NIWRMP Vol 1

 

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TRANSFORMING THE WATER SECTOR: NATIONAL INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PLAN STRATEGIES AND ROAD MAP VOLUME 1 - MAIN REPORT

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Transforming the Water Sector: National Integrated Water Resources Management Plan Strategies and Road Map Volume 1 - Main Report Editors: Shahrizaila Abdullah, Fateh Chand, Salmah Zakaria, and P. Loganathan

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© Academy of Sciences Malaysia 2016 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without prior permission of the Copyright owner. Published by: Academy of Sciences Malaysia Level 20, West Wing, MATRADE Tower, Jalan Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah, off Jalan Tuanku Abdul Halim, 50480 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Phone : +6 (03) 6203 0633 Fax : +6 (03) 6203 0634 admin@akademisains.gov.my ASM Advisory : Integrated Water Report (Vol 1) 07/16 Endorsed : June 2016 Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Transforming the Water Sector : National Integrated Water Resources Management Plan : Strategies and Road Map. Volume 1 / Editors: Shahrizaila Abdullah, Fateh Chand, Salmah Zakaria and P. Loganathan Bibliography: page 145 ISBN 978-983-2915-29-4 1. Water resources management--Malaysia. 2. Water resources development Malaysia. 3. Water consumption--Malaysia. I. Shahrizaila Abdullah. II. Fateh Chand. III. Salmah Zakaria. IV. P. Loganathan. 333.91009595

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Contents Foreword Preface Acronyms Acknowledgements Illustrations - Boxes, Figures and Tables Appendices VOLUME 1 Executive Summary Chapter 1. Evolution of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) 1.1 Global Evolution of IWRM 1.2 Evolution of IWRM in Malaysia Chapter 2. ASM and the IWRM Agenda 2.1 ASM Vision, Mission, and Objectives 2.2 ASM Water Committee 2.3 IWRM Agenda and Sub-themes 2.4 Scope and Process of Component Plan Studies 2.5 Mega Science Framework Study for Sustained National Development (2011–2050) 2.6 Completed Strategy Plans/Advisory Reports Chapter 3. Component Plan (IWRM Sub-theme) Studies by ASM - Summary Briefs 3.1 Summary Briefs of Component Plans Chapter 4. Complementary Component Plan Studies - Summary Briefs and Reports / Expert Reviews 4.1 National Water Resources Policy (2012) Action Plan 4.2 Complementary Component Plans i iii vi xiv xx xxiv 1 25 25 29 45 45 45 46 46 47 48 51 52 55 56 56

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Chapter 5. State IWRM Plans - Case Study on LUAS (Selangor) 5.1 State IWRM Plans: Governance, Scope, and Content 5.2 Overview of Current Status Nationwide 5.3 Majlis Sumber Air Negeri (MSANg) / State Water Management Authorities (SWMAs)—LUAS as a Case Study 5.4 Implementation Road Map for State IWRM Plans Nationwide Chapter 6. Transforming the Water Sector: National Integrated Water Resources Management Plan - Strategies and Road Map 6.1 Malaysia’s Vision 2020 and the National Transformation Programme 6.2 The Malaysian Water Vision and Framework of Action 6.3 The Malaysian Water Scenario 6.4 Transforming the Water Sector: National IWRM Plan and Implementation Road Map Chapter 7. Conclusions and Recommendations 7.1 Conclusions 7.2 Recommendations References VOLUME 2 Appendices to Chapter 3. Component Plan (IWRM Sub-theme) Studies by ASM – Summary Briefs 3.2.1 Integrated Lake Basin Management 3.2.2 Integrated Aquifer Systems Management 3.2.3 Water Demand Management 3.2.4 Water Supply and Wastewater Management 3.2.5 National Agenda for Integrated Water Research 3.2.6 Climate Change and Water 3.2.7 Integrated River Basin Management 3.2.8 Agriculture Water Services for Agribusiness 3.2.9 National Key Priority Area (NKPA) on Water 3.2.10 ASM Mega Science Study: Water Sector 59 62 63 64 64 71 71 72 73 80 119 119 125 135

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5 Appendices to Chapter 4. Complementary Component Plan Studies – Summary Briefs and Reports / Expert Reviews 4.2.1 Integrated Flood Management 4.2.2 Integrated Drought Management 4.2.3 Water Quality Management 4.2.4 Water and Land Use 4.2.5 Water and Health 4.2.6 Water and Green Growth 4.2.7 Water and Gender 4.2.8 Virtual Water and Water Footprint 4.2.9 Water Financing 4.2.10 Water-Energy-Food Nexus 4.2.11 S&T Awareness, Advocacy and Capacity Building 4.2.12 International Networking and Collaboration 4.2.13 Integrated Urban Water Management 4.2.14 National Water Resources Policy (NWRP) Action Plan Appendix to Chapter 5. State IWRM Plans – Case Study on Lembaga Urus Air Selangor (LUAS) 5.5 Case Study on Lembaga Urus Air Selangor (LUAS) - Summary Brief Appendix to Chapter 6. Transforming the Water Sector: National Integrated Water Resources Management Plan – Strategies and Road Map 6.5 A National Key Priority Area (NKPA) on Water Transforming the Water Sector: National Integrated Water Resources Management Plan | Strategies and Road Map

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6 Transforming the Water Sector: National Integrated Water Resources Management Plan | Strategies and Road Map

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Foreword i The Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM), as a thought leader in science, technology, and innovation (STI), strives to address the needs of the nation by providing the best scientific advice and advocacy that is independent, credible, relevant, and timely. In fulfilling this mandate, the Academy engages a wide spectrum of expertise not only within the Academy but also its network and linkages with many prominent international and local partners. The ASM Water Sector Studies provide comprehensive and strategic STI input to all stakeholders towards a better water future for Malaysia. The release of this Report, entitled Transforming the Water Sector: National Integrated Water Resources Management Plan: Strategies and Road Map, is a timely contribution by ASM to assist the government in meeting its commitment to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) announced at the UNSD Summit in September 2015. Among the targets under SDG No. 6 to “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all” is Item 6.5 which states that “By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through trans-boundary cooperation as appropriate”. The Report also marks the culmination of work of the ASM Water Committee, begun in 2008, following a series of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)related thematic studies undertaken earlier by designated Task Forces. The outcome of the completed studies formed the central basis to the formulation of this National IWRM Plan (NIWRMP) aimed at bringing all water-related stakeholders nationwide onto a common platform and mission, that is, to ensure the sustainable management of the country’s water resources. Business as usual following past fragmented lines must make way to IWRM in seeking integrated solutions to the multiplicity of issues and challenges faced by the water sector. Promoting participatory management and addressing trans-boundary issues through continuing dialogue are all important elements of this paradigm shift towards “making water everybody’s business”. Despite the importance of the water sector to the national economy, ASM noted with concern that “water” was not included as a National Key Economic Area (NKEA) under the Economic Transformation Programme. In an attempt to fill the gap arising from the absence of a dedicated NKEA, ASM undertook an in-depth study in Transforming the Water Sector: National Integrated Water Resources Management Plan | Strategies and Road Map

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ii 2014 to justify a National Key Priority Area (NKPA) on water complete with a road map. The NKPA now forms an integral part of the “Investments in Water Infrastructure”, a crucial element of the NIWRMP. We are confident that the findings, strategies, and recommendations contained in this report would provide the government and the various Federal and State water authorities concerned with the necessary stimulus to ensure that the transformation of the water sector advances in tandem with other sectors of the economy. Congratulations to the members of the ASM Water Committee and its various Task Forces for their continued efforts and outstanding contribution towards yet another timely publication of national importance. Tan Sri Dr Ahmad Tajuddin Ali FASc President Academy of Sciences Malaysia Transforming the Water Sector: National Integrated Water Resources Management Plan | Strategies and Road Map

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Preface iii The Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM) has since 2008 paid special focus on the water sector, considered strategic for the country’s economic development. A dedicated ASM Water Committee was formed to address the issues facing this sector. Since then a number of water-related thematic studies were undertaken, each led by a Task Force appointed by the Water Committee and led by a Fellow of the Academy with the support from a small team of experts selected from agencies considered relevant to each field of study. The outcome of these thematic studies led to the release of Strategy Plans or Advisory Reports which have since been published and submitted to relevant authorities in government for their consideration and implementation. Some of the reports have been subsequently tabled and endorsed by Majlis Sumber Air Negara for implementation by designated lead ministries and State Governments. This Report, entitled Transforming the Water Sector: National Integrated Water Resources Management Plan: Strategies and Road Map, herein referred to as the National Integrated Water Resources Management Plan (NIWRMP), marks the culmination of the earlier efforts. The Report is a synthesis and consolidation of the strategies recommended in the thematic study reports to form an overall strategy plan targeted to assist the government in expediting the implementation of IWRM nationwide through the concerted efforts of all stakeholders involved in the water sector. IWRM is a declared national policy for the sustainable management of its water resources since the late 1990s. The Report comprises an Executive Summary followed by seven chapters as follows: Chapter 1 — Evolution of IWRM: The chapter focuses on the global evolution of the IWRM paradigm since the 1970s, its formal adoption at the 1992 Earth Summit to current day reaffirmation at the UNSD Summit in September 2015 when the post2015 Sustainable Development Goals were announced. The chapter also traces the progress achieved by Malaysia since formal adoption of IWRM at the turn of the century. It includes a listing of initiatives taken in chronological sequence. Transforming the Water Sector: National Integrated Water Resources Management Plan | Strategies and Road Map

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iv Chapter 2 — ASM and the IWRM Agenda: This chapter introduces ASM, its mission, and objectives, before proceeding to describe its special focus studies related to the national IWRM agenda and the processes adopted by the ASM Water Committee in undertaking these studies. Chapter 3 — Summary Briefs of ASM Component Plan Studies: This chapter is dedicated to reporting on the in-depth studies undertaken by ASM-led Task Forces on ten IWRM-related thematic areas for which summary briefs are reported as appendices. Chapter 4 — Complementary Component Plan Studies: Summary Briefs and Expert Reviews: The chapter focuses on invited contributions of a further 14 IWRM-related thematic areas from related agencies and subject matter specialists commissioned to review selected topics. These contributions in the form of summary briefs or expert reviews are reported as appendices. Chapter 5 — State IWRM Plans - Case Study on Lembaga Urus Air Selangor (LUAS): This chapter covers an overview of the status of IWRM implementation in the states. A summary brief of a case study on LUAS, Selangor is included as an appendix to showcase the progress made in institutionalising IWRM in the state since the formation of LUAS in the year 2000. Chapter 6 — National Integrated Water Resources Management Plan: This chapter is the centrepiece of the Report. It provides an overview of the Malaysian water scenario, highlighting the issues and challenges, followed by a synthesis of the strategies emerging out of the earlier chapters 3, 4 and 5, organised into a coherent National IWRM Plan following the IWRM General Framework format. The plan comes with a road map for implementation over a 15-year period until 2030. Chapter 7 — Conclusions and Recommendations: The first part of this chapter comprises a summary overview pertaining to the state of the country’s waters. This is followed by a central recommendation for the adoption and implementation of the National IWRM Plan and Road Map. In addition, 24 specific recommendations have been highlighted to ensure that the enabling environment, the institutional framework, management instruments, and investments in water infrastructure are set in place together with a management structure to oversee the implementation of the plan. A special Editorial Committee was appointed to prepare this consolidated Report comprising the following members: 1. Academician Tan Sri Ir. Shahrizaila Abdullah FASc — Founding Chairperson of the ASM Water Committee; 2. Academician Fateh Chand FASc — Second Chairperson of the ASM Water Committee; 3. Ir. Dr Salmah Zakaria FASc — Current Chairperson of the ASM Water Committee; and 4. P. Loganathan — ASM Research Fellow The Editorial Committee was chaired by Academician Tan Sri Ir. Shahrizaila Abdullah. Apart from developing an appropriate report structure, the task entailed the compilation Transforming the Water Sector: National Integrated Water Resources Management Plan | Strategies and Road Map

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v of the outcomes from thematic studies undertaken earlier by the ASM-led Task Forces, contributions from other agencies, and expert reviews. Summary briefs and expert reviews included as appendices against relevant chapters of this Report have been duly accredited to the contributors. The opinions expressed are that of the reviewers and ASM may not fully agree with the views expressed. The focus of the Editorial Committee was mainly devoted to the development of the consolidated NIWRMP (Chapter 6) and the Conclusions and Recommendations (Chapter 7). On behalf of the Editorial Committee, we take great pleasure in placing on record our deepest appreciation to all the Task Force Chairpersons and Expert Reviewers for their invaluable contributions to enable this publication to be possible. We thank the ASM Secretariat for the continuing administrative support provided at the many meeting sessions and for facilitating the compilation and printing of the Report. Last but not least, we owe a debt of gratitude to all our members for coming on board and painstakingly working as a team to complete this Report on schedule. This report is published in 2 volumes, volume 1 comprises the main report while volume 2 contains a set of appendices related to chapters 3, 4, 5 and 6. Academician Tan Sri Ir. Shahrizaila Abdullah Chairperson, Editorial Committee Ir. Dr Salmah Zakaria Chairperson, ASM Water Committee Transforming the Water Sector: National Integrated Water Resources Management Plan | Strategies and Road Map

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vi Acronyms AACB ADB APWF AR5 ARI ARSM ASEAN ASM AWS BCM BIMP-EAGA BKSA BMP BO BOD BPSP CBO CCIW CDD CEB CGIAR CSO CTP CWP DAN Awareness Raising, Advocacy And Capacity Building Asian Development Bank Asia Pacific Water Forum Fifth Assessment Report Average Recurrence Interval Agensi Remote Sensing Malaysia (Malaysian Remote Sensing Agency) Association of Southeast Asian Nations Academy of Sciences Malaysia Agricultural Water Services Billion Cubic Metres Brunei Darussalam–Indonesia–Malaysia–The Philippines East Asean Growth Area Badan Kawal Selia Air (Water Regulatory Body) Best Management Practices Business Opportunities Biochemical Oxygen Demand Bahagian Pengairan dan Saliran Pertanian (Agricultural Drainage and Irrigation Division) Community-based Organisation Climate Change Impacts on Water Community Development Department (Jabatan Kemajuan Masyarakat – KEMAS) Central Electricity Board Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research Civil Society Organisations Community Transformation Programme Country Water Partnerships Department of Irrigation and Drainage Dasar Agromakanan Negara (National Agrofood Policy of Malaysia – NAPM) Transforming the Water Sector: National Integrated Water Resources Management Plan | Strategies and Road Map

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DG DID DMG DOA DOE DOF DSAN DSS EDC EIA EP EPP EPU EQA ESC ESCAP ESCP ETP FAO FGD FOG FSE GEC GNI GWA GWP IADA IAHR Director General Department of Irrigation and Drainage (Jabatan Pengaliran dan Saliran – JPS) Department of Minerals and Geoscience Department of Agriculture Department of Environment Department of Fisheries Dasar Sumber Air Negara (National Water Services Policy) Decision Support Systems Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Environmental Impact Assessments Entry Projects Entry Point Project Economic Planning Unit Environmental Quality Act Erosion and Sediment Control Economic and Social Commission for Asia and The Pacific Erosion and Sediment Control Plan Economic Transformation Programme Food and Agriculture Organization Focus Group Discussions Fats, Oil and Grease Food Services Establishments Global Environment Centre Gross National Income Ground Water Assessment Global Water Partnership Integrated Agricultural Development Area International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering And Research vii Transforming the Water Sector: National Integrated Water Resources Management Plan | Strategies and Road Map

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