Kid's Imagination Train

 

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Nov 2016

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Kid’s Imagination Train November 2016 Volume 4 Issue 11 Come read, learn, and draw! http://kidsimaginationtrain.com

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Kid's Imagination Train November 2016 Volume 4 Issue 11 ISSN 2333-987X Editor-in-Chief: Randi Lynn Mrvos Book Reviewer and Marketing Director: Donna Smith Illustrator: Shelley Dieterichs Voiceover Artist: Sharon Olivia Blumberg Editorial Offices: All across the United States Publishing Office: 4637 Spring Creek Drive Lexington, KY 40515 Mission Statement: Welcome to the Kid's Imagination Train, where children can take the journey of reading in a brand new way. KIT offers book reviews, fiction, poetry, and nonfiction for kids ages 5 - 12. It’s unique in that it engages children by providing them the opportunity to illustrate their favorite features and to have their pictures published online. We invite you to read, to learn, and to draw! ©Kid's Imagination Train http://kidsimaginationtrain.com

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CONTENTS Volume 4 Issue 11 3 - 4…Nonfiction The Wonders of Making Money by: Robin Wechsler 5 - 6…Nonfiction Is that Animal a Plant? by: Guy Belleranti 7 - 8…Book Review Marietta and the Charlie Horse by: Donna Smith 9…Lesson Plan The Coral Reef by: Randi Lynn Mrvos 10...Lesson Plan Activity Make a Coral Reef Diaroma by: Randi Lynn Mrvos 11…Dot-to-Dot by: Hannah and Maria Dot to Dot Animals 12 - 14…Sponsors

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The Wonders of Money There’s a saying that “money doesn’t grow on trees.” As you can guess, that’s true! It comes from our government. The United States Department of Treasury is responsible for the country’s supply of money. Within the Treasury, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing makes the paper currency. The U.S. Mint makes the coins. Each year, the Bureau makes about 8 billion notes (or bills). They come in denominations of $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100. The lifespan of notes varies by denomination. According to the Federal Reserve, the dollar bill lasts for almost six years in circulation. The $100 note lasts for 15 years. The Mint makes between 5 billion and 20 billion coins for use in everyday transactions. Most coins circulate for about 30 years. After that, they are too worn to be used anymore. Making currency is no simple task. Paper money is produced in Washington, D.C. and Fort Worth, Texas. Old-world printing techniques and the latest technology are used at these facilities. First, designers create the overall look. Afterward, engravers use special tools to cut different parts of the image (in reverse) into separate steel dies to create lines, dots, and dashes. This results in a three-dimensional design which makes it harder to counterfeit. 3

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The images are transferred to a printing plate. Hundreds more printing plates are made. Then, the plates are covered with ink. Paper is laid on top of the plates. Both the plates and the paper are pressed together under great pressure. As a result, the ink from the recessed areas of the plates is pulled onto the paper. The printing process is the same for the backs of notes as it is for the fronts. However, three different colors are printed on the face. Throughout the process, the bills are inspected. Finally, the currency sheets are cut, packaged, and shipped to the Federal Reserve to be put into circulation. Circulating coins are made in facilities located at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Denver, Colorado. First, a press punches blanks (or “planchets”) from wide strips of metal for the nickel, dime and quarter. The blank coins are then heated (or “annealed”) to soften them. Next, they are washed and dried. The good blanks go through an “upsetting mill” to raise a rim on the edges. For the penny, these steps are all done before the coin arrives at a plant. Then, the coins are stamped with a design and inspected with a magnifying glass. Lastly, they are counted, bagged, and delivered to banks. The Mint also makes collectible coins at plants in Philadelphia, Denver, San Francisco, and West Point, New York. Each plant has a mint mark that can be found on the coin: “P” for Philadelphia, “D” for Denver, “S” for San Francisco, and “W” for West Point. The collection or study of currency, including coins, coin-like objects, and paper money is called numismatics (“nu miz matiks”). A person who collects coins is called a numismatist (“nu miz me tist”). Maybe you collect coins, too. Or perhaps you save coins in a piggy bank or you keep bills in a wallet. Whatever you do with money, it’s safe to say it didn’t grow on trees. Now you know money is made by the United States Department of Treasury. Fun Facts 1. Circulating coins were initially made of gold and silver. Elements such as copper, zinc, and nickel are found in most coins today. Paper money is composed of 25 percent linen and 75 percent cotton. 2. The currency most traded around the world is the United States dollar. 3. Native Americans used “wampum” (shell beads) as money. 4. Something in “mint condition,” a reference to newly-made coins, is considered perfect. 5. Some people consider $2 bills lucky! Here’s a link where you can learn more about coins and play money games: https://www.usmint.gov/kids/games/ Written by: Robin Wechsler 4

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Is That Plant An Animal? Did you know there are some animals that look like plants? One animal you may have heard of or even seen is the walking stick or stick insect. This animal’s body and legs look like the twigs on the plants that it eats. Often it is brown in color, but it can also be other colors including green, gray, black, and blue. There are over 3,000 species of stick insects. They live in woodlands and forests throughout much of the world. Some are as small as an inch in length. Others are longer than a 12-inch ruler. One species stretches over 20 inches! During the day, stick insects are usually motionless. However, when they do move they sway kind of like a twig in the breeze. At night, stick insects become more active and munch leaves. Still, they must watch out for predators such as spiders, lizards, monkeys, birds, and bats. Sometimes they escape an attacker, but lose a leg in the process. While that sounds like a big problem, many stick insects have a solution — they grow a new leg! 5

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A South and Central American bird called the potoo is another animal that mimics the look of a plant. Like the stick insect, it sleeps during the day disguised as part of its forest habitat. What kind of disguise does it use? Aided by its gray, black and brown colors, it perches motionless in a tree and looks like a large piece of dead branch or tree bark. At night, the potoo awakens and makes spooky wailing cries. Then, it takes to the air in search of beetles, moths, and other insects for food. The potoo has very large eyes that see well in the dark. It also has a very large mouth that gulps up insects. A third animal with a plant-like appearance is the satanic leaf-tailed gecko. This lizard lives in the rainforests of Madagascar. Its coloration, twisted body, and notched tail looks like a decaying leaf. Even its skin has the vein-like look of a leaf. Such a disguise helps the lizard hide from snakes, owls, and eagles. It also helps it blend in at night when it hunts for a dinner of insects, spiders, or worms. And speaking of leaf-like disguises, we mustn’t forget a most unusual fish called the leafy sea dragon. The leafy sea dragon lives in the Pacific Ocean off the southern coast of Australia. A relative of the seahorse, it has leaf-like sections coming off its head, body, and tail. While it has tiny transparent fins to swim, it usually just drifts along with the seaweed. This camouflage helps the leafy sea dragon hide from larger fish. The leafy sea dragon is a carnivore or meat-eater. But guess what? It doesn’t have any teeth! Instead, it uses its long, thin dragon-like snout to suck in a dinner of tiny shrimp and other small creatures. Then, it swallows them whole. We have discovered some animals that use their plant-like looks to blend into their environment. Their camouflage assists them in hiding from predators and sometimes helps them catch a meal. Image courtesy: Iowa State University http://www.ent.iastate.edu/ Written by: Guy Belleranti 6

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Book Review Name of Book: Marietta and the Charlie Horse Author: Maureen Kauzlarich Illustrator: Eugene Ruble Year Published: 2015 Age Range of Book: 4 – 8 years Publisher: Guardian Angel Publishing, Inc. ISBN: 9781616337261 1616337265 Price: $9.95 A girl and her rocking horse gallop into adventure. 7

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Marietta is a little girl who wants a horse. Her parents try to appease her with a wooden rocking horse. She immediately names the rocking horse Charlie and spends every day with him. Eventually, Marietta starts to lose interest in Charlie because he's not a real horse. But Charlie isn't an ordinary horse. He can grant wishes and change into different kinds of horses. Together Charlie and Marietta travel to many magical places. Marietta and the Charlie Horse is a snapshot of childhood imagination. The sweet children's story relates the common childhood desire to have a toy come alive. The illustrations are beautifully rendered to give the book a classic look. This is a real children's story with clear, straightforward storytelling. And the addition of some magic completes the retro feel of Maureen Kauzlarich's book. Kauzlarich is the author of Marietta and the Charlie Horse. This is her first book. Eugene Ruble has been a freelance artist for forty years. The majority of his clients are publishers and corporations. His work includes graphic art and design, illustrations, and cartoons. Ruble also is the writer and illustrator of the Learning with Professor Hoot series. Rating for the book: ***** Donna Smith is a freelance writer. You can visit her website at www.smithswritingstudio.com 8

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Lesson Plan: The Coral Reef It takes thousands of years to form a coral reef. Corals are built up from the skeletons of millions of tiny animals called coral polyps. Polyps are soft and shaped like a sack. They are so small that you need a magnifying glass to see them. Tentacles surround the mouths of polyps and wave like small arms as they search for food. Polyps feast on small floating organic material called plankton and zooxanthellae, which are microscopic plant cells. Coral polyps grow in colonies, whereupon each animal is attached to another. When polyps die they leave behind a hard, branched structure made of limestone. The appearance of coral varies. It can look like a fan, a brain, or the horns of deer and elk. Sometimes it looks like huge mushrooms. Most coral skeletons are white, but some are pink, black, red, or yellow. Coral can be soft or as hard as stone. In some parts of warm oceans, coral formations can stretch for miles. The coral reef provides nesting areas and hiding spots for many animals, such as clownfish, sea cucumbers, hermit crabs, and sea anemones. Lesson Plan Activity: Make a Coral Reef Diorama Materials: Diagram of animals of the coral reef, scissors, crayons, tape, shoe box, tissue paper Directions: 1. Find a shoe box with a lid. 2. Remove the lid and cut out one end of the shoe box. 3. Cut out a small hole about the size of a quarter on the opposite end. 4. Photocopy the Coral Reef Animals page. Color the animals. 5. Cut out the animals leaving about ¼” border at the bottom edges of the animals. 6. Fold the down the bottom edges. Tape the bottom edges inside the bottom of the shoebox. 7. Tape a piece of tissue paper to the open end of the shoe box. 8. Put the lid on top of the shoe box. Hold the shoebox up to a window or a bright light. Look inside the small hole. The coral reef should appear 3-dimensional and almost life-like. 9

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Coral Reef Animals 10

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Animal dot to dot courtesy: Hannah and Maria Miller http://www.animaldottodots.com/ 11

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Shelley Dieterichs www.goodbuddynotes.com 12

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Evelyn Christensen www.evelynchristensen.com 13

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