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Методическое пособие по STARK ES (POS)

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В.Н. Симбиркин, С.О. Курнавина МОДЕЛИРОВАНИЕ ЖЕЛЕЗОБЕТОННОГО КАРКАСА МНОГОЭТАЖНОГО ЗДАНИЯ В ПРОГРАММНОМ КОМПЛЕКСЕ STARK ES. РАБОТА С ПОЗИЦИОННОЙ (ПОС) МОДЕЛЬЮ. Методическое пособие Москва, 2014

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ɋɈȾȿɊɀȺɇɂȿ ȼɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ .............................................................................................................................................2 1 ɂɫɯɨɞɧɵɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ............................................................................................................................4 1.1 Ɉɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ........................................................................................................................4 1.2 Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɤɢ .......................................................................................10 2 Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ........................................................................10 2.1 ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ...................................................................................11 2.1.1 ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɧɨɣ ɩɥɢɬɵ....................................................................................11 2.1.2 ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɮɢɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ ɩɨɞ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɧɨɣ ɩɥɢɬɨɣ..........................................18 2.1.3 Ɂɚɞɚɧɢɟ ɝɪɭɧɬɨɜɨɝɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ .....................................................................................20 2.2 ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɷɬɚɠɚ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ.....................................................................................22 2.2.1 Ʉɨɩɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɢɠɟɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɷɬɚɠɚ ..................................................................22 2.2.2 Ɋɟɞɚɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɥɢɬɵ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɚ...............................................................24 2.2.3 ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɫɬɟɧ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɚ ..................................................................................................24 2.2.4 ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɣ ɜ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɢ ɢ ɫɬɟɧɚɯ................................................................27 2.2.5 Ɂɚɞɚɧɢɟ ɥɢɧɟɣɧɵɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ ɨɬ ɧɚɪɭɠɧɵɯ ɫɬɟɧ ɢ ɥɟɫɬɧɢɱɧɵɯ ɦɚɪɲɟɣ ...................29 2.2.6 Ɋɟɞɚɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ ɧɚ ɥɟɫɬɧɢɰɚɯ ɢ ɨɛɳɢɯ ɤɨɪɢɞɨɪɚɯ.................30 2.2.7 ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɛɚɥɨɤ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹ..........................................................................................32 2.3 ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ 1-ɝɨ ɷɬɚɠɚ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ...................................................................................................34 2.3.1 Ʉɨɩɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɷɬɚɠɚ..................................................................................34 2.3.2 ɍɞɚɥɟɧɢɟ ɛɚɥɨɤ ɢ ɫɬɟɧ...................................................................................................35 2.3.3 Ɂɚɞɚɧɢɟ ɩɥɢɬ ɥɨɞɠɢɣ.....................................................................................................36 2.3.4 Ɋɟɞɚɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ...........................................................................40 2.3.5 Ɂɚɞɚɧɢɟ ɥɢɧɟɣɧɵɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ ɨɬ ɦɚɫɫɵ ɨɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɣ ɥɨɞɠɢɣ ......................................41 2.3.6 ȼɜɨɞ ɨɤɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɦɨɜ ɜ ɧɚɪɭɠɧɵɯ ɞɢɚɮɪɚɝɦɚɯ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ ....................................42 2.3.7 ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɡɚɞɚɧɢɹ ɜɟɬɪɨɜɵɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ.......................43 2.4 Ʉɨɩɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɬɢɩɨɜɵɯ ɷɬɚɠɟɣ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ...................................................................................44 2.5 Ɋɟɞɚɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ ɧɚ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɦ ɷɬɚɠɟ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ............................................................45 2.5.1 Ɋɟɞɚɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɧɚ ɩɥɢɬɭ .........................................................46 2.5.2 Ɋɟɞɚɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ...........................................................................46 2.5.3 Ɋɟɞɚɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɥɢɧɟɣɧɵɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ ............................................................................49 2.5.4 Ɂɚɞɚɧɢɟ ɫɧɟɝɨɜɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ...........................................................................................50 2.6 ɂɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɲɚɛɥɨɧɚ Ʉɗ-ɫɟɬɤɢ ɞɥɹ ɩɥɢɬ ɢ ɫɬɟɧ ɧɢɠɧɢɯ ɷɬɚɠɟɣ ........................................54 3 Ƚɟɧɟɪɚɰɢɹ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨ-ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɤɚɪɤɚɫɚ .......................................................................55 4 Ⱥɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɫɩɨɫɨɛ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɢ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ...........................................................................................................58 1

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ȼɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɭɱɟɛɧɵɣ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɟɫɭɳɢɯ ɠɟɥɟɡɨɛɟɬɨɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɣ ɦɧɨɝɨɷɬɚɠɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɪɤɚɫɧɨɝɨ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ STARK ES. ɉɨɫɨɛɢɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɛɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɟɣ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɨɜ 2-4 ɤɧɢɝɢ «ɋɢɦɛɢɪɤɢɧ ȼ.ɇ., Ʉɭɪɧɚɜɢɧɚ ɋ.Ɉ. Ɋɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɞɚɱ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɣ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ STARK ES. Ɋɚɫɱɟɬ ɦɨɧɨɥɢɬɧɵɯ ɠɟɥɟɡɨɛɟɬɨɧɧɵɯ ɤɚɪɤɚɫɨɜ ɡɞɚɧɢɣ: ɍɱɟɛɧɨɟ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɟ/ ɉɨɞ. ɪɟɞ. ɘ.ɉ. ɇɚɡɚɪɨɜɚ – Ɇ.: ɐɇɂɂɋɄ ɢɦ. ȼ.Ⱥ. Ʉɭɱɟɪɟɧɤɨ, ɈɈɈ «ȿɜɪɨɫɨɮɬ», 2009. – 141 ɫ.». ȼ ɷɬɨɣ ɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɢ ɭɱɬɟɧɵ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɜɨɞɨɜ ɩɪɚɜɢɥ (ɋɉ), ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ, ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɢɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɨɣ ɤɧɢɝɢ. ɇɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɟ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɨɦ ɢ ɧɟ ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɬ ɜɫɟɯ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ. ɋɯɟɦɚ ɨɤɧɚ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɜɨɞɚ ɉɄ STARK ES ɢ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɟɝɨ ɱɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɧɢɠɟ. 12 13 9 5 6 7 14 2 11 10 8 3 14 2

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ʋ Ɉɛɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ 1 Ɋɚɛɨɱɟɟ ɨɤɧɨ 2 Ɉɤɧɨ ɛɨɤɨɜɨɝɨ ɦɟɧɸ 3 Ɉɤɧɨ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ 4 Ɉɤɧɨ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ 5 Ɉɤɧɨ ɩɪɨɫɦɨɬɪɚ 6 ɉɥɚɧɤɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɚɬɟɥɟɣ 1 7 ɉɥɚɧɤɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɚɬɟɥɟɣ 2 8 Ɉɤɧɨ ɪɟɞɚɤɬɨɪɚ 9 Ƚɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ 10 Ɉɤɧɨ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ 11 Ʉɚɬɚɥɨɝ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ 12 Ɉɤɧɨ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɦɟɧɸ 13, 14 ɉɚɧɟɥɢ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɇɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ Ɋɚɛɨɱɚɹ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɤɧɚ Ɇɟɧɸ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɂɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɟ ɨɤɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɜɨɞɚ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɣ Ɉɤɧɨ ɩɪɨɫɦɨɬɪɚ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ ɂɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɜɢɞɢɦɨɝɨ ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɚ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɫ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɟɦ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɡɭɦɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɭɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɧɢɹ (ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɚ ɤ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦ), ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ ɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ/ɪɚɡɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ Ⱥɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɵ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ Ɉɤɧɨ ɜɜɨɞɚ/ɜɵɜɨɞɚ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɦɵɯ/ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ. Ɇɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɬɟɤɫɬɨɜɵɦ ɢɥɢ ɬɚɛɥɢɱɧɵɦ. Ɍɢɩ ɪɟɞɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɮɚɣɥɟ Stark.ini, ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪ TableEditor: ɟɫɥɢ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɚ «0», ɬɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɬɟɤɫɬɨɜɵɣ ɪɟɞɚɤɬɨɪ, ɟɫɥɢ «1», ɬɨ ɬɚɛɥɢɱɧɵɣ ɍɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɜɵɜɨɞɚ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ Ɇɟɧɸ ɢɤɨɧ, ɩɨɥɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɚɬɟɥɟɣ, ɫɩɢɫɤɢ ɧɚɝɪɭɠɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɬ.ɞ. ɇɚɛɨɪ ɨɤɨɧ, ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɢɯ ɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɢ ɜɫɟɯ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ. Ɉɤɧɨ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɩɨɞɫɜɟɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɤɪɚɫɧɵɦ ɰɜɟɬɨɦ. Ʉɚɬɚɥɨɝ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɢ ɫɤɪɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɧɚɠɚɬɢɢ ɤɥɚɜɢɲɢ F5 Ɉɛɳɟɟ ɢɟɪɚɪɯɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɦɟɧɸ ɇɚɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɟɦɵɟ ɧɚɛɨɪɵ ɤɧɨɩɨɤ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɥɟɝɱɟɧɢɹ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɚ ɤ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹɦ STARK_ES 3

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1 ɂɫɯɨɞɧɵɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ 1.1 Ɉɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ Ɋɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɢɦ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ ɉɈɋ-ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɤɚɪɤɚɫɚ 11-ɷɬɚɠɧɨɝɨ (13-ɹɪɭɫɧɨɝɨ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɷɬɚɠɟɣ) ɠɢɥɨɝɨ ɞɨɦɚ, ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɦɨɧɨɥɢɬɧɨɦ ɠɟɥɟɡɨɛɟɬɨɧɟ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɨ-ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɱɟɪɬɟɠɢ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɧɚ ɪɢɫɭɧɤɚɯ ɧɢɠɟ. Ɂɞɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɞɥɹ ɜɨɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɜɨ II ɜɟɬɪɨɜɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɢɩɚ ȼ ɢ ɜ III ɫɧɟɝɨɜɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ. Ɋɚɫɱɟɬɧɚɹ ɫɟɣɫɦɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɢ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ 8 ɛɚɥɥɨɜ, ɝɪɭɧɬ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɤ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɢ II ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɋɉ 14.13330.2014. Ʉɨɥɨɧɧɵ ɤɚɪɤɚɫɚ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɩɪɹɦɨɭɝɨɥɶɧɨɟ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟ 400u600 ɦɦ, ɤɜɚɞɪɚɬɧɨɟ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟ 400u400 ɦɦ ɢ ɤɪɭɝɨɜɨɟ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɞɢɚɦɟɬɪɨɦ 500 ɦɦ. Ɍɨɥɳɢɧɚ ɧɟɫɭɳɢɯ ɫɬɟɧ, ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɫɥɭɠɚɳɢɯ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɞɢɚɮɪɚɝɦɚɦɢ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 300 ɦɦ. Ɍɨɥɳɢɧɚ ɩɥɨɫɤɢɯ ɞɢɫɤɨɜ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɣ 250 ɦɦ. ɉɥɢɬɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹ ɧɚɞ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɨɦ ɭɫɢɥɟɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɨɣ ɪɟɛɟɪ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ ɫ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚɦɢ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ 400u250 (h)1 ɦɦ (ɫɦ. ɩɥɚɧ ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ ɷɬɚɠɚ), ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɧɢɡɭ ɩɥɢɬɵ. ɇɚɪɭɠɧɵɟ ɫɬɟɧɵ ɢ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɟ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɪɨɞɤɢ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɵ ɢɡ ɥɟɝɤɢɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ ɢ ɩɨɷɬɚɠɧɨ ɨɩɟɪɬɵ ɧɚ ɩɥɢɬɵ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɣ. Ɏɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɨɦ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɫɥɭɠɢɬ ɠɟɥɟɡɨɛɟɬɨɧɧɚɹ ɦɨɧɨɥɢɬɧɚɹ ɩɥɢɬɚ ɬɨɥɳɢɧɨɣ 600 ɦɦ, ɨɩɢɪɚɸɳɚɹɫɹ ɧɚ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɝɪɭɧɬɨɜɨɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ. Ʉɥɚɫɫ ɛɟɬɨɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɧɟɫɭɳɢɯ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɣ – ȼ25, ɤɥɚɫɫ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɨɣ ɚɪɦɚɬɭɪɵ – Ⱥ500, ɤɥɚɫɫ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɚɪɦɚɬɭɪɵ – Ⱥ240. ɉɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɤɚɪɤɚɫɚ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɹɦɢ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ: ɋɉ 20.13330.2011, ɋɉ 14.13330.2014, ɋɉ 63.13330.2012, ɋɉ 22.13330.2011. 1 ɉɨɞ ɜɵɫɨɬɨɣ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɛɪɚ (250 ɦɦ) ɩɨɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɵɫɨɬɚ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɟɣ ɩɨɞ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɟɦ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɪɟɛɪɚ, ɬ.ɟ. ɪɚɡɧɢɰɚ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɩɨɥɧɨɣ ɜɵɫɨɬɨɣ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɛɚɥɤɢ ɢ ɬɨɥɳɢɧɨɣ ɩɥɢɬɵ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹ. 4

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ɬɨɱɤɚ ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɢ ɩɨɥɹɪɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɬɪɚ ɉɥɚɧ ɬɢɩɨɜɨɝɨ ɷɬɚɠɚ (ɰɜɟɬɨɦ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɟɫɭɳɢɟ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ ɤɚɪɤɚɫɚ) ɉɥɚɧ ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ ɷɬɚɠɚ (ɰɜɟɬɨɦ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵ ɧɟɫɭɳɢɟ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ ɢ ɛɚɥɤɢ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɚ) 5

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ɋɯɟɦɚ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɧɟɫɭɳɢɯ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɜ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɷɬɚɠɟ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ 6

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Ɋɚɡɪɟɡ 1-1 7

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Ɏɚɫɚɞ 1-6 ɂɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɨ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚɯ ɧɚ ɤɚɪɤɚɫ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɛɭɞɭɬ ɡɚɞɚɧɵ ɧɚ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɨɦ ɷɬɚɩɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɜ ɬɚɛɥ. 1. 8

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Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1 ɇɚɢɦɟɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ȿɞɢɧɢ ɰɚ ɢɡɦɟɪɟ ɧɢɹ ɉɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɟ ɢ ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɋɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɟɫ ɠɟɥɟɡɨɛɟɬɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɥɢɬ ɢ ɛɚɥɨɤ ɬ/ɦ3 ɋɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɟɫ ɠɟɥɟɡɨɛɟɬɨɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ ɢ ɫɬɟɧ ɬ/ɦ3 ȼɟɫ ɧɚɪɭɠɧɵɯ ɫɬɟɧ ɤɇ/ɦ ȼɟɫ ɨɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɣ ɥɨɞɠɢɣ ɤɇ/ɦ ȼɟɫ ɩɚɪɚɩɟɬɨɜ ɤɇ/ɦ ȼɟɫ ɩɨɥɨɜ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɪɨɞɨɤ (ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹ ɜɫɟɯ ɷɬɚɠɟɣ ɢ ɤɇ/ɦ2 ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɧɭɸ ɩɥɢɬɭ) ȼɟɫ ɤɪɨɜɥɢ ɤɇ/ɦ2 ȼɟɫ ɧɚɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ ɧɚ ɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɢ ɤɇ/ɦ ȼɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɧɚ ɩɥɢɬɭ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚ (ɫɥɭɠɟɛɧɵɟ ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɤɇ/ɦ2 ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ) ɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɟ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɚ (ɨɮɢɫɧɵɟ ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ) ɤɇ/ɦ2 ȼ ɥɨɞɠɢɹɯ: ɫɩɥɨɲɧɚɹ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɚɹ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚ ɤɇ/ɦ2 (ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬ 1) ɩɨɥɨɫɨɜɚɹ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚ ɜɞɨɥɶ ɤɪɚɹ ɩɥɢɬ ɥɨɞɠɢɣ, ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɚɹ ɤ ɥɢɧɟɣɧɨɣ ɤɇ/ɦ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɟ (ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬ 2) ɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹ ɠɢɥɵɯ ɷɬɚɠɟɣ: ɧɚ ɨɛɳɢɯ ɤɨɪɢɞɨɪɚɯ ɢ ɥɟɫɬɧɢɰɚɯ ɜ ɤɜɚɪɬɢɪɚɯ ɤɇ/ɦ2 ɤɇ/ɦ2 ɧɚ ɤɪɨɜɥɟ ɤɇ/ɦ2 ɋɧɟɝɨɜɚɹ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚ ɧɚ ɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɟ (ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɧɟɝɨɜɵɯ ɤɇ/ɦ2 ɦɟɲɤɨɜ) Ɋɚɫɱɟɬɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ Ʉɨɷɮ-ɬ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫ ɬɢ Ȗf (Ʉɧ) Ⱦɥɢɬɟɥɶ ɧɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ (ɄȾ)2 ɇɨɦɟɪ ɧɚɝɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɡɚɞɚɧɚ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚ 2.753 1.1 1.0 3.04 1.1 1.0 12.0 1.2 1.0 4.0 1.2 1.0 10.0 1.2 1.0 3.0 1.2 1.0 1.95 1.2 1.0 45.0 1.2 1.0 1 1 15 1 1 1 1 1 2.4 1.2 0.35 2.4 1.2 0.35 2.4 1.2 0.35 3.84 1.2 0.35 2 2 2 36 3.6 1.95 0.65 2.1…4.75 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 0.35 0.35 0 0.7 2 4 5 6 Ɍɪɟɛɭɟɬɫɹ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɤɚɪɤɚɫɚ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɳɭɸ: x ɜɵɩɨɥɧɢɬɶ ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɤɚɪɤɚɫɚ ɧɚ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ, ɜɟɬɪɨɜɵɯ (ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɢ ɩɭɥɶɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɟ) ɢ ɫɟɣɫɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ; x ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ ɨɛɳɭɸ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɤɚɪɤɚɫɚ; 2 Ʉɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɜɟɧ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸ ɩɨɧɢɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɤ ɟɟ ɩɨɥɧɨɦɭ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɸ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɋɉ 20.13330.2011. 3 Ɂɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɭɞɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɫɚ ɠɟɥɟɡɨɛɟɬɨɧɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬɚ ɚɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚ. Ɂɞɟɫɶ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɨ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ, ɪɚɜɧɨɟ 2.5*1.1=2.75 ɬ/ɦ3. 4 ɍɞɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɜɟɫ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ ɢ ɫɬɟɧ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧ ɞɥɹ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɨɬ ɦɚɫɫɵ ɲɬɭɤɚɬɭɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɥɨɹ ɢɥɢ ɨɛɥɢɰɨɜɤɢ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɬɢɯ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ. 5 ȼ ɨɛɳɟɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɫ ɪɚɡɧɵɦɢ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɥɢ ɪɚɡɧɵɦɢ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɛɵɬɶ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɵ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɠɟɧɢɹɯ. Ɂɞɟɫɶ ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɭɩɪɨɳɟɧɢɹ ɜɫɟ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɟ ɢ ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɡɚɞɚɧɵ ɜ ɨɞɧɨɦ ɧɚɝɪɭɠɟɧɢɢ; ɨɲɢɛɤɚ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɚɹ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ, ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ. ȼ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɜɫɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢɥɢ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɩɟɪɟɧɟɫɟɧɵ ɢɡ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɝɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɨɟ ɧɚ ɷɬɚɩɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɫ Ʉɗ-ɦɨɞɟɥɶɸ. 6 ɇɚɝɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ ʋ2 ɢ ʋ3 ɜ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɧɟɫɨɱɟɬɚɟɦɵɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ. 9

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x ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɦɨɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɚɪɦɚɬɭɪɵ ɜ ɠɟɥɟɡɨɛɟɬɨɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹɯ ɤɚɪɤɚɫɚ; x ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɩɪɨɝɢɛɵ ɩɥɢɬɵ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹ ɬɢɩɨɜɨɝɨ ɷɬɚɠɚ ɩɪɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɪɟɳɢɧ ɜ ɛɟɬɨɧɟ ɩɥɢɬɵ. 1.2 Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɤɢ ȼ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɤɚɪɤɚɫɚ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɛɭɞɟɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸ ɨɛɨɥɨɱɟɱɧɨ-ɫɬɟɪɠɧɟɜɭɸ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨ-ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɧɭɸ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ. ɉɪɢ ɟɟ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɟ ɛɭɞɟɦ ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɤɚɦɢ: 1) ȼ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɭɸ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɤɚɪɤɚɫɚ ɜɜɨɞɢɦ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɟɫɭɳɢɟ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ. ɋɱɢɬɚɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɷɬɚɠɧɨ ɨɩɟɪɬɵɟ ɧɚɪɭɠɧɵɟ ɫɬɟɧɵ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɪɨɞɤɢ ɧɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɤɚɪɤɚɫɚ, ɢ ɥɢɲɶ ɫɨɡɞɚɸɬ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɧɚ ɩɥɢɬɵ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɣ. 2) ɉɥɨɫɤɢɟ ɩɥɢɬɵ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɣ ɢ ɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɹ, ɩɥɢɬɭ ɪɨɫɬɜɟɪɤɚ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɟɫɭɳɢɟ ɫɬɟɧɵ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɭɟɦ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɨɥɨɱɤɢ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɦɢ ɲɟɫɬɶ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɟɣ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɵ ɜ ɭɡɥɟ, ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɫɞɜɢɝɨɜɵɯ ɞɟɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɣ ɩɨ ɬɨɥɳɢɧɟ ɨɛɨɥɨɱɤɢ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ Ɇɢɧɞɥɢɧɚ-Ɋɟɣɫɫɧɟɪɚ. 3) Ʉɨɥɨɧɧɵ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɦ ɫɬɟɪɠɧɟɜɵɦɢ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɵɦɢ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ. ɗɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ ɫɱɢɬɚɟɦ ɠɟɫɬɤɨ ɫɨɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɫ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɩɥɢɬ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɣ, ɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɹ ɢ ɩɥɢɬɨɣ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚ. 4) ɋɨɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɟɪɠɧɟɜɵɯ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɵ, ɫ ɩɥɚɫɬɢɧɱɚɬɵɦɢ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɩɥɢɬ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɣ ɷɬɚɠɟɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɭɟɦ ɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨ ɬɜɟɪɞɵɯ ɬɟɥ, ɪɟɚɥɢɡɭɸɳɢɯ ɤɢɧɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɝɢɩɨɬɟɡɭ ɨ ɧɟɞɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɯ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹɯ ɤɨɥɨɧɧ. Ɍɚɤɨɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɧɵɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɩɪɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɢ ɭɫɢɥɢɣ ɢ ɚɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɧɚɞɤɨɥɨɧɧɵɯ ɡɨɧɚɯ ɩɥɢɬ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɨɧ ɫɦɹɝɱɚɟɬ ɧɟɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ ɫɢɧɝɭɥɹɪɧɨɫɬɢ, ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɦɟɬɨɞɭ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɵɯ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ. 5) Ɋɟɛɪɚ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ, ɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɩɥɢɬɭ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹ ɧɚɞ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɨɦ, ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɭɟɦ ɫɬɟɪɠɧɟɜɵɦɢ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɵɦɢ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɩɪɹɦɨɭɝɨɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ, ɫɨɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɫ ɩɥɢɬɨɣ ɫ ɷɤɫɰɟɧɬɪɢɫɢɬɟɬɨɦ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɧɨɣ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ ɩɥɢɬɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɭɸ ɨɧɢ ɩɨɞɤɪɟɩɥɹɸɬ. ɇɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɷɤɫɰɟɧɬɪɢɫɢɬɟɬɚ, ɪɚɜɧɭɸ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɸ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɰɟɧɬɪɨɦ ɬɹɠɟɫɬɢ ɪɟɛɪɚ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɧɨɣ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɥɢɬɵ, ɜɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨ ɠɟɫɬɤɚɹ ɜɫɬɚɜɤɚ (STARK ES ɷɬɨ ɞɟɥɚɟɬ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɩɪɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɣ-ɛɚɥɨɤ ɬɢɩɚ «ɪɟɛɪɨ»). 6) ȼɟɪɯɧɸɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɭɟɦ ɭɩɪɨɳɟɧɧɵɦ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɦ. ɇɚɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɭ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɨ ɦɚɲɢɧɧɨɟ ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɥɢɮɬɨɜɨɝɨ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɦ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ. 7) Ƚɪɭɧɬɨɜɨɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɦ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɸ ɭɩɪɭɝɨɝɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ7. 8) Ɏɢɡɢɤɨ-ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɝɪɭɧɬɨɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦ ɩɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɧɨ-ɝɟɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɡɵɫɤɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɦ ɩɨ ɫɤɜɚɠɢɧɚɦ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɦ ɪɹɞ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɨɤ, ɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɯ ɜ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚɯ, ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɛɵɬɶ ɡɚɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɤɚɪɤɚɫɚ. 2 Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ Ʉɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ (ɜ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ STARK ES – «ɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ», «ɉɈɋɦɨɞɟɥɶ» ɢɥɢ «POS-ɩɪɨɟɤɬ») ɫɥɭɠɢɬ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɥɟɝɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɦɧɨɝɨɷɬɚɠɧɨɝɨ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ («ɩɨɡɢɰɢɣ») – 7 Ɍɚɤɨɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ ɩɨɞɨɲɜɵ ɜɫɟɯ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɢ ɬɨɣ ɠɟ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɬɦɟɬɤɟ. ȼ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɧɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɸ ɢɡ ɨɛɴɟɦɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɵɯ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ. 10

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ɤɨɥɨɧɧ, ɩɥɢɬ, ɛɚɥɨɤ ɢ ɬ.ɩ. Ɋɚɫɱɟɬɧɚɹ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨ-ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɧɚɹ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ («Ʉɗ-ɦɨɞɟɥɶ» ɢɥɢ «FEAɩɪɨɟɤɬ») ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɫɝɟɧɟɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɚ ɢɡ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ8. ɇɨɜɵɣ ɩɪɨɟɤɬ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɤɨɦɚɧɞ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɦɟɧɸ ĺ ɉɪɨɟɤɬɵ ĺ ɋɨɡɞɚɬɶ ɢɥɢ ɢɤɨɧɤɢ ɩɚɧɟɥɢ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ. ȼ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɦ ɨɤɧɟ ɩɨɹɜɢɬɫɹ ɞɢɚɥɨɝɨɜɨɟ ɨɤɧɨ «ɋɨɡɞɚɬɶ Ʉɗɦɨɞɟɥɶ». ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɨɤɧɟ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɦ ɨɩɰɢɸ «3D POS-ɉɪɨɟɤɬ», ɡɚɞɚɟɦ ɩɭɬɶ ɤ ɩɚɩɤɟ FEM, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɪɚɡɦɟɳɟɧ ɮɚɣɥ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ (ɛɟɡ ɩɪɨɛɟɥɨɜ), «ɂɦɹ ɮɚɣɥɚ» (ɛɟɡ ɩɪɨɛɟɥɨɜ), ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɜ ɩɨɥɟ «ɉɪɨɟɤɬ»9. ȼɵɯɨɞ ɢɡ ɞɢɚɥɨɝɨɜɨɝɨ ɨɤɧɚ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɭɬɟɦ ɧɚɠɚɬɢɹ ɤɧɨɩɤɢ «ɈɄ». ȼɫɟ ɮɚɣɥɵ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɪɚɡɦɟɳɚɬɶ ɜ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɞɥɹ ɷɬɨɣ ɰɟɥɢ ɩɚɩɤɚɯ FEM, ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɧɚ ɤɨɦɩɶɸɬɟɪɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɥɶɧɵɦ. 2.1 ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ 2.1.1 ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɧɨɣ ɩɥɢɬɵ ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɧɨɝɨ ɷɬɚɠɚ 8 Ɍɚɤɠɟ Ʉɗ-ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɚ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɩɨ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɫ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɵɦɢ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ. 9 ɉɨɥɹ «ɂɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶ» ɢ «ɉɪɢɦɟɱɚɧɢɟ» ɡɚɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɠɟɥɚɧɢɸ ɢ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ. 11

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ɉɨɫɥɟ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɧɨɜɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɦ ɨɤɧɟ ɩɨɹɜɢɬɫɹ ɞɢɚɥɨɝɨɜɨɟ ɨɤɧɨ «ɇɨɜɵɣ(ɟ) ɷɬɚɠ(ɢ)». ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɨɤɧɟ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɦ10: - ȼɵɫɨɬɚ ɷɬɚɠɚ = 4 ɦ (ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɷɬɚɠ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɶ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɥɨɫɤɭɸ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɧɭɸ ɩɥɢɬɭ, ɡɚɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɥɸɛɚɹ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ 0); - ɍɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɷɬɚɠɚ = -4 ɦ (ɨɬɦɟɬɤɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɱɢɫɬɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɚ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɷɬɚɠɚ); - Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ = 1. Ɂɚɬɟɦ ɧɚɠɢɦɚɟɦ ɤɧɨɩɤɭ «OK». ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɜɫɩɨɦɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɬɪɚ ɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɩɥɢɬɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɚ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɩɪɨɫɬɭɸ ɮɨɪɦɭ ɜ ɩɥɚɧɟ ɟɟ ɜɜɨɞ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɶ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɣ ɛɟɡ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɞɨɫɧɨɜɵ (DXF-ɮɚɣɥɚ). ɉɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɤɨɦɚɧɞ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɦɟɧɸ o Ɋɚɫɬɪ ĺ ɋɨɡɞɚɬɶ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɦ ɫɟɬɤɭ ɨɫɟɣ (ɪɚɫɬɪ) ɞɥɹ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɣ ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɧɟɫɭɳɢɯ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɣ. ȼ ɨɤɧɟ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ (ɩɨɡ. 10 ɧɚ ɫɯɟɦɟ ɨɤɧɚ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɜɨɞɚ) ɩɨɹɜɢɬɫɹ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɧɚɹ ɩɚɧɟɥɶ, ɧɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɧɚɞɨ ɧɚɠɚɬɶ ɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɚɬɟɥɶ «ɋɜɨɛ.»11 ɞɥɹ ɡɚɞɚɧɢɹ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɬɪɚ. 10 ɉɨɥɹ «ɇɚɢɦɟɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ» ɢ «Ʉɨɦɦɟɧɬɚɪɢɣ» ɡɚɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɠɟɥɚɧɢɸ ɢ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ. 11 Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɬɪɚ ɫ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦ ɲɚɝɨɦ ɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɥɶɧɵɦ ɭɝɥɨɦ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɨɫɹɦɢ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɬɶ ɩɨɥɹɪɧɵɣ ɪɚɫɬɪ (ɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɚɬɟɥɶ «ɉɨɥɹɪɧɵɣ»), ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɪɚɞɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɥɢɧɢɹɦɢ ɢ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɨɤɪɭɠɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ. Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɬɶ ɩɪɹɦɨɭɝɨɥɶɧɵɣ ɪɚɫɬɪ (ɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɚɬɟɥɶ «ɉɪɹɦ.»), ɬ.ɟ. ɛɟɫɤɨɧɟɱɧɭɸ ɫɟɬɤɭ, ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɧɭɸ ɜɡɚɢɦɧɨ ɩɟɪɩɟɧɞɢɤɭɥɹɪɧɵɦɢ ɥɢɧɢɹɦɢ ɫ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɦ ɲɚɝɨɦ. 12

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p. 14

Ɂɚɬɟɦ ɬɪɟɦɹ ɬɨɱɤɚɦɢ ɡɚɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɶ ɪɚɫɬɪɚ. ɉɨɫɥɟ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɧɢɡɭ ɜ ɨɤɧɟ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ (ɩɨɡ. 3 ɧɚ ɫɯɟɦɟ ɨɤɧɚ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɜɨɞɚ) ɧɚɞɩɢɫɢ «Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ ɬɨɱɤɭ Ɋ1, ɧɚɱɚɥɨ RST-ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ» ɢ ɳɟɥɱɤɚ ɦɵɲɶɸ ɜ ɨɤɧɟ ɪɟɞɚɤɬɨɪɚ (ɩɨɡ. 8 ɧɚ ɫɯɟɦɟ ɨɤɧɚ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɜɨɞɚ) ɡɚɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɱɚɥɨ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ (ɬɨɱɤɚ ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɢ ɪɚɫɬɪɚ). ɉɨɫɥɟ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɞɩɢɫɢ «Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ ɬɨɱɤɭ Ɋ2, ɧɚ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ R-ɨɫɢ» ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɡɚɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɵ ɬɨɱɤɢ, ɥɟɠɚɳɟɣ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɫɢ -r ɪɚɫɬɪɚ (ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɨɧɚ ɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɟɬ ɫ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɫɶɸ X). ɉɨɫɥɟ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɞɩɢɫɢ «Ɂɚɞɚɣɬɟ ɬɨɱɤɭ Ɋ3, ɜ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ R-S» ɡɚɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɵ ɥɸɛɨɣ ɬɨɱɤɢ, ɥɟɠɚɳɟɣ ɜ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɫɬɪɚ, ɧɨ ɧɟ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɫɢ –r. ȼ ɩɨɹɜɢɜɲɟɦɫɹ ɞɢɚɥɨɝɨɜɨɦ ɨɤɧɟ «Ɋɚɫɬɪ» ɡɚɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɲɚɝ ɨɫɟɣ ɜ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɨɦ (dr) ɢ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɦ (ds) ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ. ɉɨ ɭɦɨɥɱɚɧɢɸ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɨɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɟɬ ɫ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɫɶɸ X, ɚ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɟ – ɫ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɫɶɸ Y. Ʉɧɨɩɤɢ «+» ɢ «-» ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɢɥɢ ɭɞɚɥɹɬɶ ɧɟɧɭɠɧɵɟ ɫɬɪɨɤɢ, ɤɧɨɩɤɚ «v» ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɜɵɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɫɬɪɨɤ. ɉɨɥɟ «ɇɚɱɚɥɨ» ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɫɦɟɫɬɢɬɶ ɪɚɫɬɪ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɡɚɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɦ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ. ȼ ɩɨɥɟ «Alpha» ɡɚɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɭɝɨɥ ɧɚɤɥɨɧɚ ɪɚɫɬɪɚ ɜ ɡɚɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɦ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ r-ɨɫɢ ɪɚɫɬɪɚ. ȼ ɩɨɥɟ «Ars» ɡɚɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɭɝɨɥ ɧɚɤɥɨɧɚ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɯ ɨɫɟɣ ɪɚɫɬɪɚ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɵɯ. ȼɜɨɞ ɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɠɚɬɢɟɦ ɤɧɨɩɤɢ «ɈɄ». Ɍɨɱɤɚ P1 Ɍɨɱɤɚ P2 Ɍɨɱɤɚ P3 13

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p. 15

ɉɨɫɥɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɦ ɨɤɧɟ ɩɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɫɩɨɦɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɟɬɤɚ ɨɫɟɣ12. Ⱦɥɹ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɭɞɨɛɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɫɦɨɬɪɚ ɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɤɧɨɩɤɨɣ «ZOOM», ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɤɧɨɩɤɨɣ ɦɵɲɢ ɢɥɢ ɤɥɚɜɢɲɚɦɢ ɰɢɮɪɨɜɨɣ ɤɥɚɜɢɚɬɭɪɵ. ȼɜɨɞ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɧɨɣ ɩɥɢɬɵ ɉɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɦ ɩɭɧɤɬɵ ɦɟɧɸ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɦɟɧɸ (ɩɨɡ. 12 ɧɚ ɫɯɟɦɟ ɨɤɧɚ ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɜɨɞɚ): o ɉɨɡɢɰɢɢ ĺ ɉɥɢɬɚ/ɫɬɟɧɚ/ɪɚɦɩɚ ĺ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ13 ɢɥɢ ɧɚɠɢɦɚɟɦ ɧɚ ɢɤɨɧɤɭ . ȼ ɩɨɹɜɢɜɲɟɣɫɹ ɛɨɤɨɜɨɣ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɧɨɣ ɩɚɧɟɥɢ (ɩɨɡ. 10 ɧɚ ɫɯɟɦɟ) ɧɚɠɢɦɚɟɦ ɤɧɨɩɤɭ «ɉɥɢɬɚ»14. ɉɨɫɥɟ ɧɚɠɚɬɢɹ ɤɧɨɩɤɢ «ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ» ɩɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɞɢɚɥɨɝɨɜɨɟ ɨɤɧɨ «ɋɜɨɣɫɬɜɚ ɩɥɢɬɵ/ ɫɬɟɧɵ/ ɪɚɦɩɵ». 12 ɉɟɪɟɦɟɳɚɬɶ ɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɦ ɨɤɧɟ ɢ ɦɟɧɹɬɶ ɟɝɨ ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɫɬɪɟɥɨɤ ɧɚ ɰɢɮɪɨɜɨɣ ɤɥɚɜɢɚɬɭɪɟ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɤɧɨɩɤɢ ɦɵɲɢ (ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɦɵɲɢ ɩɪɢ ɧɚɠɚɬɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɤɧɨɩɤɟ ɢ ɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɤɧɨɩɤɢ). ɉɨɜɨɪɚɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɫɬɪɟɥɨɤ ɪɹɞɨɦ ɫ ɰɢɮɪɨɜɨɣ ɤɥɚɜɢɚɬɭɪɨɣ (n p m o). 13 Ⱦɥɹ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɧɭɠɧɨ ɩɨɞɜɟɫɬɢ ɦɵɲɶ ɤ ɧɭɠɧɨɦɭ ɩɭɧɤɬɭ ɦɟɧɸ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɩɨɹɜɢɬɫɹ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɟ ɟɦɭ ɦɟɧɸ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɧɢɡɤɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɢ ɬ.ɞ. ɉɪɢ ɜɵɛɨɪɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɩɭɧɤɬɚ (ɜ ɫɚɦɨɦ ɧɢɠɧɟɦ ɦɟɧɸ) ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɳɟɥɤɧɭɬɶ ɩɨ ɧɟɦɭ ɥɟɜɨɣ ɤɧɨɩɤɨɣ ɦɵɲɢ. 14 ȼɟɪɯɧɹɹ ɤɧɨɩɤɚ ɩɚɧɟɥɢ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɡɚɞɚɬɶ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ (ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ «D-1»). ɉɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɚɬɟɥɶ «ȼɢɞɢɦɵɟ ɷɬɚɠɢ» (ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɨ ɭɦɨɥɱɚɧɢɸ) ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɫɤɨɩɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɜɫɟ ɜɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɷɬɚɠɢ. ȼɨ ɢɡɛɟɠɚɧɢɟ ɨɲɢɛɨɤ ɜ ɨɛɳɟɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɟɝɨ ɥɭɱɲɟ ɨɬɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ. 14

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