STARK-Metallic

 

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Методическое пособие по STARK ES (Metallic)

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ȼ.ɇ. ɋɢɦɛɢɪɤɢɧ, Ɍ.Ⱥ. Ɋɟɜɟɧɨɤ, ɘ.ȼ. ɉɚɧɚɫɟɧɤɨ ɆɈȾȿɅɂɊɈȼȺɇɂȿ ɂ ɊȺɋɑȿɌ ɋɌȺɅɖɇɈɃ ɊȺɆɕ ɋ ɉɈɆɈɓɖɘ ɉɊɈȽɊȺɆɆɇɈȽɈ ɄɈɆɉɅȿɄɋȺ STARK ES Ɇɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɟ Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ, 11.2015

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ɋɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ȼɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ............................................................................................................................................. 2 1. ɂɫɯɨɞɧɵɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ......................................................................................................................4 1.1. Ɉɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ...............................................................................................................4 1.2. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɵɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ....................................................................................6 2. Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɪɚɦɵ .................................................................................7 2.1. Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ........................................................................7 2.1.1. ȼɜɨɞ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ......................................................................................................................8 2.1.2. ȼɜɨɞ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɮɟɪɦɵ..................................................................................................13 2.1.3. Ɇɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɩɢɪɚɧɢɹ ɮɟɪɦɵ ɧɚ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɭ ............................................................15 2.1.4. ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɲɚɪɧɢɪɨɜ......................................................................................................16 2.1.5. ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɷɤɫɰɟɧɬɪɢɫɢɬɟɬɨɜ ........................................................................................18 2.1.6. ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɨɩɨɪɧɵɯ ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɣ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ ....................................................................21 2.1.7. Ƚɟɧɟɪɚɰɢɹ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨ-ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ......................................................................22 2.1.8. ɉɪɨɜɟɪɤɚ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨ-ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ...................................................23 2.2. Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨ-ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ..............................................................26 2.2.1. ȼɜɨɞ ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɢ ɪɚɦɵ ɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ DXF-ɩɨɞɨɫɧɨɜɵ........................................26 2.2.2. Ɂɚɞɚɧɢɟ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ .....................................................................................28 2.2.3. Ɋɟɞɚɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɫɟɣ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ..................................30 2.2.4. ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɷɤɫɰɟɧɬɪɢɫɢɬɟɬɨɜ ........................................................................................34 2.2.5. ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɲɚɪɧɢɪɨɜ......................................................................................................37 3. Ɋɟɞɚɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨ-ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ .....................................................................38 3.1. ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɨɩɨɪɧɵɯ ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɣ .................................................................................38 3.2. ȼɜɨɞ ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨ ɬɜɟɪɞɵɯ ɬɟɥ ........................................................................................39 3.3. Ɋɚɡɛɢɟɧɢɟ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ ........................................................................................40 3.4. Ɂɚɞɚɧɢɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ............................................................................................................41 4. ɋɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɪɚɦɵ.......................................................................................................44 5. Ɋɚɫɱɟɬ ɧɚ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ..........................................................................................................47 5.1. Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɮɨɪɦ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ..............................................................................47 5.2. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɨɣ ɞɥɢɧɵ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ ɢɡ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɦɵ ......................................49 5.3. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɨɣ ɞɥɢɧɵ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ ɜ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɦɵ ........................................50 6. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɵɯ ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɣ ɭɫɢɥɢɣ (Ɋɋɍ) ɜ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɯ ɪɚɦɵ...............................51 7. Ɋɚɫɱɟɬ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɪɚɦɵ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ........................................................55 8. Ʉɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɧɵɣ ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɪɚɦɵ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɣ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ .................................66 ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ .......................................................................................................................... 68 1

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ȼɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɭɱɟɛɧɵɣ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ ɧɟɫɭɳɢɯ ɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɣ ɨɞɧɨɷɬɚɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ (ɉɄ) STARK ES (ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɱɢɤ – ɈɈɈ «ȿȼɊɈɋɈɎɌ», ɝ. Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ). ȼ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɭɱɟɛɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɚ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɚ ɫɬɪɨɩɢɥɶɧɚɹ ɮɟɪɦɚ ɢɡ ɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɵɯ ɝɧɭɬɨɫɜɚɪɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɟɣ, «ɪɭɱɧɨɣ» ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧ ɜ ɫɩɪɚɜɨɱɧɢɤɟ [4], ɲɚɪɧɢɪɧɨ ɨɩɟɪɬɚɹ ɧɚ ɞɜɭɬɚɜɪɨɜɵɟ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɵ. ȼ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɢ ɭɱɬɟɧɵ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɜɨɞɨɜ ɩɪɚɜɢɥ (ɋɉ) [1, 2] ɢ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɉɄ STARK ES ɜɟɪɫɢɢ ɧɟ ɫɬɚɪɲɟ 2015.2. ɉɨɫɨɛɢɟ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɨɦ ɢ ɧɟ ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɬ ɜɫɟɯ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ. ɋɯɟɦɚ ɨɤɧɚ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɜɨɞɚ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ STARK ES ɢ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɟɝɨ ɱɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɧɢɠɟ. 12 13 9 5 6 7 14 2 11 10 8 3 14 2

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ʋ Ɉɛɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɇɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ 1 Ɋɚɛɨɱɟɟ ɨɤɧɨ Ɋɚɛɨɱɚɹ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɤɧɚ 2 Ɉɤɧɨ ɛɨɤɨɜɨɝɨ ɦɟɧɸ Ɇɟɧɸ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ 3 Ɉɤɧɨ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɂɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɟ ɨɤɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɜɨɞɚ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɣ 4 Ɉɤɧɨ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ Ɉɤɧɨ ɩɪɨɫɦɨɬɪɚ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ 5 Ɉɤɧɨ ɩɪɨɫɦɨɬɪɚ ɂɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɜɢɞɢɦɨɝɨ ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɚ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɫ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɟɦ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɡɭɦɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ 6 ɉɥɚɧɤɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɚɬɟɥɟɣ 1 Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɭɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ/ɪɚɡɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ (ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɚ ɤ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦ), ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ 7 ɉɥɚɧɤɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɚɬɟɥɟɣ 2 Ⱥɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɵ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ Ɉɤɧɨ ɜɜɨɞɚ/ɜɵɜɨɞɚ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɦɵɯ/ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ. Ɇɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɬɟɤɫɬɨɜɵɦ ɢɥɢ ɬɚɛɥɢɱɧɵɦ. Ɍɢɩ ɪɟɞɚɤɬɨɪɚ 8 Ɉɤɧɨ ɪɟɞɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɮɚɣɥɟ Stark.ini, ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪ TableEditor: ɟɫɥɢ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɚ «0», ɬɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɬɟɤɫɬɨɜɵɣ ɪɟ- ɞɚɤɬɨɪ, ɟɫɥɢ «1», ɬɨ ɬɚɛɥɢɱɧɵɣ 9 Ƚɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɍɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɜɵɜɨɞɚ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ 10 Ɉɤɧɨ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ Ɇɟɧɸ ɢɤɨɧ, ɩɨɥɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɚɬɟɥɟɣ, ɫɩɢɫɤɢ ɧɚɝɪɭɠɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɬ.ɞ. ɇɚɛɨɪ ɨɤɨɧ, ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɢɯ ɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɢ ɜɫɟɯ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ. Ɉɤɧɨ 11 Ʉɚɬɚɥɨɝ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɩɨɞɫɜɟɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɤɪɚɫɧɵɦ ɰɜɟɬɨɦ. Ʉɚ- ɬɚɥɨɝ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɢ ɫɤɪɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɧɚɠɚɬɢɢ ɤɥɚɜɢɲɢ F5 12 Ɉɤɧɨ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɦɟɧɸ Ɉɛɳɟɟ ɢɟɪɚɪɯɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɦɟɧɸ 13, 14 ɉɚɧɟɥɢ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɇɚɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɟɦɵɟ ɧɚɛɨɪɵ ɤɧɨɩɨɤ-ɢɤɨɧɨɤ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɥɟɝɱɟɧɢɹ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɚ ɤ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹɦ STARK ES 3

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1. ɂɫɯɨɞɧɵɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ 1.1. Ɉɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ Ɋɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɢɦ ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɪɚɦɵ ɨɞɧɨɷɬɚɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ, ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɣ. ɉɪɨɥɟɬ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ - 24 ɦ, ɲɚɝ ɪɚɦ – 12 ɦ, ɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɛɟɡ ɮɨɧɚɪɟɣ, ɤɪɨɜɥɹ – ɬɪɟɯɫɥɨɣɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɚɥɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɚɧɟɥɢ ɩɨ ɩɪɨɝɨɧɚɦ; ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɧɨɦɢɧɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɜɵɫɨɬɚ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ – 8.38 ɦ. Ɂɞɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɞɥɹ ɜɨɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɜ IV ɫɧɟɝɨɜɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ [1] ɛɟɡ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɫɟɣɫɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ. ɋɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ Ȗn=1.0. ɋɬɨɣɤɚɦɢ ɪɚɦɵ ɫɥɭɠɚɬ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɵ ɢɡ ɞɜɭɬɚɜɪɚ 40Ʉ1 ɩɨ ɋɌɈ ȺɋɑɆ 20-93. Ɇɚɪɤɚ ɫɬɚɥɢ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ – ɋ345 ɩɨ ȽɈɋɌ 27772-88*. Ɋɢɝɟɥɟɦ ɪɚɦɵ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɬɪɨɩɢɥɶɧɚɹ ɮɟɪɦɚ ɢɡ ɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɵɯ ɝɧɭɬɨɫɜɚɪɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɟɣ, ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧ ɜ ɫɩɪɚɜɨɱɧɢɤɟ [4]. Ɏɟɪɦɚ ɪɚɡɪɟɡɧɚɹ, ɫ ɬɪɟɭɝɨɥɶɧɨɣ ɪɟɲɟɬɤɨɣ, ɲɚɪɧɢɪɧɨ ɨɩɢɪɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɵ ɜ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɩɨɹɫɚ, ɫ ɭɤɥɨɧɨɦ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɩɨɹɫɚ 10% ɨɬ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɵ ɩɪɨɥɟɬɚ ɤ ɨɩɨɪɚɦ. Ʉɨɥɨɧɧɵ ɪɚɦɵ ɠɟɫɬɤɨ ɡɚɳɟɦɥɟɧɵ ɜ ɛɚɡɟ ɜ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɦɵ ɢ ɲɚɪɧɢɪɧɨ – ɢɡ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɦɵ. Ⱦɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɦɵ ɢ ɟɟ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɢɡ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɦɵ ɫɥɭɠɢɬ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɫɜɹɡɟɣ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɤɚɪɤɚɫ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɚɟɬ ɩɨ ɪɚɦɧɨɣ ɫɯɟɦɟ ɜ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɢ ɩɨ ɫɜɹɡɟɜɨɣ ɫɯɟɦɟ ɜ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɨɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ. ɋɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɮɟɪɦɵ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɬɚɛɥ. 1. ɂɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɨ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚɯ ɧɚ ɪɚɦɭ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɜ ɬɚɛɥ. 2. Ƚɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɯɟɦɚ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɪɚɦɵ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɚ ɧɚ ɪɢɫɭɧɤɟ ɧɢɠɟ. Ƚɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɯɟɦɚ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɪɚɦɵ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ 4

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ɗɥɟɦɟɧɬ ɮɟɪɦɵ ȼɟɪɯɧɢɣ ɩɨɹɫ ɇɢɠɧɢɣ ɩɨɹɫ Ɋɚɫɤɨɫɵ Ɉɛɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɬɟɪɠɧɹ ȼ1 ȼ2 ȼ3 ȼ4 ɇ1 ɇ2 ɇ3 ɇ4 Ɋ1 Ɋ2 Ɋ3 Ɋ4 Ɋ5 Ɋ6 Ɋ7 Ɋ8 Ɇɚɪɤɚ ɫɬɚɥɢ ɩɨ ȽɈɋɌ 27772- 88* ɋ345 ɋ345 ɋ345 ɋ345 ɋ345 ɋ345 ɋ345 ɋ345 ɋ345 ɋ345 ɋ345 ɋ345 ɋ235 ɋ235 ɋ235 ɋ235 Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1 ɉɪɨɮɢɥɶ ɩɨ ȽɈɋɌ 30245- 2003 Ƒ 160x6 Ƒ 160x6 Ƒ 160x6 Ƒ 160x6 Ƒ 160x6 Ƒ 160x6 Ƒ 160x6 Ƒ 160x6 Ƒ 140x4 Ƒ 100x140x5 Ƒ 140x4 Ƒ 100x140x5 Ƒ 60x140x4 Ƒ 80x140x5 Ƒ 60x140x4 Ƒ 80x120x4 ɇɚɢɦɟɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ȿɞɢɧɢɰɚ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ 12 ɉɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɟ ɢ ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɋɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɟɫ ɧɟɫɭɳɢɯ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɣ ɬ/ɦ3 ȼɟɫ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɣ ɤɪɨɜɥɢ ɢ ɫɜɹɡɟɣ ɤɇ/ɦ2 ɋɧɟɝɨɜɚɹ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚ ɧɚ ɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɟ ɤɇ/ɦ2 Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 2 Ɋɚɫɱɟɬɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ Ʉɨɷɮ-ɬ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɢ Ȗf (Ʉɧ) Ⱦɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ (ɄȾ) ɇɨɦɟɪ ɧɚɝɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɡɚɞɚɧɚ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚ 34 5 6 8.24 0.647 2.354 1.05 1.2 1.4 1.0 1.0 0.7 1 2 3 Ɍɪɟɛɭɟɬɫɹ: x ɜɵɩɨɥɧɢɬɶ ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɪɚɦɵ ɩɪɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ; x ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ ɨɛɳɭɸ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɪɚɦɵ; x ɩɪɨɜɟɪɢɬɶ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɪɚɦɵ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɹɦ ɋɉ 16.13330.2011 ɢ, ɩɪɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ, ɢɡɦɟɧɢɬɶ ɢɯ. 5

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1.2. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɵɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɉɪɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɪɚɦɵ ɛɭɞɟɦ ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɤɚɦɢ: 1) ȼ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɭɸ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɪɚɦɵ ɜɜɨɞɢɦ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɟɫɭɳɢɟ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ. ɋɱɢɬɚɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɤɪɨɜɥɢ ɢ ɩɪɨɝɨɧɵ ɧɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɫɯɟɦɵ ɢ ɥɢɲɶ ɫɨɡɞɚɸɬ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɧɚ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ ɮɟɪɦɵ. 2) ɗɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ ɮɟɪɦɵ ɚɩɩɪɨɤɫɢɦɢɪɭɟɦ ɫɬɟɪɠɧɟɜɵɦɢ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɵɦɢ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ, ɠɟɫɬɤɨ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɨɛɨɣ. 3) ɍɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɦ ɪɚɫɰɟɧɬɪɨɜɤɭ ɨɫɟɣ ɪɚɫɤɨɫɨɜ ɮɟɪɦɵ ɜ ɭɡɥɚɯ ɢɯ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɩɨɹɫɚɦɢ, ɞɥɹ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɞɥɢɧɵ ɪɚɫɤɨɫɨɜ ɜ ɷɬɢɯ ɠɟ ɭɡɥɚɯ ɜɜɨɞɢɦ ɷɤɫɰɟɧɬɪɢɫɢɬɟɬɵ, ɪɚɜɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɸ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɬɨɱɤɚɦɢ ɩɟɪɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɫɢ ɪɚɫɤɨɫɚ ɫ ɝɪɚɧɶɸ ɢ ɫ ɨɫɶɸ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɩɨɹɫɚ ɮɟɪɦɵ. 4) ɍɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɦ ɷɤɫɰɟɧɬɪɢɫɢɬɟɬ ɨɩɢɪɚɧɢɹ ɮɟɪɦɵ ɧɚ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɵ, ɪɚɜɧɵɣ 200 ɦɦ. 5) ȼ ɬɨɱɤɚɯ ɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɫɜɹɡɟɣ ɢɡ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɦɵ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɦ ɭɩɪɭɝɨɩɨɞɚɬ- ɥɢɜɵɟ ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɶɸ 105 ɤɇ/ɦ. 6) ɉɨɞɚɬɥɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɨɩɨɪ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ ɪɚɦɵ ɧɟ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɦ. 7) ɇɚɝɪɭɡɤɭ ɨɬ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɦɚɫɫɵ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɣ ɤɪɨɜɥɢ ɢ ɫɜɹɡɟɣ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɧɟɝɨɜɭɸ ɧɚ- ɝɪɭɡɤɭ ɩɪɢɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɦ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɫɨɫɪɟɞɨɬɨɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɥ ɜ ɭɡɥɚɯ ɨɩɢɪɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɝɨɧɨɜ ɧɚ ɮɟɪɦɭ. 8) Ɋɚɫɱɟɬ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɣ ɛɚɡ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ ɢ ɭɡɥɨɜ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɣ ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɢ ɧɟ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦ1. 1 Ɋɚɫɱɟɬ ɛɚɡ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ ɢ ɭɡɥɨɜ ɮɟɪɦ ɢɡ ɝɧɭɬɨɫɜɚɪɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɟɣ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ Ɇɟɬɚɥɥ. 6

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2. Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɪɚɦɵ ȼ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɢ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɵ ɞɜɚ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨ-ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ (Ʉɗ-ɦɨɞɟɥɢ) ɪɚɦɵ: - ɫ ɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟɦ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ (ɉɈɋ-) ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɪɚɦɵ (ɪɚɡɞɟɥ 2.1); - ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨ-ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɧɨɦ ɪɟɞɚɤɬɨɪɟ (ɪɚɡɞɟɥ 2.2). 2.1. Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɇɨɜɵɣ ɩɪɨɟɤɬ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɤɨɦɚɧɞ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɦɟɧɸ ĺɉɪɨɟɤɬɵ ĺ ɋɨɡɞɚɬɶ ɢɥɢ ɢɤɨɧɤɢ ɩɚɧɟɥɢ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ (ɩɨɡ.13 ɧɚ ɫɯɟɦɟ ɨɤɧɚ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɜɨɞɚ). ȼ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɦ ɨɤɧɟ ɩɨɹɜɢɬɫɹ ɞɢɚɥɨɝɨɜɨɟ ɨɤɧɨ «ɋɨɡɞɚɬɶ Ʉɗ-ɦɨɞɟɥɶ». ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɨɤɧɟ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɦ ɨɩɰɢɸ «3D POSɉɪɨɟɤɬ», ɡɚɞɚɟɦ «ɂɦɹ ɮɚɣɥɚ» ɢ ɩɭɬɶ ɤ ɧɟɦɭ2 (ɜ ɢɦɟɧɢ ɮɚɣɥɚ ɢ ɩɭɬɢ ɤ ɧɟɦɭ ɧɟ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɭɟɬɫɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɛɟɥɨɜ – ɷɬɨ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢ ɤ ɧɟɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɧɨɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ)3. 2 Ⱦɥɹ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɮɚɣɥɨɜ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɬɶ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɨɪɢɸ FEM, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɭɸ ɜ ɥɸɛɨɦ ɦɟɫɬɟ ɧɚ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɦ ɞɢɫɤɟ ɤɨɦɩɶɸɬɟɪɚ ɥɢɛɨ ɜɵɛɪɚɬɶ ɨɩɰɢɸ «ɋɨɡɞɚɬɶ ɜ ɤɨɪɧɟɜɨɣ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɨɪɢɢ \StarkPrj». 3 ɉɨɥɹ «ɂɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶ» ɢ «ɉɪɢɦɟɱɚɧɢɟ» ɡɚɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɠɟɥɚɧɢɸ ɢ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ ɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɟɦɨɦ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɟ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɱɢɤɟ. ȼɜɨɞ ɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɠɚɬɢɟɦ ɤɧɨɩɤɢ [OK]. 7

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2.1.1. ȼɜɨɞ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ ɉɨɫɥɟ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɧɨɜɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɦ ɨɤɧɟ ɩɨɹɜɢɬɫɹ ɞɢɚɥɨɝɨɜɨɟ ɨɤɧɨ «ɇɨɜɵɣ(ɟ) ɷɬɚɠ(ɢ)». ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɨɤɧɟ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɦ4: - ȼɵɫɨɬɚ ɷɬɚɠɚ = 7.2 ɦ (ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦ ɪɚɜɧɵɦ ɜɵɫɨɬɟ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ ɪɚɦɵ); - ɍɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɷɬɚɠɚ = 7.2 ɦ (ɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɟɬɫɹ ɥɸɛɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ – ɧɚ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɨɬɦɟɬɤɟ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧ ɜɟɪɯ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ); - Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ = 1. Ɂɚɬɟɦ ɧɚɠɢɦɚɟɦ ɤɧɨɩɤɭ [OK]. Ⱦɥɹ ɭɞɨɛɫɬɜɚ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɟɟ ɜɜɨɞ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɶ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɣ ɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɩɨɞɨɫɧɨɜɵ (DXF-ɮɚɣɥɚ). Ɉɬɤɪɵɬɢɟ DXF-ɪɚɫɬɪɚ ɉɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɤɨɦɚɧɞ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɦɟɧɸ oɊɚɫɬɪ ĺDXF-ɨɬɤɪɵɬɶ ɡɚɝɪɭɠɚɟɦ ɩɨɞɨɫɧɨɜɭ (ɪɚɫɬɪ) ɞɥɹ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɣ ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɧɟɫɭɳɢɯ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɣ. ȼ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɦ ɨɤɧɟ ɩɨɹɜɢɬɫɹ ɞɢɚɥɨɝɨɜɨɟ ɨɤɧɨ «Ɇɚɫɲɬɚɛɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ DXF-ɮɚɣɥɚ». ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɨɤɧɟ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɦ ɨɩɰɢɸ «ɉɟɪɟɜɟɫɬɢ ɜɫɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɢɡ» ɢ ɦɟɧɹɟɦ «ɦ» ɧɚ «ɦɦ». ȼɫɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɣ, ɡɚɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɚɫɶ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɚ DXF-ɩɨɞɨɫɧɨɜɵ, ɛɭɞɭɬ ɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɵ ɢɡ ɦɢɥɥɢɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɜ ɦɟɬɪɵ. ȼ ɨɩɰɢɢ «ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɧɵɣ ɦɧɨɠɢɬɟɥɶ» ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɢɬ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɫ «1» ɩɨ ɭɦɨɥɱɚɧɢɸ ɧɚ «0.001»5. 4 ɉɨɥɹ «ɇɚɢɦɟɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ» ɢ «Ɂɚɦɟɱɚɧɢɹ» ɡɚɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɠɟɥɚɧɢɸ ɢ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ. 5 ȼ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɟ ɩɪɟɞɭɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɥɶɧɨɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɚ ɡɚɝɪɭɠɚɟɦɨɣ DXF-ɩɨɞɨɫɧɨɜɵ ɩɭɬɟɦ ɪɟɞɚɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɚ ɜ ɨɩɰɢɢ «ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɧɵɣ ɦɧɨɠɢɬɟɥɶ». 8

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ȼ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɦ ɨɤɧɟ ɩɨɹɜɢɬɫɹ ɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɝɪɭɠɟɧɧɨɣ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɞɨɫɧɨɜɵ. Ɂɚɝɪɭɠɟɧɧɵɣ ɪɚɫɬɪ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ XOY. ɉɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɤɨɦɚɧɞ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɦɟɧɸ oɊɚɫɬɪ ĺDXF-ɪɟɞɚɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶĺr-ɜɪɚɳ. ɩɨɜɨɪɚɱɢɜɚɟɦ ɪɚɫɬɪ ɧɚ 90° ɜ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɶ XOZ. 9

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ɉɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɦ ɩɭɧɤɬɵ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɦɟɧɸ (ɩɨɡ. 12 ɧɚ ɫɯɟɦɟ ɨɤɧɚ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɜɨɞɚ): oɉɨɡɢɰɢɢ ĺ Ʉɨɥɨɧɧɵ ĺ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ6 ɢɥɢ ɧɚɠɢɦɚɟɦ ɢɤɨɧɤɭ ɧɚ ɩɚɧɟɥɢ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ. ȼ ɩɥɚɧɤɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɚɬɟɥɟɣ 1 (ɩɨɡ. 6 ɧɚ ɫɯɟɦɟ ɨɤɧɚ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɜɨɞɚ) ɧɚɠɢɦɚɟɦ ɤɧɨɩɤɢ: [A] (ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɚ ɤ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦ); [R] (ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɚ ɤ ɪɚɫɬɪɭ); [S] (ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɚ ɤ ɬɨɱɤɟ ɩɟɪɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɥɢɧɢɣ). ȼ ɩɨɹɜɢɜɲɟɣɫɹ ɛɨɤɨɜɨɣ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɧɨɣ ɩɚɧɟɥɢ (ɩɨɡ. 10 ɧɚ ɫɯɟɦɟ ɨɤɧɚ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɜɨɞɚ) ɧɚɠɢɦɚɟɦ ɤɧɨɩɤɭ «ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ»7. ɉɨɫɥɟ ɧɚɠɚɬɢɹ ɤɧɨɩɤɢ «ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ» ɩɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɞɢɚɥɨɝɨɜɨɟ ɨɤɧɨ «ɋɜɨɣɫɬɜɚ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɵ». ȼ ɡɚɤɥɚɞɤɟ «Ʉɨɥɨɧɧɚ» ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɦ: Ⱦɥɢɧɚ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɵ = 7.2 ɦ; ɍɝɨɥ ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɚ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ = 90º8. 6 Ⱦɥɹ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ ɢɟɪɚɪɯɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɟɧɸ ɧɭɠɧɨ ɩɨɞɜɟɫɬɢ ɦɵɲɶ ɤ ɧɭɠɧɨɦɭ ɩɭɧɤɬɭ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɩɨɹɜɢɬɫɹ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɟ ɟɦɭ ɦɟɧɸ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɧɢɡɤɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɢ ɬ.ɞ. ɉɪɢ ɜɵɛɨɪɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɩɭɧɤɬɚ (ɜ ɫɚɦɨɦ ɧɢɠɧɟɦ ɦɟɧɸ) ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɳɟɥɤɧɭɬɶ ɩɨ ɧɟɦɭ ɥɟɜɨɣ ɤɧɨɩɤɨɣ ɦɵɲɢ. 7 ȼɟɪɯɧɹɹ ɤɧɨɩɤɚ ɩɚɧɟɥɢ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɡɚɞɚɬɶ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ (ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ «ST-1»). ɉɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɚɬɟɥɶ «ȼɢɞɢɦɵɟ ɷɬɚɠɢ» (ɜɵɤɥɸɱɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɨ ɭɦɨɥɱɚɧɢɸ) ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɫɤɨɩɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɜɫɟ ɜɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɷɬɚɠɢ. ȼɨ ɢɡɛɟɠɚɧɢɟ ɨɲɢɛɨɤ ɜ ɨɛɳɟɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɟɝɨ ɥɭɱɲɟ ɧɟ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ. 8 Ⱦɚɧɧɵɣ ɭɝɨɥ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬ ɭɝɨɥ ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɚ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ (ɆɋɄ) ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɨɝɨ ɟɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ. ɉɪɢ ɡɚɞɚɧɢɢ ɧɭɥɟɜɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɭɝɥɚ ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɚ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɫɶ «s» ɆɋɄ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɵ ɢ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɫɬɟɧɤɚ ɞɜɭɬɚɜɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɵ, ɛɭɞɟɬ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɩɨ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɨɫɢ OY ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ. 10

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ȼ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟ «Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ» ɧɚɠɢɦɚɟɦ «Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ…». ȼ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɦ ɨɤɧɟ ɩɨɹɜɢɬɫɹ ɞɢɚɥɨɝɨɜɨɟ ɨɤɧɨ «ȼɢɞ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ». ɍɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɦ ɜɢɞ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ «ɋɬɚɥɶ», ɜɜɨɞ ɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɠɚɬɢɟɦ ɤɧɨɩɤɢ «ɈɄ». ȼ ɡɚɤɥɚɞɤɟ «Ʉɨɥɨɧɧɚ» ɨɬɨɛɪɚɡɹɬɫɹ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɵ ɫɬɚɥɢ: Ɇɨɞɭɥɶ ɭɩɪɭɝɨɫɬɢ = 2.06ɟ+008 ɤɉɚ; ɉɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɶ = 8.24 ɬ/ɦ3 (ɡɚɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ, ɬ.ɟ. ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ 7.85 ɬ/ɦ3, ɭɦɧɨɠɟɧɧɨɟ ɧɚ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɟ Ȗf, ɪɚɜɧɵɣ 1.05); Ʉɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɉɭɚɫɫɨɧɚ = 0.3. ȼ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟ «ɉɪɨɮɢɥɶ ɫɨɪɬɚɦɟɧɬɚ» ɧɚɠɢɦɚɟɦ «Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ…». ȼ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɦ ɨɤɧɟ ɡɚɝɪɭɡɢɬɫɹ ɦɨɞɭɥɶ «ProfilTool». ɍɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɦ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɶ 40Ʉ1, ɜɵɛɨɪ ɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɠɚɬɢɟɦ ɤɧɨɩɤɢ «ɉɟɪɟɞɚɬɶ ɜ STARK». ȼ ɡɚɤɥɚɞɤɟ «Ʉɨɥɨɧɧɚ» ɨɬɨɛɪɚɡɹɬɫɹ ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɜɵɛɪɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ. ȼ ɡɚɤɥɚɞɤɟ «Ɉɩɨɪɧɚɹ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɶ» ɡɚɞɚɟɦ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɜɟɪɯɚ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɵ, ɧɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɨɧɚ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟ. ȼɜɨɞ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤ ɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɠɚɬɢɟɦ ɤɧɨɩɤɢ «ɈɄ». 11

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p. 13

ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜ ɡɚɞɚɧɢɹ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɵ: ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɩɨ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɚɦ ɢɥɢ ɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɞɨɫɧɨɜɵ (ɪɚɫɬɪɚ ɢɥɢ DXF-ɮɚɣɥɚ). Ɋɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɢɦ ɨɛɚ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɚ. 1 ɫɩɨɫɨɛ: ȼɜɨɞ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɨɤɧɟ ɪɟɞɚɤɬɨɪɚ (ɩɨɡ. 8 ɧɚ ɫɯɟɦɟ ɨɤɧɚ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɜɨɞɚ), ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɵ ɬɨɱɤɚ ɜɟɪɯɚ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɵ9. 2 ɫɩɨɫɨɛ: ȼ ɩɥɚɧɤɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɚɬɟɥɟɣ 1 (ɩɨɡ. 6 ɧɚ ɫɯɟɦɟ ɨɤɧɚ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɜɨɞɚ) ɧɚɠɢɦɚɟɦ ɤɧɨɩɤɢ: [A] (ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɚ ɤ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦ); [R] (ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɚ ɤ ɪɚɫɬɪɭ); [F] (ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɚ ɤ DXF-ɫɥɨɸ); [S] (ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɚ ɤ ɬɨɱɤɟ ɩɟɪɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɥɢɧɢɣ). ȼ ɩɥɚɧɤɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɚɬɟɥɟɣ 2 (ɩɨɡ. 7 ɧɚ ɫɯɟɦɟ ɨɤɧɚ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɜɨɞɚ) ɧɚɠɢɦɚɟɦ ɤɧɨɩɤɭ [Einz] (ɜɜɨɞ ɩɨ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɬɨɱɤɚɦ). ȼ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɨɤɧɟ ɳɟɥɱɤɨɦ ɦɵɲɢ (ɩɨ ɥɢɧɢɢ, ɧɨ ɡɚ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɦɢ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɩɟɪɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ) ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɦ ɨɞɧɭ ɢɡ ɥɢɧɢɣ DXF-ɩɨɞɥɨɠɤɢ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɵ. ɍɤɚɡɚɧɧɚɹ ɥɢɧɢɹ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɠɢɪɧɨɣ ɥɢɧɢɟɣ. Ɂɚɬɟɦ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɦ ɜɬɨɪɭɸ ɥɢɧɢɸ (ɠɟɫɬɤɚɹ ɜɫɬɚɜɤɚ), ɩɟɪɟɫɟɤɚɸɳɭɸ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɥɢɧɢɸ. ɉɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɚ ɤ ɬɨɱɤɟ ɩɟɪɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɥɢɧɢɣ. Ⱥɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɦ ɜɬɨɪɭɸ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɭ. ɉɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɦɟɧɸ ĺɉɪɨɟɤɬɵ ĺ ɋɨɯɪɚɧɢɬɶ ɤɚɤ… ɢɥɢ ɢɤɨɧɤɢ ɯɪɚɧɹɟɦ ɮɚɣɥ ɩɨɞ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɦɫɹ ɢɥɢ ɧɨɜɵɦ ɢɦɟɧɟɦ. ɫɨ- 9 ɉɟɪɟɯɨɞ ɨɬ ɫɬɪɨɤɢ ɤ ɫɬɪɨɤɟ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɥɟɜɨɣ ɤɧɨɩɤɨɣ ɦɵɲɢ ɢɥɢ ɤɥɚɜɢɲɚɦɢ-ɫɬɪɟɥɤɚɦɢ ɧɚ ɤɥɚɜɢɚɬɭɪɟ. 12

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2.1.2. ȼɜɨɞ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɮɟɪɦɵ ɉɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɦ ɩɭɧɤɬɵ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɦɟɧɸ: ĺ ɉɨɡɢɰɢɢ ĺ ɋɬɟɪɠɧɢ ĺ -ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ. ɉɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɩɥɚɧɤɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɚɬɟɥɟɣ. ȼ ɩɥɚɧɤɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɚɬɟɥɟɣ 1 ɧɚɠɢɦɚɟɦ ɤɧɨɩɤɢ: [A] (ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɚ ɤ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦ); [R] (ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɚ ɤ ɪɚɫɬɪɭ); [F] (ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɚ ɤ DXF-ɫɥɨɸ); [S] (ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɚ ɤ ɬɨɱɤɟ ɩɟɪɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɥɢɧɢɣ). ɉɨɫɥɟ ɧɚɠɚɬɢɹ ɤɧɨɩɤɢ «ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ» ɩɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɞɢɚɥɨɝɨɜɨɟ ɨɤɧɨ «ɋɜɨɣɫɬɜɚ ɫɬɟɪɠɧɟɣ». Ɍɚɤ ɠɟ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɢ ɜɜɨɞɟ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ, ɡɚɞɚɟɦ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɫɬɚɥɢ ɢ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɦ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɶ ɫɨɪɬɚɦɟɧɬɚ Ƒ160ɯ6 – ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɹɫɨɜ ɮɟɪɦɵ. ɍɝɨɥ ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɚ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ = 0º10. ȼɜɨɞ ɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɠɚɬɢɟɦ ɤɧɨɩɤɢ «ɈɄ». ɍɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɦ ɜɟɪɯɧɢɣ ɢ ɧɢɠɧɢɣ ɩɨɹɫɚ ɮɟɪɦɵ. ȼ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɨɤɧɟ ɳɟɥɱɤɨɦ ɦɵɲɢ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɦ ɨɞɧɭ ɢɡ ɥɢɧɢɣ DXF-ɩɨɞɥɨɠɤɢ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɜɟɪɯɧɢɣ ɩɨɹɫ ɮɟɪɦɵ. ɍɤɚɡɚɧɧɚɹ ɥɢɧɢɹ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɠɢɪɧɨɣ ɥɢɧɢɟɣ. Ɂɚɬɟɦ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɦ ɜɬɨɪɭɸ ɥɢɧɢɸ (ɠɟɫɬɤɚɹ ɜɫɬɚɜɤɚ), ɩɟɪɟɫɟɤɚɸɳɭɸ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɥɢɧɢɸ. ɉɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɚ ɤ ɬɨɱɤɟ ɩɟɪɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɥɢɧɢɣ. Ɉɬɦɟɱɟɧɧɚɹ ɤɪɚɫɧɵɦ ɤɜɚɞɪɚɬɨɦ ɬɨɱɤɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɬɨɱɤɨɣ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɫɬɟɪɠɧɹ. 10 Ⱦɚɧɧɵɣ ɭɝɨɥ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬ ɭɝɨɥ ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɚ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ (ɆɋɄ) ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚ ɫɬɟɪɠɧɹ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɨɝɨ ɟɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ, ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɨɤɧɟ. 13

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ɍɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɦ ɪɚɫɤɨɫɵ. Ɂɚɞɚɟɦ ɭɝɨɥ ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɚ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ = 90º11. ɉɨɜɬɨɪɧɨ ɧɚɠɢɦɚɟɦ ɤɧɨɩɤɭ «ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ», ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɦ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɶ Ƒ140ɯ4. ȼɜɨɞ ɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɠɚɬɢɟɦ ɤɧɨɩɤɢ «ɈɄ». ɉɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ DXF-ɩɨɞɥɨɠɤɢ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɦ ɨɤɧɟ ɜɜɨɞɢɦ ɪɚɫɤɨɫɵ Ɋ1 ɢ Ɋ312. Ⱥɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɨ, ɦɟɧɹɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɣ, ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɦ ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɤɨɫɵ. ɉɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ ɦɟɧɸ ɉɪɨɟɤɬɵ ĺ ɋɨɯɪɚɧɢɬɶ ɤɚɤ… ɢɥɢ ɢɤɨɧɤɢ ɩɨɞ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɦɫɹ ɢɥɢ ɧɨɜɵɦ ɢɦɟɧɟɦ. ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦ ɮɚɣɥ 11 Ⱦɚɧɧɵɣ ɭɝɨɥ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬ ɭɝɨɥ ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɚ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ (ɆɋɄ) ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɨɝɨ ɟɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ, ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɨɤɧɟ. ɉɪɢ ɡɚɞɚɧɢɢ ɧɭɥɟɜɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɭɝɥɚ ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɚ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɫɶ «s» ɆɋɄ ɪɚɫɤɨɫɨɜ ɢ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɛɨɥɶɲɢɣ ɪɚɡɦɟɪ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ, ɛɭɞɟɬ ɥɟɠɚɬɶ ɜ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɦɵ, ɱɬɨ ɧɟ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɢɫɯɨɞɧɵɦ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ. 12 Ⱦɥɹ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɝɨ ɭɞɨɛɫɬɜɚ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɫɨ ɫɬɟɪɠɧɹɦɢ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɭɟɬɫɹ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ ɢɯ, ɩɪɢɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɹɫɶ ɡɚɪɚɧɟɟ ɜɵɛɪɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɡɚɞɚɜɚɬɶ ɜɫɟ ɪɚɫɤɨɫɵ ɫɧɢɡɭ ɜɜɟɪɯ ɥɢɛɨ ɫɥɟɜɚ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɨ). 14

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