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FOL-ENGLISH-BOOK

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VOCATIONAL EDUCATION & GUIDANCE Mª Itziar Gonzalez de Mendivil Alzola UNIT 1 1

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Text and contents: Itziar Glez de Mendivil Alzola design: Higinia garay Depósito legal: BI-970-2016 ISBN: 978-84-606-9374-1 2016

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This book is dedicated to my father and my students.

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INTRODUCTION Vocational Education & Guidance text book is designed as a guide for Vocational Training teachers and students who study this subject in English. The contents of this text book are in accordance with the curriculum design (diseño curricular base) established by the Spanish legislation. Terminology and many other concepts do not have an equivalent in the English language so these have been adapted by the author. The importance for the students to learn keywords in Spanish has also been taken into consideration, therefore some words have been translated into Spanish in this textbook. The first 4 units appartein to “Health and Safety at Work”. The reason for this is that students doing traininig in workshops from the beginning need to be aware of these issues. Acknowledgements INSTITUTO DE ENSEÑANZA SECUNDARIA (IES) ESCUELA DE HOSTELERÍA DE LEIOA (BHI), Leioa (Bizkaia) CENTRO INTEGRADO DE FORMACIÓN PROFESIONAL (CIFP) TARTANGA (LHII), Erandio (Bizkaia)

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CONTENTS 1. HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK 2. HAZARDS IN THE WORKPLACE 3. RISK IN THE WORKPLACE 4. FIRST AID 5. LABOUR MARKET SEARCHING FOR A JOB 6. LABOUR LAW 7. CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT 8. WORKING TIME AND SALARY 9. PAYSLIP 10. CHANGES IN EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS, SUSPENSION OF THE WORK CONTRACT AND TERMINATION OF THE WORK CONTRACT 11. THE SPANISH SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM 12. WORKERS’ REPRESENTATIVES AND COLLECTIVE BARGAINING 13. TEAMWORK 14. WORK RELATED CONFLICT 9 21 49 67 93 131 149 165 181 199 217 241 257 275

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1unit HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK 1. WORK AND HEALTH 2. HAZARD AND RISK IN THE WORKPLACE 3. SPANISH LEGISLATION RELATED TO LABOUR RISK  managEment 4. HARM IN THE WORKPLACE 4.1 Work-related accident 4.2 Occupational illness 4.3 Non-specific illnesses at work 5. RISK managEment TECHNIQUES 6. WORKERS´ AND EMPLOYERS´ RIGHTS AND DUTIES  REGARDING LABOUR RISK managEment UNIT 1 9

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VOCABULARY Act Acta, ley Acute poisoning Intoxicación aguda Burden Carga Carcinogens Agentes carcinógenos (que producen cáncer) Civil defense Protección civil Collective agreement Convenio colectivo Commuting accident Accidente in itínere (del domicilio al lugar de trabajo y viceversa) Customs Monitoring Service Servicio de Vigilancia aduanera Disability Discapacidad Discrete Separado, fuera de lo normal Draft Elaborar Entrapment Atrapamiento Fumes Vapores Gross negligence Negligencia grave Infirmity Dolencia Injury Lesión Labour risk Management Prevención de riesgos laborales Labour Risk Management Act Ley de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales Lashes Golpes, azotes Bruises Contusiones, moratones Morale Moral, confianza Hazard Fuente de peligro Occupational disease Enfermedad profesional Occupational medicine Medicina laboral Plant Planta (factoría) Premises Edificios, locales Regulation of risk Management Services Reglamento de los Servicios de Prevención Risk assessment Evaluación de riesgos Scratches Arañazos, rasguños Snagged Enganchado, enredado Sprain Esguince Strain Tension, torcedura Suffocation, choking Asfixia, ahogo Temperature Calor Willfully Intencionadamente Work hazards Peligros en el trabajo Wound Herida 10 UNIT 1

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1 WORK AND HEALTH Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans, it is the general condition of a person’s mind and body, usually meaning to be free from illness, injury or pain (as in “good health” or “healthy”). The World Health Organisation (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in 1946 as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of illness or infirmity”. Factors that mainly affect upon health are: genetic factors; age; lifestyle factors; hygiene habits and practices; labour, social and cultural environment … Working environment includes material, psychological and social aspects, all related to the employee in the workplace. Health and Safety at Work is a major issue for all businesses and it is vitally important that owners, managers and other employees of a business are fully aware of their responsibilities. Remember Good health and safety is good for business, it will almost always improve both employee morale and productivity. A healthier workforce really does make for a healthier business. An employee will work better and more productively in a safe and healthy working environment and in an organisation where they are valued. Health affects the person’s physical activities and daily activities at work in two ways: Positive (develops employees’ skills and these help to do the job well) Negative (bad health drives down job quality and performance and are a burden on the economy). Work affects the person´s health in the following also: Positive (promotes the integral development of the human person: physical, mental and social) Negative (hazards and harms). Harm is a negative safety and health consequence: • injury • pathologies (the symptoms of an illness) • illnesses A hazard is anything that can cause harm; a source of danger. UNIT 1 11

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Common workplace hazards are as follow: Biological agents (bacteria, fungi, viruses, internal parasites) Chemical agents (gases, fumes, dust, smoke, vapours, mist, fibers) Physical agents, including: • Noise • Vibration • Ionising Radiation • Temperature • Lighting Physical hazards or structural factors from: • Corridors, stairs, installations, plants • Workplace transport • Machinery • Equipment • Electricity Psychosocial factors and work organisation: • Work atmosphere • Work organisation • Personal leadership style • Work conditions • Responsibility Example 1 • Electric cabling is a hazard. If it has snagged on a sharp object, the exposed wiring is then considered to be high risk which can cause harm: electric contact. • Stairs are a hazard because there is a possibility (risk) of falling down which causes harm: a wound A risk is the chance, high or low, that any hazard will actually cause somebody harm. 2 HAZARD AND RISK IN THE WORKPLACE HAZARD Stairs Corridors Electrical installations 12 UNIT 1 RISK (cause) Falls to lower levels Slips and trips Electrical contact HARM (consequence) Fracture Injuries and trauma Sprains and strains Suffocation

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EXERCISE 1 Fill in the following table with the data provided below: Machinery, irritability, noise, deafness, workload, equipment, training, tuberculosis, tool, tachycardia, handling heavy loads, pressures, excessive workload, vibrations, depression, to become infected by a bacteria, difficult complex tasks, to become infected by a virus, sleepiness, lashes, bruises, to become infected by a fungus, fatigue, gas inhalation, dust inhalation, age, poor lighting, lack of experience, high temperature, aggressiveness, persistent forced postures, hepatitis, fumes inhalation, anxiety, long hours, nervousness, absence from work, neck pain, disability, timetable, genetic characteristics, loss of sight, entrapments, burns, impacts, scratches, low temperature. HAZARD Machinery Equipment Tool RISK (cause) HARM (consequence) Workload Training Hands-on experience Timetable Age Genetic characteristics UNIT 1 13

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3 Spanish legislation related to LABOUR RISK MANAGEMENT Labour risk management includes all the measures throughout the whole chain of activities in a business to avoid or reduce hazards in the workplace. It is the duty of every employer, so far as is reasonably practical, to ensure the health, safety and welfare of all the employees of the business. • The Spanish Constitution obliges public institutions to develop and promote a protective and safety policy in the workplace. • The Workers’ Statute mentions the right to work in safety. • Collective agreements include guidelines on Health & Safety rights and duties. The key piece of legislation relating to Health & Safety is the: LABOUR RISK MANAGEMENT ACT, in Spanish: LEY DE PREVENCIÓN DE RIESGOS LABORALES (LPRL) 31/1995 developed by the: REGULATION OF RISK MANAGEMENT SERVICES RD 39/1997, January 17th. The Act applies to specific target groups: Employed workers Civilian personnel in public institutions Self-employed workers Partners - workers in co-operatives companies The Act does not apply to: The police, security and Customs Monitoring Service Civil defense in emergencies Armed Forces and Civil Guardians in military activities Domestic service. 4 HARM IN THE WORKPLACE 4.1 Work-RELATED ACCIDENT An accident at work is considered to be a sudden event caused by an external reason, resulting in injury or death, which takes place in connection with work. This is also referred to as a “work-related accident”. 14 UNIT 1

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This includes: • Accidents in the course of work outside the premises of one’s business, even if caused by a third party (on clients’ premises, on another company’s premises, in a public place or during transport, including road traffic accidents). • Accidents on the way to or from work (commuting accidents), occurrences having only a medical origin (such as a heart attack at work). • Illnesses not considered occupational illnesses. • Rescue attempts related to work. Those accidents committed by gross negligence or willful misconduct, or by fraud are not considered work-related (e.g. disobey orders or rules voluntarily and in a conscious manner). THE LEGAL PROCEDURE OF WORK-RELATED ACCIDENTS When a work-related accident happens there must be an investigation to determine the causes of it and take the necessary corrective measures to avoid the accident from happening again. It must also be reported to the Ministry of Employment and Social Security via Internet and the company must complete a statistical analysis of all accidents at the workplace. 4.2 Occupational ILLNESS Occupational illness is a work-related illness which could occur through a work activity and classified according to cause in the Royal Decree 1299/2006. OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESSES GROUP CAUSES 1 Chemical agents 2 Physical hazards 3 Biological agents 4 Breathing in hazardous materials and agents OCCUPATIONnAoLt included in other groups DISE5ASES Skin illnesses caused by hazardous materials and agents not included in other groups 6 Carcinogens UNIT 1 15

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