SmartGrids - European Technology Platform (European Commission)

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Vision and Strategy for Europe’s Electricity Networks of the Future - Community Research

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european commission community research european technology platform smartgrids vision and strategy for europe s electricity networks of the future eur 22040

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interested in european research rtd info is our quarterly magazine keeping you in touch with main developments results programmes events etc it is available in english french and german a free sample copy or free subscription can be obtained from european commission directorate-general for research information and communication unit b-1049 brussels fax 32-2 29-58220 e-mail research@cec.eu.int internet http europa.eu.int/comm/research/rtdinfo/index_en.html european commission directorate-general for research directorate j ­ energy unit 2 ­ energy production and distribution systems contact manuel sánchez-jiménez e-mail rtd-energy@cec.eu.int internet http europa.eu.int/comm/research/energy

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european technology platform smartgrids vision and strategy for europe s electricity networks of the future 2006 directorate-general for research sustainable energy systems eur 22040

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europe direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the european union freephone number 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 certain mobile telephone operators do not allow access to 00 800 numbers or these calls may be billed a great deal of additional information on the european union is available on the internet it can be accessed through the europa server http europa.eu.int cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication luxembourg office for official publications of the european communities 2006 isbn 92-79-01414-5 © european communities 2006 reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged pictures © belpress.com printed in belgium printed on white chlorine-free paper

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table of contents foreword 1 2 3 4 5 6 executive summary the origins of smartgrids driving factors in the move towards smartgrids from today to tomorrow setting up smart power grids the technology platform list of acronyms members of the advisory council 3 4 6 12 15 21 31 35 36

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foreword efficient transmission and distribution of electricity is a fundamental requirement for providing european citizens societies and economies with essential energy resources the need to renew europe s electricity networks meet growing electricity demand enable a trans-european electricity market and integrate more sustainable generation resources including renewable sources presents major challenges research and development have an important role to play in addressing them the move towards a more integrated european research area has resulted in a better pooling of dispersed resources and expertise under the eu s sixth framework programme fp6 important projects and actions have benefited from improved information exchange innovative solutions and co-ordination technological advances in transmission and distribution of electricity supported by fp6 are not an exception they are stimulating the generation of new knowledge innovation and european integration the vision for electricity networks of the future presented here by the advisory council of the technology platform smartgrids proposes that europe should move forward in different ways in these important fields this vision would lead to new products processes and services improving industrial efficiency and use of cleaner energy resources while providing a competitive edge for europe in the global market place at the same time it would ensure the security of the infrastructure helping to improve the daily lives of ordinary citizens all this makes smart grids an important element for achieving the largest knowledge-based economy in the world in this highly regulated sector efficient knowledge sharing and the pooling of research and technological development resources of all disciplines are now critical through co-operative rtd actions both within and outside the union europe is creating a critical mass of ideas and solutions strengthening european excellence the setting up of this technology platform for the electricity networks of the future is one way of responding to these objectives it will hopefully bring together all parties involved in smart grids to develop a strategic research agenda i wish this initiative every success and expect to see the activities of the platform leading to greater energy sustainability in europe and beyond janez potocnik commissioner for science and research 3

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e uropeantechnologyplatformsmartgrids 1 executive summary europe s electricity networks have provided the vital links between electricity producers and consumers with great success for many decades the fundamental architecture of these networks has been developed to meet the needs of large predominantly carbon-based generation technologies located remotely from demand centres the energy challenges that europe is now facing are changing the electricity generation landscape the drive for lower-carbon generation technologies combined with greatly improved efficiency on the demand side will enable customers to become much more inter-active with the networks more customer-centric networks are the way ahead but these fundamental changes will impact significantly on network design and control in this context the european technology platform etp smartgrids was set up in 2005 to create a joint vision for the european networks of 2020 and beyond the platform includes representatives from industry transmission and distribution system operators research bodies and regulators it has identified clear objectives and proposes an ambitious strategy to make a reality of this vision for the benefits of europe and its electricity customers the energy policy context the european commission s 2006 green paper a european strategy for sustainable competitive and secure energy emphasises that europe has entered a new energy era the overriding objectives of european energy policy have to be sustainability competitiveness and security of supply necessitating a coherent and consistent set of policies and measures to achieve them europe s electricity markets and networks lie at the heart of our energy system and must evolve to meet the new challenges the future trans-european grids must provide all consumers with a highly reliable cost-effective power supply fully exploiting the use of both large centralised generators and smaller distributed power sources throughout europe a shared vision the smartgrids vision is about a bold programme of research development and demonstration that charts a course towards an electricity supply network that meets the needs of europe s future europe s electricity networks must be · flexible fulfilling customers needs whilst responding to the changes and challenges ahead · accessible granting connection access to all network users particularly for renewable power sources and high efficiency local generation with zero or low carbon emissions · reliable assuring and improving security and quality of supply consistent with the demands of the digital age with resilience to hazards and uncertainties · economic providing best value through innovation efficient energy management and `level playing field competition and regulation the vision embraces the latest technologies to ensure success whilst retaining the flexibility to adapt to further developments network technologies to increase power transfers and reduce energy losses will heighten the efficiency of supply whilst power electronic technologies will improve supply quality advances in simulation tools will greatly assist the transfer of innovative technologies to practical 4

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vision and strategy i electricity networks of the future application for the benefit of both customers and utilities developments in communications metering and business systems will open up new opportunities at every level on the system to enable market signals to drive technical and commercial efficiency making it happen enabling europe s electricity grids to meet the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century and fulfil the expectations of society requires intensified and sustained research efforts it is essential that this takes place in a coherent way addressing technical commercial and regulatory factors to minimise risk and allow business decisions to be made by companies in an environment of stability key elements of the vision include · creating a toolbox of proven technical solutions that can be deployed rapidly and cost-effectively enabling existing grids to accept power injections from all energy resources · harmonising regulatory and commercial frameworks in europe to facilitate cross-border trading of both power and grid services ensuring that they will accommodate a wide range of operating situations · establishing shared technical standards and protocols that will ensure open access enabling the deployment of equipment from any chosen manufacturer · developing information computing and telecommunication systems that enable businesses to utilise innovative service arrangements to improve their efficiency and enhance their services to customers · ensuring the successful interfacing of new and old designs of grid equipment to ensure interoperability of automation and control arrangements these and other elements will be addressed through a strategic research agenda that the technology platform will produce in 2006 delivering the benefits the projects resulting from the smartgrids vision will stimulate innovation in new network and associated information technologies the benefits of new technologies will have a positive effect for europe s citizens and for international business job opportunities will be broadened as the networks require workers with new skills and integration across new technology areas smartgrids will help achieve sustainable development links will be strengthened across europe and with other countries where different but complementary renewable resources are to be found an increasingly liberalised market will encourage trading opportunities to be identified and developed smartgrids networks will in addition to electricity flows establish a two-way flow of information between supplier and user for a successful transition to a future sustainable energy system all the relevant stakeholders must become involved governments regulators consumers generators traders power exchanges transmission companies distribution companies power equipment manufactures and ict providers coordination at regional national and european levels is essential and the smartgrids technology platform has been designed to facilitate this process 5

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e uropeantechnologyplatformsmartgrids 2 the origins of smartgrids the smartgrids european technology platform for electricity networks of the future began its work in 2005 its aim was to formulate and promote a vision for the development of europe s electricity networks looking towards 2020 and beyond what lies at the heart of this vision and what does it hope to achieve the vision will input into european and national research development and demonstration programmes over the coming years this will be done via an integrated and innovative approach to technical commercial and regulatory dimensions the vision will stimulate constructive dialogue between all stakeholders involved in the electricity sector and help to ensure the european public and private investments required for the implementation of the research and development r&d strategies smartgrids is a new concept for electricity networks across europe the initiative responds to the rising challenges and opportunities bringing benefits to all users stakeholders and companies that perform efficiently and effectively the time is now the electricity grids that serve european consumers today have evolved over more than a hundred years however new challenges arising from market liberalisation and technical breakthroughs call for fresh thinking current grids have served well but will not be adequate in the future grids must ensure secure and sustainable electricity supplies throughout europe take advantage of new technologies and comply with new policy imperatives and changing business frameworks responding to needs the electricity sector faces new challenges and opportunities which must be responded to in a vision of the future · user-centric approach increased interest in electricity market opportunities value added services flexible demand for energy lower prices microgeneration opportunities · electricity networks renewal and innovation pursuing efficient asset management increasing the degree of automation for better quality of service using system wide remote control applying efficient investments to solve infrastructure ageing smartgrids mission is to create a shared vision which · enables europe s electricity grids to meet the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century · fulfils the expectations of society · strengthens the european business context for the electricity sector and its international opportunities · security of supply limited primary resources of traditional energy sources flexible storage need for higher reliability and quality increase network and generation capacity · liberalised markets responding to the requirements and opportunities of liberalisation by developing and enabling both new products and new services high demand flexibility and controlled price volatility flexible and predictable tariffs liquid markets for trading of energy and grid services 6

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vision and strategy i electricity networks of the future · interoperability of european electricity networks supporting the implementation of the internal market efficient management of cross border and transit network congestion improving the long-distance transport and integration of renewable energy sources strengthening european security of supply through enhanced transfer capabilities · distributed generation dg and renewable energy sources res local energy management losses and emissions reduction integration within power networks · central generation renewal of the existing power-plants development of efficiency improvements increased flexibility towards the system services integration with res and dg · environmental issues reaching kyoto protocol targets evaluate their impact on the electricity transits in europe reduce losses increasing social responsibility and sustainability optimising visual impact and land-use reduce permission times for new infrastructure · demand response and demand side management dsm developing strategies for local demand modulation and load control by electronic metering and automatic meter management systems · politics and regulatory aspects continuing development and harmonisation of policies and regulatory frameworks in the european union eu context according to the international energy agency iea european electricity consumption is projected to increase at an average annual rate of 1.4 up to 2030 and the share of renewables in europe s electricity generation will double from 13 now to 26 in 2030 smartgrids is a necessary response to the environmental social and political demands placed on energy supply smartgrids will use revolutionary new technologies products and services to create a strongly user-centric approach for all customers · social and demographic aspects considering changed demand of an ageing society with increased comfort and quality of life 7

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e uropeantechnologyplatformsmartgridsa broad spectrum of stakeholders as markets across europe become more liberalised and dynamic an increasing number of people are implicated in the future of electricity supply from government members to everyday users every stakeholder will help to shape the smartgrids system what are the different needs and responsibilities that will feed into the project design users users needs include quality of service and value for money in the coming years users expectations will broaden and will include value added services energy services on demand and total connectivity they will be asking for connection of in-house generation the ability to sell surplus generation back to the grid real time tariffs and the freedom to choose their suppliers electricity network companies network owners and operators are called upon to fulfil customers expectations in an efficient and cost effective way they are required to undertake necessary investments to guarantee high levels of power quality and system security while assuring adequate remuneration for their shareholders investment remuneration and stable regulatory frameworks will be necessary for a level playing field competition in a liberalised market customers providers researchers and lawmakers are all implicated in the future of electricity provision energy service companies companies will have to satisfy the growing needs of users some users will seek simple turnkey products cost efficiencies and savings will need to be made visible in monetary terms this must be accompanied by an increase in services delivered and a reduction of intrusion upon the customer such as for maintenance of the system in general a trend will be observed from the present infrastructure-driven to progressive service-driven paradigms in the european electricity supply industry technology providers significant technology and business changes lie ahead and equipment manufacturers will be key players in developing innovative solutions and in achieving their effective deployment by working with the grid companies as with grid companies technology providers will have important investment decisions to make a shared vision will be critical to ensuring sound strategic developments that provide open access long-term value and integration with existing infrastructure innovation will be needed in relation to networks demand and for generation both distributed and centralised as grid system operational characteristics change researchers the research community has a critical role to play without research there is no innovation and without innovation there is no development cooperation among universities and research centres utilities manufacturers regulators and legislators must be fostered not only for the successful development of new technologies but also to overcome non-technical barriers traders free trade throughout europe will be facilitated by open markets harmonised rules and transparent trading procedures congestion management and reserve power must be resolved for a fully integrated european market customers will benefit from the opportunity to choose the energy supplier that best suits their requirements 8

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vision and strategy i electricity networks of the future generators electricity grids are complex integrated systems and there is a sensitive interaction between generators the grid systems and the demands it will be important for the future to ensure the continuing close involvement of generation companies understanding the electrical characteristics of their equipment and their operational dynamics thanks to smartgrid technologies products and services european companies will be able to get ahead in international business regulators the european market for energy and related services should be supported by a stable and clear regulatory framework with well-established and harmonised rules across europe regulatory frameworks should have aligned incentives which secure a grid with increasingly open access a clear investment remuneration system and keep transmission and distribution costs as low as possible effective and efficient innovation should be rewarded governmental agencies governments and lawmakers will have to prepare new legislation to take into account apparently contradictory goals increasing competition is expected to keep a downward pressure on energy prices but a more environmentally friendly energy mix may bring cost challenges legislation will be affected by innovative technologies the evolution of grid organisations the requirement for greater flexibility and increased cross-border trading and by the need to ensure economic development greater competitiveness job creation and high quality security of supply both short and long term in the eu advanced electricity service and solution providers new businesses will be provided with the choice between own on-site generation including sales of surplus to the grid and the purchase of electricity from supplier companies they will have the opportunity to offer demand side response products and services to the grid in the case of electricity-intensive industries their decisions will be influenced by market price changes thus businesses will be seeking a wider range of solutions than is currently available preparing adequate workforce and continuous education power engineering is perceived to be old-fashioned particular attention will need to be addressed to solve the shortage of skilled staff with manufacturers grid operators regulators etc a multidisciplinary approach engineering economic regulatorylegislation has to be envisaged co-ordination between actors is essential in maintaining a secure supply an efficient network operation and a transparent market common technical rules and tools need to be adopted by the different players regarding data exchange modelling grids ancillary services and their users they must also share a vision of electrical system performance a pan european approach is essential since even if the technology is available and the vision and motivation exist a smart power grid will not be implemented unless there can be a collective evolution into the future 9

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e uropeantechnologyplatformsmartgrids smartgrids the vision europe s electricity networks in 2020 and beyond will be · flexible fulfilling customers needs whilst responding to the changes and challenges ahead · accessible granting connection access to all network users particularly for res and high efficiency local generation with zero or low carbon emissions · reliable assuring and improving security and quality of supply consistent with the demands of the digital age · economic providing best value through innovation efficient energy management and `level playing field competition and regulation looking to the future whilst current networks presently fulfil their function they will not be sufficient to meet current challenges and policy imperatives it is essential that right across europe actors are able to agree upon a vision of the future that will ensure needs are addressed it is essential that clear objectives are defined and a strategy for making vision reality is adopted what do the different players hope to achieve key aim to develop a strategy for research development and demonstration today s electricity networks provide an essential service for society built to ensure access for every single electricity customer they form a vertically integrated scheme with centralised generation distributed consumption limited interconnection capabilities between the control areas and commercial and regulatory frameworks that are not harmonised for mutual advantage in response to new challenges and opportunities electricity networks have begun to evolve the aim is that they accommodate more decentralised generation services with many actors involved in the generation transmission distribution and operation of the system at the same time centralised generation and high voltage bulk-transmission of electricity will continue to play a major role for the foreseeable future a shared vision smartgrids objectives · to develop a shared vision for the future which encourages the engagement of multiple independent parties · to identify research needs and build support for an increased public and private research effort on electricity networks · to align ongoing rtd projects and new european national and regional programmes on electricity transmission and distribution systems · to draw conclusions and recommendations for follow-up actions and implementation of the strategic research agenda and deployment plan in order to manage changes successfully a shared vision must be created this will encapsulate the possibilities and areas where research and technological development will bring significant benefits a shared vision of the opportunities for all stakeholders remains an essential ingredient in successfully achieving efficient liberalised markets such a vision is fully compatible with a competitive commercial environment it reduces investment risk commercialisation whether in europe or internationally can only take place when innovation has been proved in the demanding world of real operational service etp-smartgrids has been structured to ensure that cutting edge research is rapidly evaluated and deployed 10

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vision and strategy i electricity networks of the future smartgrids why take action now new technologies for generation networks energy storage load efficiency control and communications liberalised markets and environmental challenges require a shared vision and strategic implementation plan for europe s grids this will ensure that the networks of the future meet the needs of tomorrow s customers and a broader spectrum of stakeholders encourages the development of common technical protocols and standards for open access and avoids the likelihood of stranded assets and technology dead ends the vision will be made real using the latest technologies within commercial and regulatory frameworks the process will require a trans european approach along with harmonised frameworks and standards that promote innovation and its deployment it is important to recognise the scope of the ambitions for smartgrids it is not a purely technical venture the overall goal of the project is to develop a strategy for research development and demonstration this will empower network companies allowing them to respond to the considerable challenges that they will face in the coming decades it is essential to have an integrated approach covering technical commercial and regulatory factors along with the development of a shared vision this will minimise risk and allow business decisions to be made by independent companies in an environment of stability the driving factors requiring action now are · increasing participation of customers in the energy field · european and national policies encouraging lower carbon generation new and renewable energy sources and more efficient use of heat energy · the need to understand and manage the technical challenges and opportunities for integrating new generation technologies into europe s grids · the need for investment in end-of-life grid renewal in an innovative way to better position the networks for the next 50 years of operation · the need to handle grid congestions with market based methods · the desire to deliver benefits to customers at the earliest opportunity · the need to reduce uncertainty and risk to businesses making investment decisions · the progress in technology which allows improvements in operation and new services at reasonable costs successful development and deployment of a vision for electricity grids has application beyond europe there is significant benefit for jobs in europe and for european businesses internationally a prerequisite is the adequate technical staff trained by high level universities and other technical schools smartgrids vision recognising its scope networks are evolving smartgrids incorporates the latest technologies to ensure that they will be flexible accessible reliable and economical the smartgrids vision goes far beyond a technical proposition · it s not about academic research alone · it s not a centralised plan for europe s grids · its not only concerned with distribution grids · it s not just about the trans-european electricity network · it s not a vision for specific infrastructure projects or about the details of investment funding and risk management · it s not about emission trading markets or addressing security of primary fuel · it s not about detailed research proposals but is rather about research themes and topics 11

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