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3rd Issue 2016 Flash C atsThe Official Publication of the New Zealand Cat Fancy SHOWTIME the effects of aging ‘low’ allergen cats i SLOW blink you so much! HERPES NEW TREATMENT NEW!! meet our judges

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Making everyday an adventure, naturally. AWARD-WINNING NO BAD ANYTHING FOOD FOR CATS Proudly made in Canada by Hagen For more info and stockists visit www.nutrience.co.nz Join our community on Facebook www.facebook.com/nutriencenz

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EDITOR Gaynor Saxon 272 Kennedy Road Napier 06 842 1011 flashcatseditor@gmail.com ADVERTISING Wendy McComb 06 368 9991 allanandwendy@hotmail.com SECRETARY Chris Lowe secretary@nzcf.com 07 533 4347 TREASURER Marion Petley 259B Mill Road, Otaki 5512 06 364 6314 marion.petley@xtra.co.nz COVER PIC Loriendale Isobel de Morningstar (See page 2) The Official Publication of the New Zealand Cat Fancy Inc. Issue 60 Inside this issue 3 Avon Aspen - Life Membership 4 The Pixie of the Cat Fancy 5 ‘How To Tips’ Photographing Cats 6 Meet some of our Judges 8 Infertility in Queens 10-11 The Effects of Aging 12-13 Low Allergen Cats 14-15 SHOWTIME 16 The Eyes Tell All 18 Breeders Blog 19 I Slow Blink You So Much 20 Animal Bylaws Update 21 Why do Cats Groom People 22 BSAC - Breeding Practices Policy 23 NZCF - Permitted Outcrosses People wmhoicehaintetchaetsnewxitlllicfoem...e back as 2016 SUBSCRIPTION APPLICATION I would like to subscribe to Flash Cats Magazine This subscription entitles me to Associate Membership of the New Zealand Cat Fancy Inc. I am enclosing $40.00 for four issues of Flash Cats. Please send them to the address below: Name: Address: Please copy or cut this form and post to: Executive Secretary Chris Lowe - 1614 Old Coach Road RD6, Te Puke 3186 New Zealand Views expressed in this magazine are not necessarily those of the New Zealand Cat Fancy Inc or its officials, and advertised products or services are not necessarily endorsed by the NZCF For permission to reproduce material in this magazine please contact the authors directly or talk to Gaynor Saxon on 06 842 1011

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The Official Publication of the New Zealand Cat Fancy Inc. Chair Chat A big congratulations to all our Annual Award winners this year... Well deserved. We are very aware all the hard work that goes into showing your beautiful cats. I have added some tips on photographing your cats and kittens in this issue. Will look forward to receiving them. Just a reminder of the correct ethical behavour at shows and around showtime. Members, please don’t ask Judges to transport, pick your cats up from airports, or bench your cats when they are judging them and judges, please don’t accept this responsibility. It’s not only unethical but against the NZCF rules. There is also some concerns with exhibitors making disparaging remarks about other’s cats and heckling the Judges loudly or within earshot of other exhibitors. It is not only appalling behavour but most unkind and embarassing to those who hear you, particularly when it is their cat you are talking about... REMEMBER. Everyone’s baby is a star and the best on the day to them.. Please respect that. On a more productive note, it was mentioned to the EC at the AGM meeting this year that we investigate a new name for the New Zealand Cat Fancy. Some feel it has become outdated and some even mentioned that they feel a bit embarassed using the words Cat Fancy. I would like with EC agreement, to send out a referendum to the membership to gauge whether firstly the majority would like a name change and if so we can move on from there. Watch this space.... With my Flash Cat’s Editor’s hat on, please get your pens working, I welcome any article and always do my best to publish them. Please note that the articles we publish are not necessarily the opinions of the NZCF, editor or staff of Flash Cats and any health advice given should be taken as just that, Any health issues should first be channelled through your vet. Gaynor Saxon NZCF Chair IMPORTANT NOTICES The Executive Council members now have new email addresses, please use these for future communication... Gaynor Saxon Deb Armishaw Janice Davey Annette Dunn Jane Webster Wendy Marion Petley nzcf.admnfinance@gmail.com nzcf.judges@gmail.com nzcf.shows@gmail.com nzcf.regos@gmail.com nzcf.bsac@gmail.com nzcf.marketing@gmail.com nzcf.treasurer@gmail.com Flash Cats Editor flashcatseditor@gmail.com (Gaynor Saxon) MEMBERS... PLEASE UPDATEYOUR EMAIL ADDRESSES TO THE NZCF SECRETARY, CHRIS LOWE AT: secretary@nzcf.com OUR COVER PIC LORIENDALE ISOBEL DE MORNINGSTAR OWNER - ROY GRIFFITHS Champion Kyapark Winner In Love and Champion Loriendale Yda de Rosetti. With a welcome import of breeding cats from one of Australia’s top Devon Catteries. I have been able to develop my breeding program and diversify the gene pool at Loriendale. With the wonderful work by Pam Dowling (Mad Cap) that has given the beautiful broad head and large eyes mixed with the outcross work of the Abysinnian to increase elegance and improve chin death and length in the tail we move towards meeting the standard here at Loriendale. Isobel is one on the first of this work to hit the show bench. Recently Supreme Exhibit at the Burmese Club Southern region show. Thea Lamprechtt of South Africa ( Ex Devon Breeder) awarded RUBIS at the National show this year. Isobel is 6 months old. I look forward to working with other Devon breeders (Rexeleant, Woolacombe) here in New Zealand and hope to see more Devon’s on the show bench. Go Team Devon! Flash Cats 2 Issue 16/03

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AVON ASPDEN Our newest LIFE MEMBER ThisYear, Avon Aspden was presented with Life Membership of the New Zealand Cat Fancy. Her service to this organisation and to her passion of breeding cats has been very long and extremely active. www.nzcf.com Avon started breeding Siamese 48 years ago under the Sayonara Prefix. Her love and knowledge of genetics led her to experiment with numerous programmes over the years. Her first Provisional Register Programme was in the very early 1970s when she was given permission to breed her Chocolatepoint Siamese to a Red Abyssinian. Jill Dawson was the Convenor of the Genetics Advisory Council (GAC) at the time and wrote many articles for European and American publications based on Avon’s Programme in an attempt to prove that “Red” Abys were not genetically red. Jill followed this up with more articles on the working of cinnamon. Avon has also contributed a number of articles to Flashcats and to the old “NZCats” magazine and to theYearbooks. She has presented talks and written articles on Silvers, Caramels and Tabbies. One of these talks has been translated into French, Dutch and Italian. Some of the many Provisional Register Programmes Avon has been involved with or supported have been; strengthening the ticked pattern in Abys, getting the Tonkinese accepted as a breed rather than AOVs, getting the Tiffanies recognised and registered, establishing allowable outcrosses for the Devon Rexes. Up until this time Devon Breeders were obliged to make an application to the GAC every time they outcrossed to eliminate their genetic issues. Avon did a huge amount of research and correspondence with International Bengal breeders, geneticists, judges, show officials and registrars in an endeavour to find out about the Breed and she made the recommendation to the National Executive (at that time) for them to be accepted as a registered breed here. Avon has supported many breeders, both nationally and internationally, especially during her time as the PR Registrar for the NZCF. Her knowledge is immense and she is always willing to investigate pedigree lines for other registrars and breeders in order to come up with an explanation for particular anomalies, traits or colour surprises! She enjoyed the friendship and mentoring of well-known geneticist, Roy Robinson before his death. Avon became the recipient of a massive amount of European material which had a huge Silver emphasis and this fuelled Avon’s knowledge and passion for Silvers in all breeds. Avon was appointed as the PR Registrar in 1994 along with the GAC convenor role and apart from a short break for medical reasons she has served as the NZCF PR Registrar ever since. She also has served as the Assistant National Secretary for a couple of years and held the role of Editor for our “NZCats” magazine. In addition to her various roles within the National Organisation, Avon has been an active member of many Cat Clubs including, Takapuna, Franklin, NZ Siamese, and more lately TOSCA, Auckland and Metropolitan, attending shows and serving on committees. Avon has also bred Hereford Cattle, Orpington Poultry and Spotted Polworth Sheep. She is a qualified landscape designer and propagates plants to fill her gorgeous garden. In all of these many activities, Avon is supported and loved by Martyn, her husband and best friend. Congratulations to Avon. Her faithful service to this organisation and her passion of breeding cats has been very long and extremely active. NZCF MEETING DATES 18-20 NOVEMBER 2016 25-26 FEBRUARY 2017 13-14 MAY 2017 5-6 AUGUST 2017 25-26 NOVEMBER 2017 FLASH CATS CLOSE-OFF DATES FOR CONTRIBUTIONS March Issue -30 January 2016 June Issue - 30 April 2016 September Issue - 30 July 2016 December Issue - 30 October 2016 Contact Gaynor Saxon (Editor) flashcatseditor@gmail.com Issue 16/03 3 Flash Cats

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The Official Publication of the New Zealand Cat Fancy Inc. Loriendale Harriet de Hillwood Loriendale Lily de Hazelwood THE PIXIE OF THE CAT FANCY DEVON REX By Roy Griffiths THE HISTORY The Devon Rex was first introduced into NZ in 1969. Mrs Jane Vallings of Auckland immigrated from the U.K. in 1968 and had bred both Rex varieties there and brought with her Cornish Rex. In 1969 a male of her breeding arrived, unfortunately he died of a kidney complaint within 3 weeks of arriving. It was not until 1974 that serious Devon Rex breeding took place in NZ with the arrival of 3 queens from the UK – Annelida Seagull, Lucinda Monpetite Pheobe.& Kora Kalish imported by Fran & Pat Tollan and the Platypuss Cattery had arrived and were to play a large part in the Devon development in NZ over the next 10 – 20 years. Pam Dowling, (Madcap) and later Sandra Perry with the (Kalamunda) were also very influential breeders where the show quality Devon Rex is concerned. Today on the show bench Loriendale Devons are the most common with David and Beryll Colley' s Rexellent and Ngarie Dixon Woolacombe occasionally on show. All three catteries have good communication paths and helping each other to progress the breed forward in health, temperament and type. Having the expertise of Ngaire Dixon as a practicing vet is incredibly valuable to this group. LORIENDALE DEVONS Over thirty years ago I wandered in unsuspectingly to a cat show in New Brighten and as I made my way along the cats I saw this unusual cat that stole my heart, the rest is history. In 2002 we were blessed to adopt our first Devon girl. "Lily" (Ch Makinwaves Princess ofYoda) who has realised the dream of having little "Elf Pixies" frequent our household. Previously breeders in New Zealand were working hard to clear out Myopathy via a test mating program and unfortunately kittens were not being sold on or very difficult to acquire. Since then I have working with bloodlines from the United Kingdom, United States of America and Australia. The work that has been done here in New Zealand by breeders like Pam Dowling, Fran Tolan, Sharon Wilson ( Makinwaves) is a great asset to the new lines being made available to New Zealand breeders by Peta Watts in Australia. Peta has imported many cats from the USA that bring top show quality with them. Peta is in the middle of an outcross program with American Loriendale Allegra de Aragon THE DEVON REX, Pixie of the Cat world, sports oversized ears on an elfin face with large impish eyes.This adorable combination only hints at the mad-cap personality within,a cross, some say, between a cat, a dog and a monkey. Shorthairs. (This was done extensively in the USA to shorten the nose and increase the nose break). The elegant lines we have here in New Zealand compliment this progression to the Breed Standard. Peta now has a new breeding queen from the Ukraine so hopefully we will see progeny across the Tasman in the near future. I have used Abyssinian in an experimental program and now at generation five look forward to produce the first Cinnamon Devon in New Zealand. I want type before colour so hopefully a show cinnamon on the show bench soon, eight years now from the start of the program. The next venture will be outcrossing to the Russet Burmese, an allowable outcross to bring in the Russet gene into the Devon gene pool. With the Russet gene now having been identified, isolated the disbelievers may need to read the findings of Leslie Lyons at UC Davis Genetics Laboratory. The DNA test has just become available which will make the process a lot easier. Loriendale Archibald de Ruskin Flash Cats 4 Issue 16/03

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‘HOW TO’ TIPS FOR A STUNNING CAT PHOTO With the Annual Awards photos soon to • For shooting action photos of running be needed for the March addition of Flash or jumping cats, it’s no shame to put the Cats, here are a few tips on taking stunning photos. We ideally need a high resolution of 300 dpi but anything over 150 dpi is acceptable. device on automatic mode. No matter how fast you are with the settings, the cat is always one step ahead of you — you may miss the perfect frame or moment. Please don’t send in a photo of your cat • Use natural light when photographing sitting on the neighbour’s fence five houses cats climbing in the trees or jumping away... this can’t be zoomed in unless it is a through the grass.The best time for huge photo, or cats sitting on the toilet or perfect light is when the sun is low, then hanging out of a dryer for official photos. you’ll have that warm, soft light, without You want you cat to look stunning when it is shadows on a cat’s face and fur. published. • The use of a flash often distracts Remember, Gaynor can photoshop anything. she’s had lots of practice and has taken out many a wrinkle in her day...but it is a long and arduous job so she’d rather not. animals, and sometimes frighten them. If you have to use a flash, take it off your camera or angle it upwards. If you have softbox use it, you’ll get rid of the shadows and get very soft light. • Carry your camera with you all the time. It’s the only way to be in the right place at the right time.You don’t want to miss all the unexpected situations that cats • If you are about to take pictures of jumping and running cats, do not feed them. Who would want to jump and run on a full stomach? put themselves into.You never know when you may come across a unique and beautiful cat doing something really funny or cool. • Keep the eyes sharp. Eyes tend to be the first thing we look at in a picture, so sharp eyes are very important. Focus on the cat’s eyes every time, when they are • Get their attention by playing to their visible through the viewfinder. curiosity. Cats have different characters • Cats photographed against a broken and traits; they all react differently to background go nicely together. similar situations. But one thing they have in common is their natural curiosity. • Capturing the contrast between a cat’s fur and the background is also a • Crackling your fingers, rustling paper or recommended shot you can take. dry leaves, or tossing pebbles are great ways to get their attention.Toss pebbles in the direction where you want to direct the cats, and their curiosity will do the rest.The cats will go and check out what’s there, then just use the paper rustling to make cats turn towards you. • Shoot with a low point of view. Show what life looks like from their angle and perspective.The lower you get will allow you to capture the cat in the position of a real hunter and you as a prey.This makes for a great shot. • For great still frontal shots, place their favorite bed in a place that has a nice background... try not to show a littered room. an unmade bed, or in direct sunlight that can show excessive light on the cat. • Be patient.The chances of the cat doing what you intended is 50-50, so don’t worry if you don’t manage to do it during your first try.This is the charm of shooting cats in their field—you have to work hard and eventually good photos will follow. Remember, if they do not • When people see photos of a yawning cat, they always think that the photographer was lucky to get that shoot. In my experience, when a cat wakes up from sleeping, he or she will yawn about 34 times. So that’s the right time to take a yawning shot. • To capture funny sleeping moments, don’t make a sound. Cats can sleep in various places and positions,. so be quiet, make no sudden movements, and do not interrupt their privacy. Snap the shot as quickly as you can. want to follow you, do not make them • Experiment with capturing different by force. Just wait until they are ready to and unique angles. Make every photo do it. different from your previous one. . Get • Always form a plan for what you want to capture, but make peace with the fact that you will not always succeed in the first attempt. Accept that cats sometimes will not cooperate; that’s their nature. ready to slip into strange places, roll on the grass, dirt, climb trees, and capture cobwebs. Be ready for stabbing thorns or biting mosquitoes. Give 100% for each photo to get the shot you want. www.nzcf.com Some infomation sourced from photographer Zoran Milutinovic’s site Issue 16/03 5 Flash Cats

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MEET SOME OF OUR JUDGES more to come in each Issue, or go to our website for the full list...www.nzcf.com ANN SKILLING (All Breeds) Animals have been a part of my life since early childhood where I spent countless hours on my grandparent’s farm. But it was not until the 1960’s that I began Seal Burmese and White Longhairs under the Chuntao abnd Riverain prefixes.This led me to importing and breeding New Zealand’s first Red, Cream and Chocolate Burmese. I enjoyed spectacular success in the early 1990’s with my Burmese, (my great love), a 4th generation Blue Cream Exotic who joined my household and became the ancestor of NZ’s first Grand Champion Exotic Female. Through the years, I have been very active in the Cat Fancy, joining the Judges Panel in 1975, becoming a Shorthair Judge and then moving to the Senior all Breeds Panel in 2002. In the early years of the NZCF I was a national Executive member and was instrumental in presenting to the NZCF it’s first Show Rules and Breeds Standards.Prior to this I had edited the fore-runner to NZ Cats and was involved in the preparation of the Stud Books. Other posts I have held were that of Judges Registrar, Siamese/Oriental Registrar and at one time chaired the Genetic Advisory Committee. In 2014 I returned from a time in England and have now been reinstated to the All Breeds Judging Panel. Flash Cats CHRISTINE YEUNG (Intermediate Shorthair) I have been owned by Burmese since I was a child - a seal named Mylé was my first cat. We also owned a Bluecream Persian and had several moggies over the years. Mylé was entered into a show in my hometown of Gisborne, I can’t remember his placings other than “The cat with the longest whiskers”, which of course I thought was wonderful! It wasn’t until around 20 years later, when wanting to see what this showing thing was really all about, we entered our neuter Russian Blue into the Kapiti cat show and from there, was hooked. My husband Mushfik and I registered the Cairistona prefix in 2003, with our first litter of Burmese and Mandalay kittens being born in 2005. Our foundation queen was from Sashima Cattery – Brz Db Gr Ch Sashima Lace, whom we still own today although she is very much enjoying the retired life! We currently breed Burmese and have a new Mandalay program underway. We have also bred Tonkinese and owned another Russian Blue. We have two dogs, both Dobermanns which are very much owned by the cats too! ZENA PIGDEN (Longhair)) I came to pedigree cats by way of a wonderful Siamese. As well as being a loving and sweet natured cat she willingly cooperated with my decision when she was five years old, to put her in the local show (and a few subsequent ones) … as one of only two seal point neuter spays in the show she easily walked off with the Best N/S Seal Siamese trophy in one ring and the Runner Up Best N/S Seal Siamese in the other. I was hooked and have continued to be a regular exhibitor as I moved into breeding Birmans and then Maine Coons. I have been breeding Maine Coons since 1998 and they are my passion and my obsession, but I have found that I enjoy and appreciate every breed of cat. I have filled a number of roles in the NZCF – holding at various times the portfolios of Breed Standards Council, Registrations, Business Administration and Finance, Marketing and Flashcats, and IT when I have served on the Executive Council on and off since the early 2000s, and also having a period of time as Chair. Currently I’m enjoying a break from these roles but I am the NZCF representative on the board of the NZ Companion Animal Council. I’m also involved with my local cat club, Southern Cross All Breeds Cat Club and am the Breed Representative for Maine Coons, Norwegian Forest Cats and Siberians. PAUL HENRY (Longhair, Shorthair Student) I started in the cat world breeding Birmans with my late partner Brian Smyth. We got our Prefix “ PREFERENCE” in about 1885-6 and bred the first two Birmans to become Grand Champions in NZ. Was so exciting as they were half sisters from our foundation queen a week apart gaining this title. Gr CH Preference Lady Bodicea and Gr CH Preference Lady Arabella. We had quite a bit of success with our Seal and Blue point Birmans with a few going overseas to Australia. I was also President of the Birman cat club for a few years and held the office of show secretary for many years. With Brians passing I took on the Prefix and moved toTabbypoint Birmans with my new partner Colin. I had just become a Longhair judge at this stage. I went on to breed theTop winning Longhair kitten in NZ in 1999 with Preference Fashion Hint, a SealTabby point Birman. At this time we branched into Persians and Exotics for a couple of years I was asked by Auckland cat Club to be MC at their 50th Jubilee show and by the end of the weekend I was back on the panel judging again. Now I am so glad I took that break as am thouroughly enjoying my judging again.. I now have a new partnerTony, whom I have introduced to the Cat world, and we have purchased 2 Maine Coons as pets, but have shown them this last year to more success than we dreamed of. Hence I am now half way through doing my Shorthair projects to become an Allbreeds cat judge. I also have been MC for many of our National cat shows and also club shows, even been onTV for the Breakfast show promoting local cat shows. 6 Issue 16/03

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Issue 16/03 www.nzcf.com MAREE ROY (All Breeds) I’ve been a cat lover for as long as I can remember – from the childhood days when cute moggies strayed onto our back porch to have their kittens to owning my first Siamese at 23. ‘Mickey’ went everywhere with my daughter Melyssa and me; picnics, walks, camping trips, the lot. I was hooked! Next was a stunning Ebony Oriental called Ninja and our foray into the cat show circuit way back in 1984. We started breeding in 1990 with our Siamese ‘Nodrog Zoe’ under the Xanthe Prefix. An eye for the ‘different’ led us into torties and bicolours [sometimes together] and subsequently the lovely Tonkinese. I’ve lived in Martinborough for over 40 years, so now an official ‘local’, and share home with two cats and a gorgeous Whippet called Rose. Melyssa is now a medical research scientist and lives in Dunedin with her family and four cats as well. In September 2010 in Christchurch – the weekend before the earthquake! – I qualified as an All-Breeds Judge. Assessing high-quality cats at shows is an honour, and will always be a stimulating challenge. I continue to have enthusiasm for learning about ‘all things cat’ and I’m currently on the Breed Standards Advisory Council. My other major passions includeYoga, classical music, walking, reading and gardening. ROY GRIFFITHS (Shorthair, Junior Longhair) I live with my cats in the quiet suburb of Cashmere in the hills of Christchurch, New Zealand. A bit damaged by the Earthquakes, as we say here “ shaken but not stirred”. Christchurch is starting to rebuild and the strength and unity of the community has developed substantially during this catastrophe. The cats have been through a traumatic time also but starting to return to their normal lifestyles. I have been involved with animals all my life. Of recent years I managed to acquire a Devon and have bred and exhibited Devon Rex since. Presently focusing on an outcross program to expand gene diversity and also bring the cinnamon colour into the Devon Rex gene pool. My extended family and my passion are my cats. A qualified Steward, Handler and Senior Shorthair Cat Judge and still exhibiting Devon Rexes. Have held office on the Executive Committee as the Portfolio Manager of the Breeds Standards Advisory of the New Zealand Cat Fancy. I am currently working towards achieving All Breeds status in judging. CHERYLE ST CLAIR-NEWMAN (Longhair) Showing, Breeding, Judging -- it all started for Cheryle when she attended an All Breeds cat show in the late 1960’s. This was the beginning of her interest in longhair pedigree cats. In 1976 she was granted her prefix under the name of TANIVER, and then began to breed Persians in various colours. Her enjoyment in breeding is to follow the development of different lines and colours, to achieve the best of colour for either, the patterned or shaded as in the smokes which has proved to be a very difficult gene ( giving colours that have caused many interesting discussions.) She has only ever had a small select breeding cattery. In 1986, Cheryle attained her Longhair Judging Licence then in 1997 was admitted to the Longhair training panel, where she held the position of Senior Longhair Tutor Judge. Over the years Cheryle has judged extensively in Australia and New Zealand. DOROTHY HORTON (Longhair) I have always had at least one cat about the house and started married life with two Sealpoint Siamese. I have been breeding Burmese under the Xzandu prefix since 1968, specialising originally in Blue Burmese. I was involved with Pat Hogan in the development and introduction of Mandalays and was instrumental in the acceptance of Mandalays as a breed by NZCF. I also wrote the Standard of Points for the breed. I am presently the NZCF Breed Standard Representative for Mandalays. Under the Dreamweaver prefix I also breed Burmillas and have also bred Orientals, Persians and Exotics. I have been a Senior Shorthair Judge since 1976 and always enjoy judging the many breeds of Shorthair Cat and the varieties therein. I am currently the President of Shorthair Cat Breeders Association which runs two successful shows a year. I also enjoy cooking, gardening, reading and the occasional lunch out with friends 7 Flash Cats

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The Official Publication of the New Zealand Cat Fancy Inc. INFERTILITY IN QUEENS What is the cause? How to diagnose it? Causes of queen infertility, or inability to produce kittens are varied. Some of the common reasons queens do not get pregnant include: IRREGULAR OR ABSENT CYCLES In this case, the queen may not cycle at all, or may have prolonged intervals between estrus—estrus being the heat, the time when she is willing to mate. If readiness for mating is not evident by about 2 years of age, it may mean that she is not going to reproduce normally, or it may mean that she does not show her estrus signs very much, and the estrus is being missed. Some Persians and Persian-related breed queens are very subdued in their signs of estrus. It is also important to note that these longhaired breeds often are late to mature, and it can be 18 months or so before the female starts cycling properly. Cats not showing normal signs of heat may also be reluctant to do so if they are bottom cat on the social ladder, or if they are housed in overcrowded conditions. Placing them in a smaller group or providing individual housing, increasing light to over 12 hours daily, and feeding them well may help to encourage signs of heat, as will introduction of a breeding tom or another female in heat. The first few cycles in cats are of suboptimal fertility, so breeding her at this time may not lead to pregnancy. Queens that are older may stop having a regular reproductive cycle, which can lead to infertility or low fertility. After about 8 years of age, fertility will start to drop off. Some of the reasons for infertility maybe: • Sub-clinical uterine infections • Toxoplasmosis/protozoal infection • Hypercortisolism • Abnormal ovarian functions • Chromosomal abnormality • Systemic viral or protozoal infection • Lack of sufficient copulatory stimulus in order to induce ovulation Queens born with congenital defects of the reproductive tract, or genetic abnormalities such as intersex may be sterile because the tract is not functional due to blockage, or malformation / absence of key structures. Queens who are chronically ill and in very poor condition (e.g., cancer, chronic virus infection) may not be as fertile. Administration of certain prescription medications may also affect the reproductive hormone balance adversely. Queens who are experiencing considerable stress (e.g., lots of travel, new environment, cat-to-cat social conflict), or nutritional deficiencies may also experience reduced fertility. UTERUS PATHOLOGY The uterus is in need of precise hormone control to maintain normal structure and function. There is a spectrum of changes which occurs if the balance of normal reproduction of regular cycles and pregnancies is interrupted. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), endometritis (infection of uterus lining), and pyometra (pus in the uterus) represent this abnormal spectrum of changes. The CEH condition represents uterus lining overgrowth /degeneration associated with hormone imbalances affecting mostly older queens, and can interfere with her ability to conceive. If the hormones (most commonly the progesterone type) continue to stimulate the uterus, the lining continues to thicken and the uterus becomes prone to infection, thus endometritis, and ultimately pyometra will be sequelae to the CEH. Endometritis may only show up as infertility, but usually pyometra makes the queen quite ill, and she may have a fever, poor appetite, a discharge, be dull, and have a bloated appearance. If the uterus is closed, no discharge may be found and the queen will rapidly deteriorate without intervention. Queens not being used for breeding who are experiencing repeated estrus periods, and ovulating without pregnancy are at high risk for this sequence of events. EARLY PREGNANCY LOSS This can be very difficult to pick up. Infections, defects in the offspring, stress, chronic queen illness, or nutritional deficiency (e.g., taurine, copper) may lead to loss early in the pregnancy, such that it might not have been known that she was pregnant. BREEDING MANAGEMENT This is a delicate matter in cats! Some apparent infertility is really just due to insufficient mating frequency occurring during her estrus, or efforts to mate incompatible tom and queen. DIAGNOSIS Your veterinarian will perform a thorough physical exam on your cat, taking into account the background history of symptoms and possible incidents that might have led to this condition. There are several diagnostic tests that can be conducted in order to find out if the symptoms are related to the infertility disorder. Some of the basis for the diagnosis will be related to whether your cat has conceived or given birth in the past. If she has reproduced successfully before, your veterinarian will consider whether the male mate that has been chosen for breeding is of proven fertility, or whether the timing for the breeding was scheduled in accordance with your cat’s ovulation cycle. Your cat’s hormone levels will be analyzed, to be sure that she has the required levels for conception and a following pregnancy. Progesterone concentration must remain steady throughout the pregnancy for it to be successful. A complete blood profile will be conducted, including a chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, and a urinalysis. These tests will show evidence of infections, either bacterial, viral, or parasitic. Viral infections that will be tested for include toxoplasmosis, protozoal parasite infection, herpesvirus, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and hypercorticolism. In addition, your doctor will be checking your cat’s body thoroughly for any other chronic disease conditions. Imaging techniques may be used to look for any abnormalities in the uterus, such as masses (indicating tumors), and anatomic abnormalities that would interfere with conception. In a healthy cat, the ovaries and uterus will not be visible on X-ray imaging. If your veterinarian is able to view the ovaries or uterus, this would suggest that there may be an underlying condition of ovarian cysts, ovarian cancer, or uterine cysts. If it appears, on examination, that your cat has cysts or other masses of tissue in the uterus or reproductive tract, your veterinarian will need to take a sample of tissue from the uterus for biopsy. Sourced from various websites. Flash Cats 8 Issue 16/03

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www.nzcf.com Issue 16/03 9 Flash Cats

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The Official Publication of the New Zealand Cat Fancy Inc. OTHFEAEGFINFEGCTS As they age, cats often suffer a decline in functioning, including their cognitive functioning. It’s estimated that cognitive decline—referred to as feline cognitive dysfunction, or FCD—affects more than 55% of cats aged 11 to 15 years and more than 80% of cats aged 16 to 20 years. Memory, ability to learn, awareness, and sight and hearing perception can all deteriorate in cats affected with FCD. This deterioration can cause disturbances in sleeping patterns, disorientation or reduced activity. It can make cats forget previously learned habits they once knew well, such as the location of the litter box or their food bowls. It can increase their anxiety and tendency to react aggressively. It can also change their social relationships with you and with other pets in your home. Understanding the changes your cat is undergoing can help you compassionately and effectively deal with behavior problems that may arise in her senior years. Some effects of aging aren’t related to cognitive dysfunction. Often these effects can contribute to behavior changes that only look like cognitive decline. Be sure to report all changes you see to your cat’s veterinarian. Don’t assume that your cat is “just getting old” and nothing can be done to help her. Many changes in behavior are signs of treatable medical disorders, and there are a variety of therapies that can comfort your cat and ease her symptoms, including any pain she might be experiencing. Cognitive Dysfunction Checklist The following behaviors may indicate cognitive dysfunction in your senior cat: LEARNING AND MEMORY • Eliminates outside the litter box • Eliminates in sleeping areas or by eating areas • Sometimes seems unable to recognize familiar people and pets CONFUSION AND SPATIAL DISORIENTATION • Gets lost in familiar locations • Stares or fixates on objects or simply stares into space • Wanders about aimlessly • Gets stuck and can’t navigate around or over obstacles RELATIONSHIPS AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR • Less interested in petting, interactions, greeting people or familiar pets, etc. • Needs constant contact, becomes overdependent and clingy ACTIVITY—DECREASED, APATHETIC • Explores less and responds less to things going on around her • Grooms herself less Eats less ANXIETY AND INCREASED IRRITABILITY • Seems restless or agitated • Vocalizes more and/or in a more urgent tone • Behaves more irritably in general SLEEP-WAKE CYCLES REVERSED DAY-NIGHT SCHEDULE • Sleeps restlessly, wakes up during the night • Sleeps more during the day • Vocalizes more at night RULING OUT OTHER CAUSES FOR YOUR CAT’S BEHAVIOR If your cat shows any of the symptoms or changes listed above, your first step is to take her to the veterinarian to determine whether there is a specific medical cause for her behavior. Any medical or degenerative illness that causes pain, discomfort or decreased mobility—such as arthritis, dental disease, thyroid dysfunction, cancer, impaired sight or hearing, or urinary tract disease—can lead to increased sensitivity and irritability, increased anxiety about being touched or approached, increased aggression (because your cat may choose to threaten and bite rather than move away), decreased responsiveness to your voice, reduced ability to adapt to change, and reduced ability to get to usual elimination areas. If medical problems are ruled out, and if primary behaviorproblems unrelated to aging are ruled out (for example, problems that started years before your cat began aging), your cat’s behavior may be attributed to the effects of aging on the brain. TREATING COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION If cognitive dysfunction is the only logical explanation for changes in your cat’s behavior, the next step is to seek therapy. Treatment mainly consists of making helpful changes to your cat’s environment and keeping her daily schedule consistent. There are also some medicines that may help cats with FCD, such as selegiline hydrochloride. This drug is currently only licensed for use in dogs with cognitive dysfunction, but some behaviorists and veterinarians have reported improvement in cats as well.Your veterinarian may also consider an anti-anxiety medication. HOUSE SOILING Inappropriate elimination is a common symptom of FCD..Any number of medical problems can contribute to inappropriate elimination, including sensory decline, neuromuscular conditions that affect mobility, brain tumors, kidney dysfunction and endocrine system disorders. In short, any disorder that increases your cat’s frequency of elimination or decreases her bladder or bowel control can cause house soiling. Accordingly, the first step in treating inappropriate elimination in any cat, regardless of age, is to take her to her veterinarian for a thorough examination. If your vet rules out medical problems, the following suggestions may help: • Place additional litter boxes where they’re easy to find and easy to get into. Cats experiencing FCD mayforget the location of their litter box. Make sure you keep the existing boxes in their same places, but put new boxes in obvious areas so that your cat can always find an appropriate place to eliminate. • Use litter boxes with low sides. Many older cats have trouble or experience pain when attempting to get in or out of a litter box with high sides. Flash Cats 10 Issue 16/03

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www.nzcf.com CONFUSION AND DISORIENTATION Disorientation is often the first sign that pet parents recognize as cognitive decline in their older cats. It’s estimated that disorientation occurs in at least 40% of cats aged 17 years and older. Disorientation may be reduced by increasing the predictability of your cat’s environment and schedule. Avoid changes to her food, food placement, litter and litter box placement. Try to keep her daily routine as consistent as possible. If she’s really distressed, it may be best to confine her to a relatively small space, such as one floor of your house or, in advanced cases, one room. Doing this will make it easy for her to find everything she needs. RESTLESSNESS AND WAKING AT NIGHT A cat’s sleep-wake cycle can be impaired by FCD. However, as with most symptoms of FCD, there are also many alternative reasons for increased nighttime activity. For instance, cats who sleep more during the day can become more restless and active at night. Sensory changes, such as eyesight or hearing loss, can affect your cat’s depth of sleep. An increased need to eliminate combined with a decreased ability to locate or access a litter box can prompt your cat to wake up and wander around. Try to re-establish your cat’s normal sleeping and waking hours. It’s best to increase her activity level by engaging her in play during the day and in the evening so she’ll want to sleep at night. Anxiety can also cause increased restlessness at night. A distinct feature of geriatric anxiety is that it can manifest as nighttime anxiety. It may be anxiety about being separated from family members (who are asleep) or worry about navigating the house in the dark.Your cat may keep you awake by calling, pacing in your room, purring by your head and by pawing at you for attention. FCD anxiety can improve with drug therapy.You can also consult a Certified Applied Animal Behaviorist (CAAB or ACAAB) and your veterinarian, or a veterinary behaviorist (Diplomate of the American College ofVeterinary Behavior, Dip ACVB) to see if medication may be helpful. Please see our article, Finding Professional Behavior Help, to locate a professional behaviorist in your area. EXCESSIVE VOCALIZATION Older cats may vocalize excessively for a number of reasons, including disorientation, loss of hearing and pain due to one or more medical conditions. As with other symptoms of FCD, your first step should be to take your cat to her veterinarian for a thorough examination to rule out or treat any medical problems. FCD generally increases vocalizations related to anxiety, disorientation and separation distress. Anxious vocalizing is usually a plaintive meow.Your senior cat’s vocalizing can become a problem if she does it too often or at inappropriate times, like when you’re sleeping. Showing your own frustration or punishing your cat for vocalizing can increase her anxiety and aggravate the problem. It’s better to treat increased vocalization by increasing your cat’s activity during the day and gradually reestablishing her proper sleepwake cycle. Pheromone or drug therapy may help your cat feel less anxious.You can use feline pheromone sprays or diffusers in areas where your cat normally spends her time. Anti-anxiety medication can also help reduce vocalizations.You can ask for this advice from yourVet or from a Certified Animal Behaviorist or ask your vet to help locate an animal behaviorist in your area. IMPORTANT NOTICE - CLUBS AND JUDGES There have been some concerning information reported to the Executive Council regarding Clubs responsibilities to Judges. That of the paying of Judges travel, accomodation and meal allowances. CLUBS - Please familiarise yourselves with the NZCF Show Bylaws particularly the clauses below. JUDGES - Also please be aware of your responsibilities to Clubs. This you will find in the Show Bylaws under Section 7. 6. CLUBS’ RESPONSIBILITIES TO JUDGES 6.1 Clubs’ invitations to judges must be made using theNZCF prescribed ‘Invitation and Agreement to Judge’ form, or by email with the full information completed, as required, including the details of any additional duties expected of the judge like whether cage or ring judging, top ten presentation or a written judge’s report on the top ten in each class. 6.2 Any club negotiating with a judge must either include the restrictions in the contract or provide evidence that restrictions have been negotiated/resolved. 6.3 The process for inviting is as follows: a. Clubs shall pay judges’ travel expenses, overnight accommodation costs and meals as appropriate, and if the judge has paid out any of those expenses, they shall be reimbursed to the judge by the club, no later than the opening of the show. b. Junior judges travel subsidy: is only payable for each junior judge once in one show season. Clubs should make application for reimbursement to the NZCF Treasurer (GST tax invoice/receipt must be provided). c. The mode of travel for the judge, the class of travel and the costs shall be reasonable to suit the convenience of the judge and the interests of the club. d. Unless otherwise agreed the judge’s accommodation provided by the club shall be in a hotel or motel or motor inn of a reasonable standard and level of facilities,(three star minimum). The club shall provide the judge with accommodation for the night before the judge’s assignment, the nights during and the night after the assignment. Should the judge’s travel to or from the show be disrupted, then if the air carrier fails to provide for the judge, the host club shall provide any extra accommodation, meals or acceptable alternative travel, as required. e. Unless agreed otherwise, meals for the Judge must be available within the accommodation complex, or delivered if supplied from another source. The club may set an upper limit on the judge’s meal costs, but must state this in the invitation. Clubs are neither responsible nor liable for payment for judges’ alcoholic beverages or toll call charges incurred at the accommodation. f. Judges may arrange private accommodation for the show assignment, with the prior written agreement of the club, and so long as there is no conflict of Issue 16/03 11 Flash Cats

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The Official Publication of the New Zealand Cat Fancy Inc. LOW ALLERGEN CATS HOW DO BREEDERS’ CLAIMS STACK UP? By Judee Vidal There have been numerous and contradictory claims that certain breeds of cats are low allergen. On the other hand, a recent article in Flash Cats (Issue 16/01) claimed there was no such thing as a low-allergen cat. In researching the anecdotal and scientific evidence, here’s what I’ve learned and why I believe that some Siberian cats are suitable for people with cat allergies. I’m one of those people who love cats, but am miserably allergic to most of them. I had this confirmed by an allergy specialist in Canada who had no sympathy for my discomfort with my two beautiful spayed Korat females. The specialist’s advice? Get rid of the cats. Ironically, that was eventually what happened when my partner and I embarked on a five-year yachting adventure in the South Pacific that brought us to New Zealand. We found a wonderful couple who adopted our kitties, and resigned ourselves to living a cat-less life. And then, in 2008, we happened to meet a couple with serious allergies who introduced us to a breed of cats that’s more likely than other breeds to produce low-allergen kittens. The breed? Siberian. They’re not at all what I had expected of a low allergen cat: unlike the hairless Sphynx or the soft wavy coat of the Devon Rex, Siberians are fluffy, with a thick, rich triple coat (most notably in winter). I was sceptical about the claims that they could be ‘low allergen’ so decided to do some research. What I discovered was a treasure trove of anecdotal reports of people whose allergies were not triggered by their Siberian cats. More impressive than the anecdotes, however, I learned of an organisation committed to researching the breed, Siberian Research Inc (SRI), and their collaboration with Dr Leslie Lyons, a researcher at the University of California at Davis. Not surprisingly, cat allergies are complex. Although there are several allergens (such as Feline d1, Feline d2 and Feline d4), most people’s allergies to cats are caused by the Feline d1 protein (Fel d1). Fel d1 is a small allergen found in a cat’s saliva, on their fur, and in the litter box. It’s created in the salivary (saliva), lachrymal (tears), sebaceous (skin), and perianal glands (secreting the allergen onto faeces). Peoples’ allergic reactions to Fel d1 vary, but range from mild runny nose and itchy eyes, to severe reactions such as swollen eyes, hives or difficulty breathing. Individuals who are allergic to cats but not other animals are usually allergic only to Fel d1. The Fel d1 allergen is very stable, and can remain in a home for six months after removal of the cat. Studies by Siberian Research identified a strong correlation between the Fel d1 allergen level in saliva and the perceived allergic reaction in highly allergic individuals. The challenge for SRI was to investigate claims of Siberians’ low-allergen characteristics, and to develop a method for testing Fel d1 levels that was both a reliable predictor of people’s allergic reactions and verifiable in laboratory analysis. Large scale research showed that all cats produce Fel d1, but in very different amounts. What Dr Lyons and her team found was: • Production and secretion of Fel d1 is controlled by hormones and affected by stress • About 50% of Siberians have a Fel d1 level in the low-allergen range • About 15% of Siberians produced very low levels of the allergen • Siberians with very low allergen levels pass this trait to some (but not all) of their kittens • Low- allergen matings (low- allergen sire and low-allergen dam) produce more kittens with low levels of Fel-d1 • Most low-allergen matings produce one or more kittens with normal levels of Fel d1 (i.e. kittens that are not low-allergen) • In cats that are not low allergen, the highest levels of Fel d1 Of course, producing low-allergen kittens should not be the only quality for selecting breeding animals. Catteries have different goals, and must prioritise the factors most critical to their breeding programme. At Seacliffe Siberians, for example, the most important factors in choosing our breeding animals are low genetic health risks, low allergen levels, good temperament, and conformation to breed standard. Building on the work done at UC-Davis and Siberian Research Inc, Tom Lundberg developed, and in 2010 introduced, a standardised method of collecting and analysing cat saliva to identify Fel d1 allergen levels. The test uses EnzymeLinked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) technology to measure the amount of Fel d1 in kittens’ saliva, and enables us to predict the amount of allergen a kitten will produce when it is mature. The test uses a special salivant to stimulate allergen release in kitten saliva, and a proprietary method for obtaining saliva from cats/kittens. Kittens are tested over one week at 12 to 13 weeks of age. Allergen levels in saliva are reported in micrograms of allergen per millilitre of saliva. (Typical cats have 4-16 mcg of salivary Fel d1 allergen, although levels as high as 34 mcg have been seen). These tests are significantly more reliable than earlier methods that tested saliva or hair, and are accurate in 90 per cent of adult cats and 80 per cent of kittens. Lundberg documented allergic reactions in hundreds of individuals and mapped the reactions against the allergen levels. Th Flash Cats 12 Issue 16/03

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www.nzcf.com See the FELD1 levels (right) as a guideline. People can identify their requirements for a specific Fel d1 level. If an individual has severe reactions to Fel d1, they can be around a cat that has “Extremely Low” levels of Fel d1. Someone with mild reactions will be comfortable with a “Medium Low” cat. At Seacliffe Siberians we ‘match’ a kitten to these requirements, and encourage people to confirm the match in a face-to-fur meeting with the kitten. Is Fel d1 testing worth the effort and cost? We believe so. We’ve placed Seacliffe Siberians kittens tested with these methods in homes with mild to very severe cat allergies with excellent success, as shown by the many testimonials on our website. Judee Vidal breeds low-allergen cats at Seacliffe Siberians (seacliffesiberians. com), in Auckland. ABOUT ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) is a test that uses antibodies and colour change to identify a substance. In Fel d1 testing, ELISA uses a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to detect the presence of Feline d1 glycprotein (Fel d1) in a saliva sample. All analysis is performed by Indoor Biotechnologies Laboratory in Virginia, USA. If you have these allergic reactions to Fel d1: Then you can be around a kitten or cat that is: • Hives, swelling, severe sneezing, breathing difficulties Extremely Low (0.08–1.0 mcg Fel d1) • Itchy skin, light sneezing, severe runny nose, asthma Very Low (1.0–1.75 mcg Fel d1) • Runny nose, severe eye irritation, coughingLow (1.75– 2.5 mcg Fel d1) • Mild eye irritation and stuffy nose from cat allergies Medium Low (2.5–3.5 mcg Fel d1) • No allergy symptoms Mild-Normal (3.5–16 mcg Fel d1) • * Fel d1 reported in micrograms of allergen per millilitre of saliva. Issue 16/03 About Siberian Research International SRI is a non-profit research and educational organisation which aims to disseminate information and help breeders understand health issues facing the Siberian cat. By reviewing the pedigrees, studying lines, and mapping cases of genetic diseases such as HCM (Hypertropic cardiomyopathy) and PKD (Polycystic kidney disease), SRI identified six potential points of origin where HCM could have entered the Siberian breed. Dr Kathryn Meurs ofWashington State University accepted SRI’s research, and embarked on genetic testing in a search for Siberian HCM genes. Pedigree analysis also revealed five potential distinct entry points of PKD in the Siberian breed (though new cases in kittens imported from Russia are still being reported). For more information visit www.siberianresearch.com/ breeding-decisions/ 13 Flash Cats

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