthen resilience to disasters and combat climate change through culture
The appropriate conservation of the historic environment, including cultural landscapes, and the safeguarding of relevant traditional knowledge, values and practices, in synergy with other scientific knowledge, enhances the resilience of communities to disasters and climate change. The feeling of normalcy, self-esteem, sense of place and confidence in the future among people and communities affected by disasters should be restored and strengthened through cultural programmes and the rehabilitation of their cultural heritage and institutions. Consideration for culture should be integrated into disaster-risk reduction and climate-change mitigation and adaptation policies and plans in general.
7. Value, safeguard and transmit culture to future generations
Heritage is a critical asset for our well-being and that of future generations, and it is being lost at an alarming rate as a result of the combined effects of urbanization, development pressures, globalization, conflicts and phenomena associated with climate change. National policies and programmes should be strengthened in order to secure the protection and promotion of this heritage and of its inherited systems of values and cultural expressions as part of the shared commons, while giving it a central role in the life of societies. This should be achieved by its full integration in the development sector as well as in educational programmes.
8. Harness culture as a resource for achieving sustainable urban development and management
A vibrant cultural life and the quality of urban historic environments are key for achieving sustainable cities. Local governments should preserve and enhance these environments in harmony with their natural settings. Culture-aware policies in cities should promote respect for diversity, the transmission and continuity of values, and inclusiveness by enhancing the representation and participation of individuals and communities in public life and improving the conditions of the most disadvantaged groups. Cultural infrastructure, such as museums and other cultural facilities, should be used as civic spaces for dialogue and social inclusion, helping to reduce violence and foster cohesion.
9. Capitalize on culture to foster innovative and sustainable models of cooperation
The great and unexplored potential of public-private partnerships can provide alternative and sustainable models for cooperation in support of culture. This will require the development, at national level, of appropriate legal, fiscal, institutional, policy and administrative enabling environments, to foster global and innovative funding and cooperation mechanisms at both the national and international levels, including grass-roots initiatives and culture-driven partnerships already promoted by civil society.
THE EDINBURGH DECLARATION FOR THE IMPROVED PROTECTION OF CULTURAL AND NATURAL
HERITAGE AT THE NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
RECOGNISED and ACCEPTED that:
i. the cultural and natural heritage of the world is of fundamental benefit to all humankind, irrespective of race, creed or nationality, for its inspirational, artistic, scientific or spiritual values as well as the critical role it plays;
ii. the present generation is responsible for safeguarding this heritage and has a duty and a desire to bequeath it to the future generations in at least the same, and preferably in an enhanced, status and condition;
iii. conservation of heritage can encourage closer co-operation and integration between people and societies of different ethnic backgrounds through the identification and communication of elements of a common heritage;
iv. conservation of both cultural and natural heritage is fundamental to sustainable development at national and local levels by promoting socio-economic development, environmental management and educational opportunity;
v. although some notable successes have been achieved in protecting individual sites and monuments of outstanding heritage value, throughout the world such sites particularly those of national and local importance, are increasingly threatened by social, economic, and environmental pressures, which are themselves growing at an accelerating rate;
vi. the primary cause of this progressive loss in the heritage assets of a nation is inactivity arising from lack of knowledge, indifference, neglect or lack of capacity to address the problem;
vii. current efforts for protection of this heritage at national and local levels are often ineffective because the limited economic, scientific and technological resources and skills available;
viii. many of the most successful efforts in conserving sites of heritage value have been achieved through close collaboration between the governmental and voluntary movements, and that such partnerships are increasingly recognised as being an effective means of implementing conservation programmes;
ix. the inter-governmental instruments, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, and particularly the World Heritage Convention, as well as other regional protocols have shown considerable success in protecting those sites that are recognised as being of such outstanding universal value as to warrant listing at the international level, but have been less effective in promoting and protecting sites of national or local significance; and that
x. the escalating gravity of the dangers confronting both cultural and natural heritage poses a threat to the well-being of all humankind and thus requires a concerted international response;
Specifically DECLARED that:
i. governments throughout the world at both national and local levels should give greater recognition to the benefits arising from the conservation of cultural and natural heritage both to the present and future generations, and therefore should give the conservation of heritage a higher political and financial priority in the determination of national and local policies, using their resources more efficiently and effectively. Measures for the strengthening of the commitment of governments are proposed in Annex 1;
ii. non-governmental organisations around the world should raise their efforts to halt the loss of both cultural and natural heritage at national and local levels, deploying the resources at their disposal in a professional and effective way to achieve this end. Measures for the strengthening of the commitment of non-governmental organisations are proposed in Annex 2;
iii. both governments and non-governmental organisations should work together more closely to address the problem of the progressive loss of cultural and natural heritage, developing joint initiatives both to raise public understanding and concern, and to build capacity at the national and local levels, where appropriate calling on international assistance and co-operation.
iv. the State Parties to the World Heritage Convention should reinforce their commitment to implement the requirements of Article 5 of the Convention as confirmed by the 2002 Budapest Declaration, namely “to protect heritage in all its diversity as an instrument for the sustainable development of all societies through dialogue and mutual understanding”.
Measures proposed for adoption by governments to strengthen their commitment to protect their cultural and natural heritage for the benefit of present and future generations:
i. to develop a national policy, where such policy has not already been developed, that aims to identify, protect, conserve, understand and promote the cultural and natural heritage situated within their territory, and that incorporates a general presumption in favour of the conservation of such heritage, based on the principle that no element of cultural or natural heritage should be lost without a thorough consideration of its significance and of all available means to conserve it;
ii. to establish a government service, where such a service does not already exist, for the identification, protection, conservation, understanding and promotion of the cultural and natural heritage within their territories, providing a professional staff with the resources and training to discharge this function;
iii. to compile a national register of sites, where such a register does not already exist, identified for their cultural and natural heritage significance at national and local level, and to develop appropriate and effective systems for monitoring and recording the status, condition and threats to sites included in such a register;
iv. to develop an appropriate inter-departmental mechanism covering all areas of government for identifying possible threats to the cultural and natural heritage arising from proposed new policies and legislation, so that any proposed government policy or legislation does not directly or inadvertently contribute to the further loss of the national heritage;
v. to encourage international collaboration, particularly between people of different ethnic backgrounds, to identify and foster greater understanding of the common elements of their cultures;
vi. to work in collaboration with the non-governmental sector, including both commercial and voluntary organisations, for the development of national and local programmes for the improved conservation of heritage sites;
vii. to develop the scientific, technical and managerial capabilities required as the basis for mitigating the threats to the cultural and natural heritage, and for the effective conservation and management of features of heritage significance;
viii. to recognise and promote the valuable role that heritage conservation plays in socioeconomic development, and to incorporate it into national and local programmes for sustainable development;
ix. to provide advice, support and clear and comprehensive guidance to all those whose activities have an impact on the management, restoration, protection and conservation of cultural and natural heritage;
x. to incorporate heritage awareness and conservation into the educational curriculum for schools, colleges and universities so as to inculcate a sense of pride in the minds of young people in their national heritage;
xi. to promote heritage conservation through relevant government and non-governmental publications, official websites, and public media, including those of the heritage conservation organisations, so as to build greater awareness of the value of heritage conservation in the minds of the public, and to encourage all people to appreciate, enjoy, and understand their national and local heritage;
xii. to develop national programmes for the education of allied professional disciplines and for the training of craftsmen, technicians and other conservation practitioners covering all aspects of cultural and natural heritage conservation, and to promote appropriate national schemes for the employment of such professionals and craftsmen in all conservation projects involving heritage sites.
Measures proposed for adoption by non-governmental organisations to strengthen their commitment to protect their cultural and natural heritage for the benefit of present and future generations:
i. to work in collaboration with relevant national and local departments and agencies of government, and with other non-governmental organisations, to develop and implement national and local programmes for the improved conservation of heritage sites;
ii. to increase the professional and technical capabilities in heritage conservation through giving greater priority to the education of allied professional disciplines and to the training and personal development of staff, including deployment of staff to
programmes set up by government to train craftsmen, technicians and other practitioners to become skilled in heritage conservation; iii. to communicate the benefits of heritage conservation to national and local audiences as the basis for building public support for its protection, and to champion the cause of heritage conservation as widely as possible; iv. to incorporate heritage conservation activities in programmes for sustainable development at the local community level; v. to develop partnerships to work with local community organisations dedicated to the conservation of local sites of heritage value, and to involve the local communities in a participatory process in the planning and management of such sites; vi. to develop programmes for education and interpretation of cultural and natural heritage to generate greater understanding and awareness of the benefits of their conservation, especially amongst communities local to heritage sites; vii. to develop and participate in programmes set up to promote the sharing and exchange of skills and technologies in heritage conservation, including between organisations in developed and emerging nations, and for the dissemination of best practice.