NANO News 11 - December 2016

 

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NF-POGO Alumni Network for Oceans Newsletter Volume 11

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NF-POGO Alumni E-Newsle er – Volume 11, December 2016 Reaching out to the global oceans

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Cover photo Alumnus Gerry Salamena caught this beau ful sunset during an oceanographic cruise at the Banda Sea (June, 2016) Photo Credits: Gerry Salamena

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This issue: NF-POGO Alumni E-Newsle er – Volume 11, December 2016 From the Editorial Board .................................................................................................................... 2 NANO alumni in ac on: Research communica ons Lazare Akpetou ..................................................................................................................... 3 Lailah Akita ............................................................................................................................ 4 Akinnigbagbe Akintoye .......................................................................................................... 6 When NANO Ponders Meri Bilan .............................................................................................................................. 8 Jesus Ledesma ....................................................................................................................... 9 NANO Regional Research Projects NANO-Africa regional project ................................................................................................ 10 NANO-SEA project ................................................................................................................. 12 NANO-SHABASHI project ....................................................................................................... 13 NANO Outreach Suriyan Saramul ..................................................................................................................... 15 Jitraporn Phaksopa ................................................................................................................ 16 Umi Zakiyah ........................................................................................................................... 17 NANO Profile Q & A Dr. Ngozi Oguguah ........................................................................................... 19 NANO apprecia on Amrit Mishra........................................................................................................................... 20 Cassia Jonck ........................................................................................................................... 21 Maziar Khosravi ..................................................................................................................... 22 Looking ahead Arvind Singh and Nimit Kumar ............................................................................................... 23 Invited collabora on by POGO alumni Ankita Misra ........................................................................................................................... 24 Opportuni es announcements .......................................................................................................... 25 LET US SHOW YOUR ART Have any nice photos or figures to share? E-mail us your seascapes, underwater photos or photos of field work and we’ll include them in NANO News!

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From the Editorial Board In this, the 11th issue of the NANO News, it can be seen that the NANO network is spread across the globe with alumni pursuing all disciplines of oceanography. From studies of chemical and physical oceanography to sedimentary analyses, which give an insight into climate changes over geological me to biological impacts of pollu on, the research being conducted by the NANO members gives a holis c view to the inter-connected oceanographic processes that occur. POGO, as the lead organisa on for the Blue Planet Ini a ve, is pleased to inform the ocean observing community, that the Implementa on Plan was officially approved by the Group on Earth Observa ons (GEO) Programme Board for inclusion as an Ini a ve in the GEO 20172019 Work Programme. To the NANO network this means that the work that the NANO members conduct, can contribute to the Blue Planet Ini a ve, which aims to ensure the sustained development and use of ocean and coastal observa ons for the benefit of society. As GEO is an intergovernmental body, this is a way in which the scien sts can share their findings with the policy-makers. As part of the regional projects undertaken this year, there was emphasis on the need to conduct outreach ac vi es to educate and engage with the public. A variety of outreach ac vi es conducted by members of the NANO Southeast Asia group are reported upon this issue. Moving forward from 5 years of these successful regional projects, the Nippon Founda on and POGO feel that it is me to change the format of the research conducted by NANO alumni. We are now making a call for project proposals that are global and can involve alumni from any country, regardless of their geographical loca on. Therefore the projects are to be more topic-focused rather than regionally-focussed. All NANO members should have received the call for proposals announced recently. This and the ongoing Interna onal Indian Ocean Expedi on-2 (IIOE-2) could be excellent opportuni es for young and mid-career researchers to pursue their research interests. An issue this rich and vibrant can not be possible with many volunteers and helping hands. I would like to thank Cassia, Akinnigbagbe, Jesus and Nguyen for having been very efficient editorial commi ee members. The issue in its present form wouldn’t have happened without cri cal inputs from Olga, Sophie and Victoria. My most sincere gra tude is to Lilian whose untamed designing skills make every next issue be er than ever before. Without holding you on this page further, season’s gree ngs and a very happy new year to you all in advance! See you with many more updates in 2017... Nimit Kumar Editor-in-chief Patrons: Sophie Seeyave / Execu ve Director - POGO Shubha Sathyendranath and Trevor Pla / Former Execu ve Directors - POGO Victoria Cheung / Scien fic Coordinator - POGO Kentaro Ogiue / Mari me Affairs Department, Nippon Founda on Editorial Board: Nimit Kumar, Cassia Jonck, Nguyen Huu Huan, Akinnigbabe Akintoye, Jesus Rivera, Olga Shatova, Vikki Cheung, Sophie Seeyave. NANO News layout design editor: Lilian Krug Contact us: nimit.official@gmail.com, info@nf-pogo-alumni.org, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org 2 NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

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NANO Alumni in ac on: Research communica ons Monitoring of chemical and physical water quality parameters for aquaculture: is aquaculture reconcilable with mining in Cote d’Ivoire? Lazare Kouamé Akpetou University Jean Lorougnon Guédé Daloa, Cote d’Ivoire Alumnus profile: h p://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profile/lakpeto/ Iam recruited as chemistry lecturer in the University Jean Lorougnon Guédé in Daloa (West of Cote d’Ivoire). I have been in the academic for about four years (since December 2012). It is an exci ng work profile as it allows interac- on with students and colleagues. Therefore, my interests in research parallel between chemistry and remote sensing techniques. The la er faces difficul es in progress due to the lack of facili es in the university. Thus, we took some ini a ves towards the monitoring of water quality in aquaculture fields. Indeed, most of our protein requirements are provided through aqua c resources; and fish is of commercial importance in Cote d’Ivoire. Mainly, freshwaters fish species are cul vated. The ubiquitous lapia is one the most favoured fish in this region as it’s cheaper and more palatable when compared to most of the marine fish. Furthermore, lapia has shown a remarkably high capacity for resistance and adapta on to stressors such as salinity and oxygen deple- on for instance. Due to these two factors, this species is favoured above all investments and projects in aquaculture in Cote d’Ivoire. The government provides the agreements for running culture projects to the farmers only under scien fic inves ga ons; as a result, we are tasked with monitoring water quality. Firstly, ac vi es consist of assessing water quality rela ng to the local environments. We focus on chemical and physical parameters in order to agree the projects. In general, water fields (rivers and lakes) seem to provide good aquaculture requirements to the farmers. Number of such projects increases yearly suppor ng marine fishing for protein-produc on for human consump on. Thus, we do the monitoring of water quality a erward the deliverance of projects agreement. These research ac vi es are run currently in Bandama and Sassandra rivers and in Aby and Ebrié lagoons. As an economic ac vity, mining is also of importance in Cote d’Ivoire. Unfortunately, ar sanal ac vi es are overwhelmed by the industrial one. If mining endangers planta- ons and villages, the insidious concern is river pollu on by heavy metals (e.g., mercury, arsenic, copper). Wastewaters are discharged into rivers with no preliminary treatments. In addi on to metal pollu on, rivers are seemingly muddy threatening depths and fish habitats. River chemical and physical parameters data have been collected for about four seasons since December 2013. Further use of these data is under the responsibility of the minister with regard to the demands in aquaculture projects and tourism ac- vi es. As far as we are concerned, we will keep working on data construc- on for scien fic and economic purposes. Lazare and colleagues in ac on: Fieldwork on an aquaculture farm in Taabo (Top) and on the Bandama River in Kossou (Bo om). Discover what mo vates the team of researchers lead by Dr Jesus Ledesma to pursue marine sciences in Peru. Page 9 Contact us: nimit.official@gmail.com, info@nf-pogo-alumni.org, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org 3

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NANO Alumni in ac on: Research communica ons The health of Ghanaian coastal waters Lailah Gi y Akita Post doctorate Fellow, Department of Marine and Fisheries Sciences, University of Ghana Alumnus profile: h p://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profile/lakita/ “Water is the earth’s eye, looking into which the beholder measures the depth of his own nature”. Henry David Thoreau Introduc on Water sustains all life-forms. Coastal waters (estuaries, lagoons, ocean beach front, etc.) serve economical, social, culture, aesthe c, recrea onal and research value (Fig. 1). The coastal waters support both aqua c and human life. Coastal ecosystems are under pressure due to rapid popula on growth and industrializa on. “But man is part of nature, and his war against nature is inevitably a war against himself.” Rachel Carson Benthic organisms (e.g. snails, clams, crabs etc, Fig. 2) live on or near the bo om of water bodies (fresh to marine) or in the inter dal zone of the ocean beach front. They burrow into or can live on the bo om of sediments. Invertebrates are the most common benthic organisms. There are two kinds of benthic invertebrates: epifauna and infauna. Epifauna are organisms that live on the sediment or are a ached to rocks, shell, vegeta- on, inter dal and shallow sub dal zones. Infauna are the organisms that dwell within or borrow into the sediment, sand, mud suitable surface. Benthic organisms (Figs. 3 and 4) regulate nutrient cycling, dal exchange (e.g. estuarine, lagoons and near shore waters) and energy flow though the food web (e.g. food for fishes, sea shore birds, coastal communi es and bait for fishing). Human impacts on coastal waters include fishing, air pollu on, solid and plas cs waste disposal, misuse of pes cides, industrial discharge and release of untreated waste water. Pollu on is the direct or indirect introduc on of contaminants into the water body. The introduc on of foreign substance into the water is detrimental to humans, plants, animals and the health of the ecosystems. The effects include habitat degrada on, environmental stress (physical, chemical, biological etc), and disrup on of the structure and func on of aqua c ecosystems. Holis c assessment of the health of the ecosystem is the integra on of mul ple indicators (chemical, physical and biological) to be able to evaluate the wellness of the water body. Physical parameters can be directly measured, while chemical analysis is instantaneous but expensive. On the other hand, biological analysis is less expensive, but labour-intensive. The use of biological indicators to evaluate tropical coastal waters especially in West Africa is limited. The project focuses on “Biological assessment of Ghanaian coastal waters” sponsored by Volkswagen Founda on, Germany. The primary aim is to iden fy key indicator benthic species for water quality monitoring in Ghana. Benthic organisms Figure 1 - Korle lagoon and beach front. Coastal ac vi es at Tema Harbour, Ghana Figure 2 - Typical benthic organisms include amphipods, polychaete worm, snail, and chironomous midge larva. Source: Wikipedia. Figure 3 - Benthic macro invertebrates burrow deeply into layered sediments and accelerate nutrient cycling. Burrowing bivalves, crayfish, tubificid worms, and aqua c insect larvae mix the sediments, aerate deeper layers of sediments, and increase rates of recycling of macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon) and micronutrients (trace elements) by bioturba on and fecal produc on. Mysid shrimp, amphipods, and gastropods enhance microbial growth and nutrient cycling through their mixing of surface sediments and breakdown of organic detritus. Source: Covich et al., 1999. Contact us: nimit.official@gmail.com, info@nf-pogo-alumni.org, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org 4 NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

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Conclusion No water, No life. The oceans, rivers, lakes, estuaries, lagoons all contain water with different physical, chemical and biological proper es. Benthic invertebrates are organisms that live in or on the bo om sediments of fresh and marine habitats. Understanding the basic components of aqua c ecosystems and the interac on among living organisms and their environment can lead to be er management of human impacts on aqua c ecosystems. Figure 4 - Benthos and the food chain. Benthic macro invertebrates play an important role in nutrients cycling and ou lows from ecosystems. The benthos transforms organic detritus from sedimentary storage into dissolved nutrients that can be mixed into overlying waters and used by macrophytes (rooted plants) and phytoplankton (algae) to enhance the primary produc vity. Some benthic species are omnivores and feed on macrophytes, algae and zooplankton. Many benthic species are consumed by fishes. Through their mixing of sediments and consump on of diverse resources, benthic invertebrate directly and or indirectly, influence microbial produc on and the release of greenhouse gasses (carbon dioxide - CO2, methane - CH4), toxic gases (hydrogen sulphide - H2S and ammonia - NH4) and nitrogen - N2. Source: Covich et al., 1999 Bio-monitoring Benthic macro invertebrates can be used to assess the health of aqua c ecosystems. Indicator species can be used to classify water bodies with different kinds of pollu on. Benthic invertebrates are useful for monitoring of water quality due to their sedentary life and species-specific ecological sensi- vity. The distribu on of benthic organisms (e.g. presence or absence of certain invertebrates) is an indica ve of water quality. Spa al variability of benthic invertebrates in coastal waters is useful to iden fy a par cular environmental stress. Biological water quality is essen al to assess the local condi- on of the coastal ecosystem and its management. General approach Epifauna is sampled using a known area of surface (e.g. Erman grab, box corer and PVC pipes). Infauna can be sampled using sediment cores (e.g. gravity corer). The benthic communi es display a patchy spa al difference in food distribu- on, substrate (e.g. sediment par cle size), physico-chemical requirements (e.g. dissolved oxygen, salinity, nutrients) and water quality. “The more clearly we can focus on the aƩenƟon of the wonders and realiƟes of the universe about us, the less taste we shall have for destrucƟon.” Rachel Carson Need for environmental monitoring are to: • Understand the state of coastal waters, habitats and ecosystems. • Provide ecological data to guide biodiversity conserva on and sustainable use of coastal resources. • Influence policies for aqua c ecosystems protec on and sustainable management. “Love nature, protect the aquaƟc ecosystems.’’ Lailah Gi y Akita Project partners and mentors: Dr PD. Peter Frenzel, Friedrich Schiller University, Germany. Dr Jürgen Laudien, Alfred-Wegener Ins tut, Germany. Dr Mariano Lastra, University of Vigo, Spain. Prof. Dr John W. Farrington, Woods Hole Oceanographic Ins tu- on, USA. Dr Charles Biney, Volta Basin Authority, Burkina Faso. Prof. Dr Takada Hideshige, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan Prof. Dr Elvis Nyarko, Regional Mari me University, Ghana. Prof. Kwasi Appeaning-Addo, University of Ghana. Mr. Kojo Ayaa Armah, University of Ghana. Dr Emmanuel Lamptey, University of Ghana. Sponsor: Volkswagen Founda on, Germany. Bibliography Armitage, P.D., Pardo, I., Furse, M.T., Wright, J.F. (1990). The performance of a new biological water quality score system based on macroinvetebrates over a wide range of unpolluted running-waters sites. Limne ca, 6: 147-156. Covich, A.P., Palmer, M.A., Crowl, T.A. (1999). The Role of Benthic Invertebrate Species in Freshwater Ecosystems Zoobenthic species influence energy flows and nutrient cycling BioScience 49(2): Phillips, D.J.K. (1980). Quan ta ve aqua c biological indicators: their use to monitor trace metal and organochlorine pollu on. Applied Science Publisher, London. 488 p. Sloff, W. (1983). Benthic Macroinvertebrates and water quality assessment: some toxicological considera ons. Aqua c Toxicology 4: 73-82. Walag, A.M.P., Canencia, M.O.P.(2016) .Physico-chemical Parameters and Macrobenthic Invertebrates of the Inter dal Zone of Gusa, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines. Advances in Environmental Sciences - Interna onal Journal of the Bioflux Society. 8 (1): 71–82. Evans, S.M., Vanderpuye, C.J., Armah, A.K (1997). The Coastal zoneof West Africa: Problems and Management. NANO Alumni in ac on: Research communica ons Contact us: nimit.official@gmail.com, info@nf-pogo-alumni.org, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org 5

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NANO Alumni in ac on: Research communica ons Distribu on of major elements in Eastern Equatorial Atlan c Marine Core and its environmental significance Akinnigbagbe E. Akintoye1, 2, 3, Xiqiu Han2, Yong Tang2, Weijia Fan2, Adeleye Adedayo1,2,3, Jimoh Olayinka1,2,3, Lou Zhanghua1 1 Department of Marine sciences, Ocean College, Zhejiang University, China 2 Second Ins tute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administra on, China 3 Nigerian Ins tute for Oceanography and Marine research, Nigeria Alumnus profile: h p://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profile/aakinni/ Time series measurements of terrigenous source elements (Silicon - Si, Potassium - K, Titanium - Ti and Iron - Fe) and the biogenic element (Calcium - Ca) from Core DY26III-Nig-S60-GC2 recovered from the deep-sea of Eastern Equatorial Atlan c record varia ons in riverine sediment discharge over the past 120 thousand years (kys). We present the short report from the studied core. The study area is in the tropical region of Western Africa in the Gulf of Guinea. Gulf of Guinea runs from the west coast of Ivory Coast to the Gabon estuary (Fig. 1). Core sample DY26IIINig-S60-GC2 shows a con nuous, 350 cm long sediment sequence collected on the Eastern Equatorial Atlan c off Nigeria (3°33’36.61”E, 4°32’30.02”N; 2946 m water depth; Fig.1), onboard the Chinese vessel ‘Da Yang Yi’. The lithology is dark mud between 0-65 cen meters below sea floor (cmbsf) intervals, grayish gri y mud between the range of 65-225 cmbsf, dark mud between the intervals of 225-325 cmbsf, and the final layer 225-350 cmbsf is that of grayish mud with yellowish stains. Figure 1 - Loca on of the core (red star) and the main surface currents of the Atlan c. The Angola–Benguela Front (ABF) marks the boundary between warm waters of the Angola Current and the cold waters of the Benguela Coastal Current. Modified a er (Dupont, Jahns, Marret, & Ning, 2000). The elements used for this study were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). PCA was done to trace the origin of the elements and factors with eigenvalue greater than 1 are considered as significant. According to the factor loading it is clear that factor 1 has a significant posi ve factor loading with the elements K, Ti and Fe, whereas a nega ve factor loading was observed for Si. Factor 2 has a posi ve factor loading with the elements Ca and Si, and nega ve loading for Ti and Fe. Ca as an element useful for clima c modula on of produc vity leads to low Ca during glacials and higher values during interglacials. Lower Ca may cor- relate with carbonate dissolu on or dilu on by terrigenous materials. Ca varia on in marginal environment may reflect dilu on by terrigenous materials rather than produc vity changes. Revel et al. (2010) found low Ca during pluvial periods in a core from Nile margin, which is interpreted as due to terrigenous dilu on. Fe is prone to diagene c remobiliza on in pore waters but Ti is inert therefore, good correla on of Fe and Ti suggest li le diagene c influence. K is generally associated with terrestrial siliclas cs such as illite clays (Potassium mica) and potassium feldspar (microcline, orthoclase and sanidine). Illite is the K’s main mineralogical carrier present in fine grained sediments. Therefore, high K depicts high illi c content. Based on the result of the data set from DY26IIINig-S60-GC2 sediment core, we deduced three different units. The upper unit downcore is from 0-65 cm (MIS 1-2), the middle unit is from 65-225 cm (MIS 3, 4 and late part of 5) and last unit with range of 225-350 cm (MIS 5). The magne c suscep bility is posi ve and the possible mineral content is magne te, which is distributed through the core. From the spectra result of electrical resis vity, the upper unit display a silty clay lithology type with a resis vity values ranging from 0.0 ~ 130 ohm-m. The middle interval has a higher resis vity values ≥ 200 ohm-m which is a lithology of clayey sand and the last unit is similar to that of unit A that is silty clay. Unit upper unit and middle unit have the possibility of housing fresh water why Unit B has the possibility for gas hydrate due to its high resis vity. The gamma density confirmed the interpreta on of the electrical resis vity. During the late Holocene, all the elements for the study have high values. By implica on, this means high values of both terrigenous and carbonate input occurred in the sediment. This is contrary to the record from central Africa, where it was reported lower values of both terrigenous and carbonate inputs. Increase in river runoff and coastal erosion due to high precipita on in the drainage areas would have increased the terrigenous material into the Gulf of Guinea with similar changes recorded in the Congo fan. The Ca increase is linked to higher produc vity in the surface ocean at that me. In the middle Holocene all the elements reduced in our records, this reduc on in the terrigenous and carbonate input observed might be due to abrupt sea level change during the stadials. This might cause materials to be le on the shelf without transporta- on. Contact us: nimit.official@gmail.com, info@nf-pogo-alumni.org, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org 6 NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

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Figure 2 - Stra graphy model of core 26111-Nig-S60-GC2. The stable Oxygen isotope values (δ18O) of the epibenthic foraminifera Uvigerina celƟca correlated with LR04. Inscribed are the values for marine isotopic events used as stra graphic control points for the correla on. Arrows are indica ng carbon 14 age points. Included also, the core picture. For the early Holocene, Si dropped and other elements increased. This might be due to the biogenic origin of the Si. For the MIS 2 stage, Si is high at this stage but rapidly decreased at the boundary of MIS 3 and 4 stages. For other elements such as K, Ca, Ti, and Fe were greatly reduced. Si part of terrigenous material is the only component high at this stage; this is also contrary to high terrigenous and calcareous material sourced from Central Africa during the glacial periods. MIS 3 stage marks a reduc on in Ca and Si and not too no ceable change in other elements. This marks the dominance of terrigenous input over biogenic during this stage. This trend follows that of Central Africa. This is likely due to the effect of strong winds during this period. MIS 4 stage is really a steady period of terrigenous input domina ng over the biogenic which is no ceable in the signals of terrigenous elements over Ca. MIS 5 marks a li le increase which is no ceable in all the terrigenous elements. The spikes correspond to the interstadials of MIS 5 period. The Ca s ll maintain its subdued response by the terrigenous materials. The terrigenous signals at this stage are not as strong as the ones recorded during the Holocene period. The amplitude of oscilla ons is shorter. The results show varia on in West African climate during the Holocene period with short intervals of aridity. The increase in Ca deposi on and produc vity of the ocean can be linked to warmer climate. Our results demonstrate that the African climate shows a close similarity with Greenland ice core records during the Holocene period, confirming the close link between the climate systems of the two regions at millennial me scales. This indicates that West Africa climate variability is controlled not only by precessional changes in insola on, but also by factors such as solar radia on and atmospheric circula on possibly driven by internal changes in the climate system which may occur at shorter mescales. Terrigenous input suppressed biogenic material supply during glacial periods. This is due to the prevalence of strong winds that are characteris c of glacial periods. The coarser sediments during the stage are also a confirma on of stronger winds. Elevated input of dissolved silica has already been established in the Gulf of Guinea and our data displayed that during the MIS 2 stage in our record. In summary, we can conclude that the mixture of terrigenous and biogenic materials supplied during Holocene period in our study area is due to dilu on factor. Figure 3 - Benthic foraminifer δ18O records and those of elemental input parameters for core DY26111-NigS60-GC2 including their isotopic stages (MIS). Figure 4 - Benthic foraminifer δ18O records and those of physical parameters for core DY26111-Nig-S60-GC2 including their isotopic stages (MIS). NANO Alumni in ac on: Research communica ons Contact us: nimit.official@gmail.com, info@nf-pogo-alumni.org, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org 7

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When NANO ponders... Visualiza on of the marine animal forest concept Meri Bilan University of Açores, DOP/IMAR, Portugal Alumnus profile: h p://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profile/mbilan/ Iam Meri Bilan, a young scien st from Croa a currently working in the Azores, Atlan c archipelago. My area of interest is the deep sea environment. At the moment that mainly includes the distribu on of corals and associated fauna of the Mid Atlan c Ridge. My first work in deep sea research was done with Dr Autun Purser (AWI, Bremenhaven) within the NF-POGO CofE at AWI Helgoland in 2015/2016. The focus of the project was to determine the abundance of species that were not yet quan fied but are related to the Lophelia pertusa reefs on the Norwegian margin. With this work we want to broaden the available knowledge of fauna that lives near or on the reefs. While working on this project, Dr Purser and I came up with an idea of visualizing the concept that we were building our work on, the animal forest. This concept has been known in the science community and from our perspec ve is quite picturesque for the general public to understand what an animal forest is and why is it important. A marine animal forest is a rela vely high density of coral species in one place. These species can be reef building like we commonly find in the tropical waters or the Lophelia pertusa, one of the few cold water corals that build reefs. Unlike the tropical ones where one reef can be built by some mes hundreds of different coral species, the cold water coral reefs are usually built by one or two species. An animal forest can be a rela vely high dense aggrega on of coral species that are not reef builders such as gorgonians, so corals or sea pens. The ecological concept of the marine animal forest revolves around the ecological func on that the corals have in the deep sea environment. This func on is derived from their structure that resembles the structure of the terrestrial forests. Both marine animal and terrestrial forests have a suppor ng role in the ecosystem. They are three dimensional solid structures that can be branched and occupy large areas. As such they provide suitable habitats for other species that can live on them or can be a shelter from larger predators that cannot progress into the microhabitats among the branches. Some mes the animal forests are nurseries for juveniles or breeding grounds for some fish. In general, one can say that the animal forests are biodiversity hotspots much like the terrestrial forests. This brief explana on we put into two posters that depict the structures of a coral and a tree and some fauna that can be found in each habitat. Scenes of another successful deployment of submersible wave and de gauges by NANO-Africa regional Project. More at page 10. Photo credits: H. Sme and A. Atoui Contact us: nimit.official@gmail.com, info@nf-pogo-alumni.org, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org 8 NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

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When NANO ponders... Mo va on of marine research in Peru Jesus Ledesma Ins tuto del Mar del Peru, Peru Alumnus profile: h p://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profile/Jesus%20Ledesma/ The source of moƟvaƟon for my team of researchers is given by our history, fishing wealth and oceanographic processes that reach climate impact, which I want to share in this ediƟon NANO News Peru has an ancient history with marine tradi on since Caral civiliza on, considered the oldest in America with records on year 3000 BC, with a diet based on marine organisms such as anchovy that stands great fishery produc vity. Centuries later, around year 100 AD, Moche Culture stands out because of its fishing capacity and worship to the bivalve called Spondylus. Both civiliza ons used boats made of Totora plants (Schoenoplectus californicus), which have been used since 3000 BC for fishing opera ons as well as recrea on. At this me, we maintain a great fishing ac vity, capturing about 10% of worldwide fisheries. Besides, we have to face the climate phenomenon known as El Niño Southern Oscilla on (ENSO). Some of the major marine research conducted at ‘Ins tuto del Mar del Peru’ (IMARPE) are related with these two thema c aspects: climate and fisheries. In this sense, two research vessels (RV) are used by our ins tute: RV Jose Olaya, in honour of a Peruvian fisherman and RV Humboldt in honour of a German scien st and naturalist, whose names reaffirm our research. On the other hand, the scien fic community has been able to demonstrate that the Humboldt Ecosystem is an intense upwelling system, with climate variability related to ENSO. This phenomenon affects produc ve ac vi es such as fishery and agriculture. That is why, it is studied by various scien fic worldwide ins tu ons, for impacts regarding climate and economic ac vi es. Part of high biological ac vity off the coast of Peru is due to fer liza on caused by upwelling and trade winds. Op mal wind speed between 3 to 6 m s-1, cause cold and nutrient-rich subsurface waters to reach the eupho c zone, despite being at la tudes between 3°S - 20°S. The organic ma er generated by high rates of photosynthesis have their reverse process called remineraliza on, placing the top edge of the Oxygen Minimum Zone less than 22 μM concentra ons, close to depths of 25 m depth. These low concentra ons are a result of balance between the consump on of oxygen by remineralisa on of organic ma er and poor ven la on. Ledesma team sampling along the Peruvian coast Contact us: nimit.official@gmail.com, info@nf-pogo-alumni.org, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org 9

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NANO REGIONAL PROJECTS Meteorological and hydrodynamic observa ons in the Boughrara lagoon (Tunisia) Progress of the NANO Africa regional project Houssem Sme 1 and Abdelfa ah Atoui2 1Postdoctoral Scholar, Na onal Ins tute of Marine Sciences and Technologies (Tunisia), Mediterranean Ins tute of Oceanography (France) Alumnus profile: h p://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profile/hsma / 2Engineer, Department of Urban Hydraulic, Tunisia, PhD candidate, Tunis Na onal School of Engineers Alumnus profile: h p://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profile/aatoui/ Overview The NANO Nearshore Hydrodynamics Group (NHG) brings together young researchers from Brazil, Ivory Coast, Mauri us and Tunisia, par cipa ng in the 2016-2017 NANO-Africa project. This project has been running since January 2013 with the aim of promo ng observa- ons of nearshore hydrodynamics in Ivory Coast, Mauri us, Tunisia and promote long-term collabora on between the members of NANOAfrica and other NANO sub-groups. The current research project focuses on the observa on and numerical simula on of nearshore hydrodynamics with possible applica ons to study shoreline erosion and water quality. In this research communica on we present the progress achieved in Tunisia. Study zone The Boughrara lagoon has a surface area of 500 km2, making it the larg- est lagoon in Tunisia, and communicates with the Mediterranean Sea through two channels (Fig. 1). Our goal during the 2016-2017 NANOAfrica project is to study water circula on in the Boughrara lagoon by means of field measurements and numerical modeling and monitor the seasonal changes of its water quality. The field measurements task Figure 1 - The Boughrara lagoon and the loca on of the deployment sites of the de and wave sensors and the metrological sta on. is currently on-going a er the successful deployment of the equipments acquired during the 2014 and 2015 projects (i.e. de- wave-gauge and portable weather sta on) and the new equipment acquired recently (i.e. de gauge). In addi on to monitoring the meteorological (wind speed and direc on, atmospheric pressure) and hydrodynamic (sea level, wave characteris cs) condi ons, it is planned to measure the basic water quality parameters (temperature, salinity and dis- solved oxygen) in order to address ecological issues facing marine life in the Boughrara lagoon (e.g. eutrophica on, anoxia). Observatory setup The observatory equipment will provide concurrent measurements of the sea level, wave height and period and the wind speed and direc on. • Equipment specifica on: -Tide-wave gauges: RBR-Virtuoso D-Wave -Tide gauge: RBR-Solo D-Tide -Weather sta on: Gill Metpak • Field work: The instruments were successfully deployed on 21 August 2016 (Figs. 2 and page 8); the de and wave gauges were programmed to start sampling at the same me. They will be retrieved a er a three months sampling period. Figure 2 - Setup and deployment of the meteorological sta on (photos credit to H. Sme and A. Atoui). Contact us: nimit.official@gmail.com, info@nf-pogo-alumni.org, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org 10 NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

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Numerical modeling Del -Flow, the hydrodynamic engine of the Del 3D numerical modeling suite, was used to inves gate the flow and the sea level variability in the gulf of Gabes (Fig. 3) during low and high des. For the flow simula on we used water level (astronomical) meseries from our na onal sea level data base including data from the NANO de-wave gauge (RBR-virtuoso D-wave). The modelled hydrodynamics reproduced the observed amplifica on of the sea level in the gulf of Gabes leading to a dal resonance of the semi-diurnal dal cons tuents (M2, S2, Fig. 4) as reported in the literature for our study site (Sammari et al, 2006). Although other modeling studies also found this dal resonance, our model has a higher spa al resolu on compared to what is available in the literature (Abdennadher and Boukthir, 2006). Figure 3 - Simulated velocity field during high de (le ) and during low de (right) in the gulf of Gabes. Figure 4 - Simulated dal amplifica on induced by the M2 (right) and S2 (le ) dal cons tuents during high de. References Sammari C., Kou tonsky V.G., Moussa M. (2006). Sea level variability and dal resonance in the Gulf of Gabès. Tunisia, Con nental Shelf Research, 26, pp 338-350. doi:10.1016/j. csr.2005.11.006. Abdennadher J., Boukthir M. (2006). Numerical simula on of the barotropic des in the Tunisian Shelf and the Strait of Sicily. Journal of Marine Systems, 63, pp 162-182. doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2006.07.001. Read more about the NANO-Africa regional project and its par cipants at h p://nf-pogo-alumni.org/projects/africa/ NANO members conducted outreach ac vi es in the beaches of Indonesia. Read more at page 17. Contact us: nimit.official@gmail.com, info@nf-pogo-alumni.org, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org 11

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NANO REGIONAL PROJECTS NANO South-East Asia regional project: Del -3D training and wri ng workshops Progress on the South-East Asia regional project (NANO-SEA) Suriyan Saramul1 and Jitraporn Phaksopa2 1Department of Marine Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand Alumnus profile: h p://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profile/ssuriyan/ 2Department of Marine Science, Kasetsart University, Thailand Alumnus profile: h p://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profile/jphakso/ A5-day workshop for Del -3D training and wri ng, was hosted by the Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn Unversity, Bangkok, Thailand during 8 - 12 August 2016. The objec ves of the workshops were to train NANO South-East Asia members on the applica on of Del 3D-FLOW and to work on wri ng a collabora ve manuscript for publica on in a peer-reviewed journal. This enabled the group to build human capacity in environmental management and expand the NANO network in South-East Asia countries by transferring knowledge. There were about 19 a endees from Asian countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam) par cipa ng in the workshops. The first 3-day workshop was an introductory course on ocean modelling. It was run by NANO alumni Dr Suriyan Saramul from Chulalongkorn University and Dr Jitraporn Phaksopa from Kasetsart University. We would like to acknowledge and thank “NANO Friend” Dr Christo Rautenbach for his tui on at the NANO Del 3D workshop in South Africa last year. Del 3D-FLOW open source model, a state of the art of ocean modeling so ware, was introduced to the a endees. A basic knowledge about numerical ocean model was first introduced and then all a endees had a chance to explore the Del 3D-FLOW so ware through a hands-on prac cal session using Cook Inlet, Alaska as an example for the whole 3 days workshop. At the end, an es ma on of a residence me from hydrodynamics model Del 3D was presented. This parameter is one of the important factor for the South-East Asia regional project on the evalua on of eutrophica on that has been conducted over the last 2 years. The second workshop was a wri ng workshop, to prepare research manuscripts on eutrophica on in the coastal waters of SE Asia: An assessment - Joint research project. This 2-day workshop was chaired by Dr Victoria Cheung. A dra collabora- ve paper among the 5 countries was ini ated while addi onal individual papers will be prepared by researchers from each country. Comments on a dra collabora ve paper were also provided by Dr Gerald Plumley (CofE former coordinator) and Dr Sutaporn Bunyajetpong (CofE alumna). Clockwise All par cipants of the workshop. Prac cal sessions of Del 3D-FLOW modelling so ware and wri ng of a collabora ve research paper. A visit to Chulalongkorn University Museum of Natural History, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University. Contact us: nimit.official@gmail.com, info@nf-pogo-alumni.org, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org 12 NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

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NANO REGIONAL PROJECTS Study of Harmful Algal Blooms and other Aspects of Sardine Habitats around the Indian sub-con nent (SHABASHI) Progress on the Indian sub-con nent project Nandini Menon1, Ravidas Naik2, Rajdeep Roy3, Kanthi Yapa4 and Grinson George5 1Nansen Environmental Research Centre (India), Kochi, India Alumnus profile: h p://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profile/nmenon/ 2Na onal Centre for Antarc c and Ocean Research, Goa, India Alumnus profile: h p://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profile/rnaik/ 3India Na onal Remote Sensing Centre, Hyderabad, India Alumnus profile: h p://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profile/rroy/ 4Department of Physics, University of Ruhuna, Matara, Sri Lanka Alumnus profile: h p://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profile/kasyapa/ 5Central Marine Fisheries Research Ins tute, Kochi, India Alumnus profile: h p://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profile/ggeorge/ Understanding the causes and consequences of harmful algal bloom (HAB) forma on requires a deeper understanding of all physical, biological and chemical factors, and the interac ons that influence these processes. Occurrences of blooms in oceans in par cular, have a very important role in overall primary produc vity, carbon cycling and fishing ac vi es. The study parameters for the coastal field campaigns in this project were designed with a view to incorporate all the possible variables related to bloom forma on and post bloom consequences. The aim of the project was to monitor coastal waters of India and Sri Lanka for HABs and their characteris c features. Biological and chemical methods were adopted for taxonomic and toxin characteriza on of HAB species, respec vely. Efforts were made to understand the influence of harmful as well as non-harmful algae on the fishery of sardines. Work was carried out simultaneously in the coastal waters of Kochi, Goa, Veraval and Sri Lanka. The project was ini ated in March 2015 and completed on 31st March 2016. In situ data sampling along the coastal waters of India and Sri Lanka were under the responsability of following team members Sites off West Coast of India Veraval: Grinson George and Mini Raman Goa: Rajdeep Roy and Ravidas Naik Kochi: Nandini Menon and Shaju, S.S. Sites off East Coast of India: Mandapam: Grinson George Sites off Sri Lanka Galle, Mirissa, Tangalle: Kanthi Yappa At the onset of the project, a training programme was conducted to standardize the sampling and analy cal protocols to be followed in the project and to provide training to all the par cipants in the laboratory procedures for the analyses. Field sampling helped in understanding the phytoplankton composi on, nutrient profile and associated bioop cal features of the coastal waters of India and Sri Lanka. For the crea on of the bio-op cal spectral library, pure cultures of phytoplankton species were analyzed for their absorp on spectra. The reason for conduc ng such a study was that the proper es of phytoplankton spectral absorp on form an integral part of a variety of bio-op cal algorithms to es mate phytoplankton biomass and other cons tuents. Phytoplankton spectral absorp on can vary as a consequence of composi on and concentra on of pigments as well as of pigment packaging. P. rathymum, a lesser known, poten ally toxic, bloom-forming species was isolated for the first me from coastal eastern Arabian Sea. Veraval coastal waters were sampled as per the Ocean colour advisories obtained from SAC, mainly to study the spa al extent of the winter bloom of NocƟluca scinƟllans that normally occurs in the open ocean regions of the Arabian Sea. This was because Veraval has con nental shelves that show characteris cs of both case I and case II waters. This region is highly produc- ve and an important fishing ground of the state. Thus studies on bloom forma ons are crucial for this region. An a empt was made to link the inter-annual variability of Indian oil sardines with the regular occurrence of algal blooms. The breeding and recruitment phase of the sardine is well med to match the ini a on of upwelling bloom in May and its propaga on and termina on. A mismatch in the bloom ini a on month is highly detrimental to sardines. The bionomics of Indian oil sardine reveals that the species is vulnerable to expansion and Shaju S. S. sampling in coastal waters of Mandapam, India Contact us: nimit.official@gmail.com, info@nf-pogo-alumni.org, lilian.krug@nf-pogo-alumni.org NANO website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org 13

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