MANAGING DIVERSITY IN A GLOBAL SOCIETY
A course outline for institutions of higher learning in Uganda
The Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda
1. BACKGROUND 2. COURSE DESCRIPTION 3. COURSE OBJECTIVES 4. EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES 5. MODE OF DELIVERY 6. DETAILED COURSE CONTENT
• Topic A: Introduction to Diversity, Tolerance and Pluralism • Topic B: Identity and Pluralism • Topic C: Marginalisation and Oppression • Topic D: Diversity, Tolerance and Inclusion • Topic E: Human Rights, Diversity and Pluralism • Topic F: Pluralism and Inclusive Development • Topic G: Managing Diversity: Experiences and Methods • Topic H: Practical approaches to managing diversity at the work place
COURSE TITLE: MANAGING DIVERSITY IN A GLOBAL SOCIETY
Credit hours: 60 Credit units: 04
While our diversity across families, communities and nations is a source of wealth, this diversity needs to be managed for the good of all and, as the world increasingly becomes a global village, intolerance rooted in ethnicity, religion, political affiliation and social class becomes especially perilous. Since 2009, the Pluralism Knowledge Programme has brought together Ugandan universities and civil society organisations to better understand the challenges associated with managing diversity, and translated this knowledge into strategies for promoting pluralism in practice. This course outline, which institutions of higher learning are encouraged to adapt to their own needs, arises from a collaborative effort between representatives from 5 Universities and several civil society organisations1.
2. COURSE DESCRIPTION
The course on ‘Managing Diversity in a Global Society’ provides the student with a critical understanding of theories of diversity, tolerance and pluralism, as well as with an opportunity to examine how these can be applied in a practical context. In particular, the student will examine relevant theories and the importance of identity and its multiple dimensions in a global society. The course also focuses on issues of diversity and its relationship with marginalization, oppression and human rights. It explores how an inclusive and pluralistic perspective can influence the notion of development and highlights the implications for development practice, illustrated by the current situation in Uganda and beyond. Lastly, the course examines various methods that can be used to manage diversity for a pluralistic society, including in a work environment.
3. COURSE OBJECTIVES
General objective To expose the student to theories of diversity, tolerance and pluralism and to examine how these can be applied in a practical context.
1 The contributions from Stella Laloyo and Daniel Komakech (Gulu University – Institute for Peace and Strategic Studies); Anna Akwango (DENIVA); Agnes Nambatya (Nkumba University); HabibMaliamungu and Sultan JumaKakuba (Islamic University in Uganda); Patrick Mutegeki (Kampala International University); Ronald KakunguluMayambala (HURIPEC – Makerere University); and Emily Drani and John De Coninck (Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda) are gratefully acknowledged.
Specific objectives 1. To analyse the major theories of pluralism; their similaritiesand points of divergence. 2. To examine the manifestations of diversity and the importance of identity perception and
construction in the elaboration of a pluralistic society. 3. To explore diverse perspectives on marginalisation and oppression and their implications
for a tolerant and global society. 4. To explore diverse notions of human rights in relation to pluralism, including African
approaches to rights and diversity. 5. To enhance an understanding of development from a perspective of diversity and its
implications for practice. 6. To equip the student with knowledge and skills to manage various forms of diversity,
especially in the learning and work environments.
4. EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this course, the student should be able to: 1. Apply major theories of pluralism to a variety of situations. 2. Demonstrate an understanding of managing diversity and its importance in constructing a
pluralistic society. 3. Illustrate diverse perspectives on marginalisation and oppression and their implications for
a tolerant and global society. 4. Appreciate diverse notions of human rights in relation to pluralism. 5. Demonstrate a practical understanding of development from a perspective of diversity. 6. Practice different methods of managing various forms of diversity, including in a University
5. MODE OF DELIVERY
1. Lectures 2. Guest lectures 3. Presentations 4. Discussions 5. Debates 6. Role plays 7. Documentaries 8. Research 9. Problem solving method 10. Fieldwork/case studies 11. Discovery / reflections 12. Attachment to relevant organisations
6. DETAILED COURSE CONTENT
Topic A: Introduction to Diversity, Tolerance and Pluralism
»» Historical overview: Pre- and post-World War II conceptions of pluralism; civil liberties and social movements;the global economy and the information age
»» Theoretical approaches: »» Diversity theories »» Tolerance theories; theories of integration »» Pluralism Theories »» Fundamental principles »» Theory of integration »» Neo-pluralism »» Capability theory »» Critical theory »» African perspectives (Ubuntu,Afrikology, Afrocentricism) »» Elite theory; Neo-corporate school »» Liberal pluralist theory »» Interest Group theory »» Definitions of diversity, tolerance and pluralism
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University of Michigan Press. yy Dahl. R. (1991),Democracy and its Critics, (2nd Edition), New Haven, Conn: Yale University
Press yy Dallymayr, F. (2010),Integral Pluralism: Beyond Culture Wars. Kentucky: The University Press
of Kentucky. yy Eisfeld, R(2006), “Pluralism and Democratic Governance: A Century of Changing Research
Frameworks” in Rainer Eisfeld (Ed.), Pluralism: Developments in the Theory and Practice of Democracy, Leverkusen: Barbara Budrich Publishers. yy Galston A. William (2002),Liberal pluralism: the implications of value pluralism for political theory and practice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. yy Kaulem, D. (2002), “On the concept of Freedom in Contemporary Africa”, in A.T. Dalfovo, Readings in African Philosophy, Kampala: Makerere University yy Kaulem, D. (2011),Morality and the Construction of Social Orders in African Modernity, Saarbrücken: Lap Lambert. yy Kymlicka, W. (2006). Multicultural Citizenship: Liberal Theory of Minority Rights, Oxford: Clarendon Press. yy Lowery, D. (2007), “Why Do Organized Interests Lobby? A Multi-Goal, Multi-Context Theory of Lobbying”, Polity, Vol. 39, No. 1. yy Manley F. John (1983),“Neo-Pluralism: A Class Analysis of Pluralism I and Pluralism II”, The American Political Science Review, Vol. 77, No. 2, pp. 368-383. yy Nabudere, W.D. (2011),Afrikology, Philosophy and Wholeness: An Epistemology, Johannesburg: Africa Institute of South Africa. yy Nussbaum, M. (2011), Creating Capabilities, the Human Development Approach, Cambridge, Mass: Belknap. yy Sen, A. (2006), “Development as capability expansion” in BinaAgarwal, Jane Humphries and Ingrid Robeyns (Eds), Capabilities, Freedom and Equality, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Topic B: Identity and Pluralism
»» Definitions and perspectives on the concept of identity »» Dimensions of identity »» Religious »» Racial »» Ethnic »» Class »» Gender »» Identity construction »» My identity and others References • Banchoff, T. (Ed) (2008), Religious Pluralism, Globalisation and World Politics, New York: Oxford
University Press • Bhikhu, P. (2008), A New Politics of Identity, New York: Pallgrave Macmillan • Datum, B. Daniel (1992), “Talking about Race, Learning about Racism: The Application of
Racial Identity Development Theory in the Classroom”, Harvard Educational Review, Spring 1992 • de la Rey, C., Boonzaier, F. (2002), “Constructing Race: Black Women Activists in the Western Cape” in Norman Duncan et al (Eds), Discourses on Difference: Discourses on Oppression, Cape Town: Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society. • Dowling, R. (2009), “Geographies of Identity: Landscapes of Class”, Progress in Human Geography,Vol. 33 no. 6. • Helle-Valle, J. (2005), “Understanding Sexuality in Africa: Diversity and contextualised Dividuality” in Armfred, A. (Ed), Re-thinking sexualities in Africa, Uppsala: Almqvist. • Chandra, K. (2006), “What is Ethnic Identity and does it Matter?”Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 9 • Mamdani, M. (2004), “Race and ethnicity as political identities in the African context” in Nadia Tazi (Ed) Identity – Keyword Series for a Different Kind of Globalisation, New York: Other Press. • Manchon, B. Gonzalez(2000),“Feminist Thought and Social Transformation: Dealing with Diversity and Difference”, Gender Technology and Development,Vol. 4,no. 3. • Mwakikagile, G. (2009),Ethnicity and National Identity in Uganda, Dar es Salaam: New Africa Press. • O’Brien, J. (1998),“Power and the Discourse of Ethnicity in Sudan” in M.A.Mohamed Salih and John Markakis (Eds) Ethnicity and the State in Eastern Africa, Uppsala: NordiskaAfrikainstitutet. • Risman, B.J. (2009). “From Doing to Undoing: Gender as we Know it”, Gender & Society, Vol. 23 no. 1. • Sen, A. (2006), “Making sense of identity”, Identity and Violence, London: Penguin • Agbiboa, D.E. (2013),“Ethno-religious conflicts and the Elusive Quest for National Identity in Nigeria”,Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 44, No 1.
Topic C: Marginalisation and Oppression
»» General introduction to the concepts of marginalisation, oppression and diversity »» Diversity, power, inclusion and exclusion »» Culture, social class, and social identity in development »» Perceptions and attitudes: De-humanisation, racism, fanaticism, ethnocentricism »» Oppression and social justice »» Institutional and systemicpractices of oppression »» International, African and national perspectives on marginalisation and oppression
References • Agamben, G. (1995),Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, Italy: GiulioEinaudi. • Blumenfeld, Warren J.,(Ed) (1992), Homophobia: How we all Pay the Price, Boston: Beacon
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D.C.: The Brookings Institution. • Duncan, N (2002). “Listen Here, Just because YOU think I’m a Coloured…” in Norman
Duncan et al (Eds), Discourses on Difference: Discourses on Oppression, Cape Town: Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society. • Eck, Diana L. (2001), A new religious America: How a “Christian country” has now become the world’s most religiously diverse nation, New York: Harper Collins. • Mamdani, M. (1976), Politics and Class Formation in Uganda, New York and London: Monthly Review Press. • Moellendorf, D. (2002), Cosmopolitan Justice, Boulder, Ca: Westview Press • Nussbaum, Martha C. (2001),Women and Human Development, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Rawls, J. (1999),A Theory of Justice, Cambridge Mass. and London: Harvard University Press. • Rawls, J.(2001), Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, Cambridge Mass. and London: Harvard University Press • Sen, A. (1999), Development as Freedom, Oxford: Oxford University Press • Suleiman, Michael W. (Ed.) “Introduction: The Arab Immigrant experience” in Arabs in America: Building a new future,Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Topic D: Diversity, Tolerance andInclusion
»» Tolerance, relativism in context »» Approaches to multiculturalism »» Equal opportunities and affirmative action »» Actors, spaces and knowledge »» International, African and national perspectives of tolerance and diversity
References • Asad, T. (2009), “Free speech, Blasphemy and Secular Criticism”, Is Critique Secular?,
blasphemy, Injury and Free Speech, Berkeley: The Townsend Centre for Humanities, University of California • Bejczy, I. (1997), “Tolerantia: a medieval concept”,Journal of the History of Ideas Vol. 58. • Brock, K., R. McGee and J. Gaventa (2004), Unpacking Policy – Knowledge, Actors and Spaces in Poverty Reduction in Uganda and Niger, Kampala: Fountain Publishers.
• Brown, W. (2006),Regulating aversion: Tolerance in the Age of Identity and Empire, Princeton, N.J.; Woodstock: Princeton University Press.
• Jaggar, A. (1999), “Multicultural Democracy”, The Journal of Political Philosophy, Vol. 7, no 3. • Kroog, A. (2009), “This thing called reconciliation. Forgiveness as part of an
interconnectedness towards wholeness”, South African Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 27, no 4. • Nelson Mandela speaks on tolerance http://www.youtube.com/watch?v • Payne, M. (1997), “Anti-discriminatory,anti-oppressive perspectives” in Modern Social Work
Theory, Chicago, Ill: Lyceum Books. • Strachan, G., Burgess, J and Sullivan A., “Affirmative Action or Managing Diversity – What
is the Future of Equal Opportunity Policies in Organisations?”, Faculty of Business and Law, The University of Newcastle, NSW, http://www98.griffith.edu.au • Swartz, S (2006), “A long walk to citizenship: morality, justice and faith in the aftermath of apartheid”, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 32, no. 2. • The Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda (2014) (Ed), Managing Diversity, Uganda’s Experience, Kampala: Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda. • The Runnymede Trust (2000),The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain: Report of the Commission the Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain, London: Runnymede Trust. • UN Publications (2001), “Tolerance and diversity - a vision for the 21st century”, UN Chronicle, Vol. 38, no 2. • UNESCO (2002) , Universal Declaration on Diversity, http://unesdoc.unesco.org
Topic E: Human Rights, Diversity and Pluralism
»» Human rights, diversity and pluralism: the linkages »» Relevance of human rights in a pluralistic community »» Universality vs.cultural relativism; Human rights and diversity »» Indigenous peoples and minority rights »» African approaches/perspectives on human rights and diversity »» Evolving national perspectives on human rights, diversityand pluralism »» Ethnic minorities and diversity in Uganda
References • Ambrose, B.P. (1995), Democratization and the Protection of Human Rights in Africa: Problems and
Prospects, Westport, Conn: Praeger. • An-Na’im, A.A.& F.M. Deng (Eds) (1995), Human Rights in Cross Cultural Perspectives: A Quest
for Consensus, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. • Ayton-Shenker, D. (1995), “The Challenge of Human Rights and Cultural Diversity”,
United Nations Department of Public Information, DPI/1927/HR • Berman, P.S. (2007), “A pluralist approach to international law”, Yale Journal of International
Law, Vol. 32, No 2. • Brownlie, I. (1990), Basic Documents in Human Rights, 3rdEd, Oxford: Clarendon Press. • Constitution of the Republic of Uganda, Law Reform Commission, Kampala: 2006 • Howard, R (1986), “Is There an African Concept of Human Rights?”, in Vincent, R.J.
(Ed.), Foreign Policy and Human Rights, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Kushalani, Y. (1983), “Human Rights in Asia and Africa” Human Rights Law Journal, Vol. 4,
no 4. • Minority Rights Group International (2001), “Uganda: The Marginalization of Minorities”,
http://www.minorityrights.org • OAU (1981) The African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, www.humanrights.se
• Onoria,H. (2005), “Review of Major Decisions on Fundamental Rights and Freedoms in Uganda in 2004”, East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights , Vol.11, no 2.
• Osiatynsky, W. (2009), Human Rights and their Limit, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
• Smith, D., Juliet, Garling and Sanders, (Eds) (2008), Contested Governance: Culture, Power and Institutions in Indigenous Australia. Canberra: Australia National University Press
• Tumwine-Mukubwa, G. (2000), “The Promotion and Protection of Human Rights in East Africa”EastAfrican Journal of Peace and Human Rights, Vol6, no 2.
• UNESCO (2005) Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, http://www.unesco.org
• United Nations (1966), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, http:// www.ohchr.org
• United Nations (1992), Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, http://www.un.org
Topic F: Pluralism and Inclusive Development
»» An introduction topluralism and inclusive development »» Human development and the capability theory »» Sustainable development and pluralism »» Governance in an ethnically and culturally diverse polity »» Religion, ethics and development »» Case study on managing diversity in contemporary Uganda References • Anand, S. &Sen, A. (1997), “Concepts of Human Development and Poverty: A Multi-
dimensional Perspective” in UNDP, Human Development 1997 Papers: Poverty and Human Development. New York. • An-Na’im, A. A. (2008),Islam and Secular State, Negotiating the Future of Sharia, Cambridge Mass. and London: Harvard University Press • An-Na’im, A. A. (2002), Cultural Transformation and Human Rights in Africa. London and New York: Zed books. • Bérenger, V.&Verdier-Chouchane, A. (2007), Multi-dimensional Measures of Well-Being: Standard of Living and Quality of Life Across Countries, World Development, Vol. 35, no. 7 • The Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda (2010), “Fostering Unity in Diversity in Uganda. Discussion paper presented at the 3rd Governance Forum organized by the Uganda African Peer Review Mechanism, National Governing Council and the Uganda Human Rights Commission”, www.crossculturalfoundation.or.ug. • De Coninck, J. (2011). “Pluralism: what relevance for Uganda?”, www.Open Democracy. net. • Eck, D.L. (2007), “Prospects for Pluralism: Voice and Vision in the Study of Religion”, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 81, Nr 3 • Maffi, L. & Woodley, E. (2010),Bio-cultural Diversity Conservation. A Global Source Book. London: Earthscan. • Mamdani, M. (2004),Citizen and Subject. Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Kampala: Fountain Publishers. • Maraka, E. (2014), “The Role of Patronage in Shaping Uganda’s Economic, Social and Political Spheres. A literature review in Pluralism in Practice”, Managing Diversity, Uganda’s Experience, Kampala, Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda.
• Naussbaum, M. (2011),Creating Capabilities, the Human Development Approach. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
• Rauniyar, G. (2010),Inclusive Development: Two Papers on Conceptualization, Application, and the ADB Perspective. Independent Evaluation Department, Asian Development Bank, Manila
• Schmitt, T. (2011),Cultural Governance as a Conceptual Framework, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity, Working Paper 11-02. Göttingen.
• Sen, A. (2006),“Development as Capability Expansion” in BinaAgarwal, Jane Humphries, Ingrid Robeyns, (Eds), Capabilities, Freedom and Equality, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
• The Cross-Cultural foundation of Uganda (2008), Culture in Development: Experiences and Prospects. www.crossculturalfoundation.or.ug
• The Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda, (2010),Culture in Governance: Does it Work?www. crossculturalfoundation.or.ug.
• Uganda NGO Forum (2010). National Citizens’ Manifesto Synthesis Report, Kampala.
Topic G:Managing diversity – experiences and methods
• International and African approaches to managing diversity • Mechanisms for fighting intolerance in a diverse community • Managing diversity – the Ugandan experience • Dialogue (rationale, types, approaches, benefits, limitations, and best practices) • Mediation (negotiation and arbitration) • Alternative dispute resolution • Conflict sensitivity • Alternatives to violence • Experience sharing • Verbal judo References • Brown, C.R., et al. (1997),Healing into Action, Washington, D.C.: National Coalition Building
Institute. • Chasin R., Herzig, M., et al (1996), “From Diatribe to Dialogue on Divisive Public Issues:
Approaches Drawn from Family Therapy”,Mediation Quarterly, Vol. 13, no 4. • Chumbow , B.S (2012), “Towards a legal framework for language charters in Africa” in
Brohy, C, du Plessis, T, Turi, J-G., Woehrling, J. (Eds) Law, Language and the Multilingual State, Bloemfontein: Sunmedia.
• Duvall, L. (1994), Respecting our Differences: A Guide to getting along in a changing world. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Press.
• Lederach, J.P. (1995), Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation Across Cultures, Syracuse Studies on Peace and Conflict Resolution, New York: Syracuse University Press
• Lynch, J. (2001),“ADR and Beyond: A Systems Approach to Conflict Management”, Negotiation Journal, Vol. 17, no. 3.
• Nardin, T. (2000), “International Pluralism and the Rule of Law”, Review of International Studies, 2000, Vol. 25, no 5.
• Okuku, J. (2002), Ethnicity, State Power, and the Democratization Process in Uganda, Uppsala: NordiskaAfrikainstitutet
• Orme-Johnson, C., et al.(2002),Basic Mediation Training Trainers’ Manual, Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
• Quadan, A., et al. (2010),Community Mediation: Theory and Practice, Sydney: Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Sydney.
• Sourdin,T.M. (2012), Alternative Dispute Resolution. New York: Thomson Reuters • Steger,M.B., et al. (1999). Violence and its Alternatives: An interdisciplinary reader, New York: St.
Martin’s Press. • The Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda (2014) (Ed), Managing Diversity, Uganda’s
Experience, Kampala: Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda. • Thompson J.G., et al (2004),Verbal Judo: The Gentle Art of Persuasion, New York: William
Morrow • United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime (2007),Training Manual on Alternative Dispute
Resolution and Restorative Justice. • Watson, A. (1984),Diplomacy – The Dialogue between States, London: Taylor and Francis • Yankelovich, D. (2001), The Magic of Dialogue; Transforming Conflict into Cooperation,New York:
Topic H: Practical approaches to managing diversity at the workplace
»» From diversity and tolerance to pluralism »» Models and paradoxes of toleration »» Diversity change process; Diversity management; Diversity drivers in a workplace »» Strategies for managing human resource diversity: From resistance to responses »» Managing diversity: Lessons from the private and public sectors. »» Implementing diversity in a workplace: Principles and best practices across the globe »» Managing diversity in a university setting
References • Carr-Ruffino, N. (2009),Managing Diversity: People Skills for a Multicultural Workplace, 8th Edition,
Pearson Custom Publishing. • Parent, W.S., Kregel, J., Wehman, P., & Metzler, H.M.D. (1991), “Measuring the Social
Integration of Supported Employment Workers”,Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, Vol 1. • Shafer, M. &Nisbet, J. (1988), “Integration and empowerment in the workplace” in M.
Barcus, S. Griffin, D. Mank, L. Rhodes & S. Moon (Eds.), Supported EmploymentImplementation Issues, Richmond, Va: Virginia Commonwealth University, Rehabilitation Research and Training Center • Storey, K. & Homer, R.H. (1991),“Social Interactions in Three Supported Employment Options: A Comparative Analysis,Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Vol. 24. • Harvey, C.P., Allard, J. M. (2002),Understanding and Managing Diversity: Readings, Cases, and Exercises, 4th ed., New Jersey: Prentice Hall. • Miller, F. A., Katz, J. H. (2002),“Diversity in a Box” ,The Inclusion Breakthrough, San Francisco, Ca.: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. • Tapia, A. T. (2009),The Inclusion Paradox, Lincolnshire, Il.: Hewitt Associates, • Thiederman, S. (2008),Making Diversity Work, New York, NY: Kaplan Publishing, • Patrick, H.A. and Kumar, V.R (2012), “Managing Work Place Diversity: Issues and Challenges”, SAGE Open, http://sgo.sagepub.com, • Thomas, K. T. (2008). Diversity Resistance in Organizations, New York, NY:Taylor & Francis • Vusia, S. I and the Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda (2014), “Managing Diversity in African Universities - Living and Challenging Difference on four Ugandan Campuses” inThe Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda (Ed), Managing Diversity, Uganda’s Experience, Kampala: Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda. • Norris, B., (2000) “Managing Cultural Diversity within Higher Education: a South African perspective”, Intercultural Communication, Issue 3.