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On-Wafer S-Parameters & Uncertainties

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On Wafer S-Parameters & Uncertainties Dr. Andrej Rumiantsev Director RF Technologies MPI Corporation Company Confidential READY FOR “THE TEST”

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visit: www.mtt-archives.org/~mtt11 Company Confidential A.Rumiantsev ARFTG86th-NIST SC-2015 2

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Outline • Introduction • Criteria for the “right method” • Calibration residual errors • Conclusion Company Confidential A.Rumiantsev ARFTG86th-NIST SC-2015 3

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The Last Inch to the DUT …leads to a different world Company Confidential A.Rumiantsev ARFTG86th-NIST SC-2015 4

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Coaxial Calibration Standards Picture: Spinner Group • Same media • Well-defined electrical characteristics at the calibration plane Company Confidential A.Rumiantsev ARFTG86th-NIST SC-2015 5

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Wafer-Level Standards • Coplanar design: – Dispersion • Not shielded: – Coupling and radiation • Manufacturing inaccuracy Picture: FBH, Berlin Company Confidential A.Rumiantsev ARFTG86th-NIST SC-2015 6

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Wafer-Level Standards (cont.) Two discontinuities: • Coaxial media to planar probe tips • Probe tips to coplanar devices (standards) Picture: FBH, Berlin Company Confidential A.Rumiantsev ARFTG86th-NIST SC-2015 7

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Outline • Introduction • Criteria for the “right method” • Calibration residual errors • Conclusion Company Confidential A.Rumiantsev ARFTG86th-NIST SC-2015 8

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Calibration and Self-Calibration • Calibration methods: known standards – SOL, SOLT, QSOLT • Self-calibration standards: – Reflect, reciprocal thru, line • Solution criteria: – Frequency range – Self-calibration methods with optimal set of standards Company Confidential A.Rumiantsev ARFTG86th-NIST SC-2015 9

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Example: SOLT Standard Shor t Open Load Thru Requirements Fully known Typical Definition R=0; L=9pH Fully known R=inf; C=0.3fF Fully known Fully known R=50; L=10.6pH Z0=50Ω α=0, τ=1ps Error Terms 2 2 2 4 Company Confidential A.Rumiantsev ARFTG86th-NIST SC-2015 10

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Open/Short are not Ideal Mag(S11) (dB) Open and Short (multiline TRL) 1 Short 0.5 Open 0 -0.5 -1 0 20 Company Confidential 40 60 80 Frequency (GHz) A.Rumiantsev ARFTG86th-NIST SC-2015 100 120 11

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Open/Short are not Ideal Open and Short (multiline TRL) 190 20 Short (L) Open (R) 180 10 Phase(S11) (degree) Phase(S11) (degree) 170 0 160 0 20 Company Confidential 40 60 80 Frequency (GHz) A.Rumiantsev ARFTG86th-NIST SC-2015 100 -10 120 12

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Test DUT: SOLT Company Confidential A.Rumiantsev ARFTG86th-NIST SC-2015 13

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Calibration Outcome Error Model Removes systematic errors: – Shifts the reference plane – Defines reference impedance ZREF DUT Company Confidential A.Rumiantsev ARFTG86th-NIST SC-2015 14

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Reference Impedance: Lumped Methods • ZREF is defied by the load ZLOAD Company Confidential A.Rumiantsev ARFTG86th-NIST SC-2015 15

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