Physics 30 Information Bulletin 2010-2011

 

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this document was written primarily for students teachers administrators parents general audience others of physics 30 distribution this document is posted on the alberta education website at education.alberta.ca copyright 2010 the crown in right of alberta as represented by the minister of education alberta education learner assessment 44 capital boulevard 10044 108 street nw edmonton alberta t5j 5e6 and its licensors all rights reserved special permission is granted to alberta educators only to reproduce for educational purposes and on a non-profit basis parts of this document that do not contain excerpted material excerpted material in this document shall not be reproduced without the written permission of the original publisher see credits where applicable

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contents teacher involvement in the diploma examination process 1 course objectives 2 performance expectations 2 performance standards 2 examination specifications and design 4 examination security 7 maintaining consistent standards over time on diploma examinations 7 publications and supporting documents 7 reminders and explanations 8 physics principles 8 interference pattern equations 8 lenses 8 directions 8 nuclear equations 8 wave-particle duality 9 positron 9 use of rulers or straight-edges 9 default angle units and graphing calculators 9 constants 9 numerical-response questions 9 stand-alone items with field test data and commentary 10 items in scenario with field test data and commentary 20 the numerical-response scenario on physics 30 diploma examinations 25 assessing skills on physics 30 diploma examinations 31 you can find diploma examination-related materials on the alberta education website at education.alberta.ca.

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teacher involvement in the diploma examination process high-quality diploma examinations are the product of close collaboration between classroom teachers and alberta education classroom teachers from across alberta are involved in many aspects of diploma-examination development including the development of raw items the building reviewing and administering of field tests and the reviewing of diploma examinations alberta education values the involvement of the teachers and often asks school jurisdictions for the names of teachers who are interested in participating teachers who are interested in developing raw items or building and/or reviewing field tests are encouraged to ask their principals to submit their names through proper channels to learner assessment the list of teachers interested in these aspects of the development process remains open all year long and teachers are welcome to have their names submitted at any time other opportunities to be involved such as field testing have specific closing dates general dates to be aware of include september 2010 february 2011 registration for field tests to be administered in december 2010 or january 2011 registration for field tests to be administered in may or june 2011 periodically we send out information to those physics 30 teachers who are on our contact list if you would like to be added to this list contact laura pankratz the physics 30 examination manager at laura.pankratz@gov.ab.ca formative assessment materials in addition to the opportunities described above teachers and their students can participate in the use of written-response items for formative assessment these items are designed to assess physics 30 outcomes mandated in the physics 20­30 program of studies 2007 any teacher interested in using these written-response items for formative assessment in the classroom should contact laura pankratz the physics 30 examination manager at laura.pankratz@gov.ab.ca 1

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course objectives physics 30 is intended to further students understanding and application of fundamental physics concepts and skills the focus of the course is on understanding the physics principles behind the natural events that students experience and the technology that they use in their daily lives the course encourages enthusiasm for the scientific enterprise and develops positive attitudes about physics as an interesting human activity with personal meaning it develops knowledge skills and attitudes to help students become capable of and committed to setting goals making informed choices and acting in ways that will improve their own lives as well as life in their communities to develop the required knowledge skills and attitudes in physics 30 students must have successfully completed science 10 and physics 20 performance expectations curriculum standards provincial curriculum standards help to communicate how well students need to perform in order to be judged as having achieved the objectives specified in the physics 20­30 program of studies 2007 the specific statements of standards are written primarily to apprise physics 30 teachers of the extent to which students must know the physics 30 content and be able to demonstrate the required skills in order to pass the examination performance standards acceptable standard students who achieve the acceptable standard in physics 30 will receive a final course mark of 50 or higher students achieving the acceptable standard have gained new skills and knowledge in physics but may encounter difficulties if they choose to enroll in postsecondary physics courses these students are able to define basic physics terms for example scalar vector momentum force field charging by conduction or by induction refraction diffraction interference the photoelectric effect the compton effect matterenergy equivalence nucleons nucleus decay half-life and stable energy states these students are able to state and use formulas as they appear on the equation sheet for example momentum of a single object linear momentum analysis electric force electric field magnetic deflecting force motor force angle of refraction index of refraction focal length magnification photon energy work function mass activity or percentage remaining of a radioactive nuclide photon energy and energy change associated with photon emission or absorption they can do this in situations where they need to sort through a limited amount of information their 2

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laboratory skills are limited to following explicit directions and to using laboratory data to verify known physics information they are able to identify manipulated and responding variables but not relevant controlled variables these students are able to relate graph shape to memorized relationships but their analysis of graphs is limited to linear data these students tend to use item-specific methods in their problem solving and rarely apply the major principles of physics in their solutions for example conservation laws balanced or unbalanced forces and type of motion when explaining the connections between science technology and society these students tend to use examples provided from textbooks these students have difficulty connecting physics to real-life scenarios beyond the classroom standard of excellence students who achieve the standard of excellence in physics 30 receive a final course mark of 80 or higher they have demonstrated their ability and interest in both mathematics and physics and feel confident about their scientific abilities these students should encounter little difficulty in post-secondary physics programs and should be encouraged to pursue careers in which they will utilize their talents in physics students who achieve the standard of excellence show flexibility and creativity when solving problems and minor changes in problem format do not cause them major difficulties these students are capable of analyzing situations that involve two-dimensional vectors charge motion initially perpendicular to an external electric field charge motion perpendicular to an external magnetic field and energy level values above or below given values based on photon characteristics etc they seek general methods to solve problems and are not afraid to use physics principles as a framework for their solutions in the laboratory students who achieve the standard of excellence can deal with data that are less than perfect or with instructions that are incomplete these students are able to explicitly relate graph shape to mathematical models and to physics equations they transfer knowledge from one area of physics to another and can express their answers in clear and concise terms these students are able to apply cause and effect logic in a variety of situations algebraically experimentally etc in addition these students can connect their understanding of physics to real-world situations that include technological applications and implications beyond the classroom setting 3

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examination specifications and design each physics 30 diploma examination is constructed as closely as possible to the following specifications adjustments in the emphasis may be necessary because the examination includes machine-scored scenarios or contexts that cover more than one general outcome questions on the diploma examination will require students to demonstrate knowledge of physics concepts and to apply skills in a context that supports making science technology and society sts connections the design supports the integration of all physics 30 general outcomes gos as outlined in the physics 20­30 program of studies 2007 as a result the examination is not necessarily arranged sequentially by units but is instead built around scenarios or contexts that support sts connections a set of questions may assess students ability to integrate several gos emphasis curricular fit general outcomes go a momentum and impulse students will explain how momentum is conserved when objects interact in an isolated system forces and fields students will explain the behaviour of electric charges using the laws that govern electrical interactions they will describe electrical phenomena using the electric field theory they will explain how the properties of electric and magnetic fields are applied in numerous devices electromagnetic radiation students will explain the nature and behaviour of electromagnetic radiation using the wave model they will explain the photoelectric effect using the quantum model atomic physics students will describe the electrical nature of the atom they will describe the quantization of energy in atoms and nuclei they will describe nuclear fission and fusion as powerful energy sources in nature they will describe the ongoing development of models of the structure of matter 10­20 go b 25­35 go c 25­35 go d 20­30 4

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scientific process and communication skills students will · formulate questions about observed relationships and plan investigations into questions ideas problems and issues · use a broad range of tools and techniques to record data and information · analyze data and apply mathematical and conceptual models to develop and assess possible solutions · apply the skills and conventions of science in communicating information and ideas and in assessing results science technology and society connections sts students will · explain that technological problems often require multiple solutions that involve different designs materials and processes and that have both intended and unintended consequences · explain that concepts models and theories are often used in interpreting and explaining observations and in predicting future observations · explain that scientific knowledge may lead to the development of new technologies and that new technologies may lead to or facilitate scientific discovery · explain that the goal of technology is to provide solutions to practical problems · explain that scientific knowledge is subject to change as new evidence becomes apparent and as laws and theories are tested and subsequently revised reinforced or rejected · explain that scientific knowledge and theories develop through hypotheses the collection of evidence investigation and the ability to provide explanations · explain that the goal of science is knowledge about the natural world · explain that the products of technology are devices systems and processes that meet given needs and that the appropriateness risks and benefits of technologies need to be assessed for each potential application from a variety of perspectives including sustainability 5

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the physics 30 diploma examination consists of 36 multiple-choice and 14 numerical-response items of equal weight machine-scored questions the examination contains both multiple-choice and numericalresponse questions answers for multiple-choice questions are recorded in the first section of the machine-scored answer sheet answers for numericalresponse questions are recorded in the second section on the same side of the same machine-scored answer sheet multiple-choice questions are of two types discrete and contextdependent a discrete question stands on its own without any additional directions or information it may take the form of a question or an incomplete statement a context-dependent question provides information that is separate from the question stem many of the multiple-choice questions are context dependent a particular context may be used for more than one multiple-choice question as well as for more than one numerical-response question numerical-response questions are of three types calculation of numerical values selection of numbered events structures or functions from a diagram/list and determination of a sequence of events scenarios requiring problem-solving skills each examination will have a two-question numerical-response scenario that explores problem-solving strategies the scenario will present a contextual problem that requires two physics principles and several calculations to solve there will be a context box describing a situation and a numbered list of the ten physics principles that are given on the data sheets the first numerical-response question requires the student to provide the numbers of the two physics principles in the order in which the principles are applied to support or justify the solution to the problem if there are multiple valid methods then there will be multiple correct answers which will be indicated the second numerical-response question will require the student to provide the final answer to the problem three examples of numerical-response questions are given beginning on page 25 assessment of skills and sts connections physics 30 examination questions are designed to measure students understanding of physics concepts mandated by the physics 20­30 program of studies 2007 some questions also measure students understanding and use of skills associated with scientific inquiry and some questions have been designed to measure students understanding of the connections among science technology and society as a result many questions measure how well students can apply the skills and knowledge they have acquired in science to everyday life 6

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examination security · the 2011 january and june physics 30 diploma examinations are secured at the time of writing maintaining consistent standards over time on diploma examinations a baseline examination will be established and equating will be reestablished as a result of the standard setting associated with the change in the program of studies publications and supporting documents the following documents are published by alberta education · physics 20-30 program of studies 2007 available on education.alberta.ca by following this pathway teachers programs of study programs of study science programs of study senior high physics 20-30 · physics 20 and 30 classroom-based performance standards available on education.alberta.ca by following this pathway administrators provincial testing diploma examinations diploma examination information bulletins · physics 30 information bulletin 2010­2011 available on education.alberta.ca by following this pathway administrators provincial testing diploma examinations diploma examination information bulletins · physics 30 data booklet available on education.alberta.ca by following this pathway administrators provincial testing diploma examinations · archived physics 30 information bulletins 2009­2010 and 2008­ 2009 available on education.alberta.ca by following this pathway administrators provincial testing diploma examinations diploma examination information bulletins · calculator policy available on education.alberta.ca by following this pathway administrators provincial testing diploma examinations diploma examination information bulletins · assessment highlights available on education.alberta.ca by following this pathway teachers additional programs and services diploma exams assessment highlights · diploma examination detailed reports available on the alberta education extranet learner assessment supports online assessment with the testing platform questa at http questaplus.alberta.ca 7

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reminders and explanations physics principles new three of the physics principles have been redefined 0 1 2 uniform motion fnet 0 accelerated motion fnet 0 circular motion fnet is radially inward one of the reasons for these changes is that students are continuing to mismatch the physics principle that supports their analysis of a particular situation so the descriptions here are now more closely tied to the force analysis that the students should be seeing in physics 20 a second reason is that uniformly accelerated motion the old 1 is a special case of accelerated motion using the description of fnet 0 a more valid model is created finally students continue to struggle with the free-body diagram and the force analysis associated with circular motion the two common centripetal force equations are not provided on the data sheet so that students can derive them to meet the requirements of different situations similarly this description of the relative directions that occur in circular motion may help students understand the physics that they are using note revised data sheets can be downloaded from the education site at http education.alberta.ca/admin/testing/diplomaexams.aspx interference pattern equations new the program of studies mandates that students apply two equations for interference xd and d sin many students use nl n xd exclusively and do not realize that it is a special-case nl equation which can be applied validly only when x lenses new directions new l or 10 the physics 30 diploma examination will use the terms diverging and converging when describing or classifying a lens students should be able to use and interpret conventions for directions perpendicular to the page · indicates out of page × indicates into the page the curriculum specifies that students should be able to write nuclear equations for alpha and beta decay this now includes both beta positive and beta negative decay with the appropriate neutrino and antineutrino nuclear equations 8

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wave-particle duality students will be expected to know and apply p h and e pc to determine the particle-like characteristics of photons students are expected to know the wave-like characteristics of matter but not apply h mv positron students are expected to know and use the term positron to describe the antimatter particle corresponding to the electron students should be encouraged to use a ruler or straight-edge when drawing the line of best fit students who use graphing calculators on physics 30 field tests and diploma examinations often fail to realize that the units for angle measure default to radians when the calculator memory is reset as a result these students will provide incorrect answers to questions that involve trigonometric functions students should use constants provided on the data sheet and recorded to three significant digits rather than constants stored in calculators this is important in order to obtain correct numericalresponse answers students should be familiar with the different formats of numericalresponse items and the procedure for completely filling in the bubbles on the answer sheet use of rulers or straight-edges default angle units and graphing calculators constants numerical-response questions 9

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stand-alone items with field test data and commentary 1 which of the following statements best describes an isolated system a b c d no external forces act on an isolated system only gravitational forces act on an isolated system momentum is always conserved in an isolated system kinetic energy is always conserved in an isolated system statistical performance group total high mid low a 0.765 0.825 0.779 0.701 b 0.018 c 0.129 d 0.088 the values represent the proportion that made that selection the high and low groups each contain approximately 25 of the group in this case 76.5 of the total chose a which is the correct answer 82.5 of the high group 77.9 of the middle group and 70.1 of the low group chose a commentary this question assesses the big-picture idea described in 30-a1.3k it is important to know the characteristics of a system specifically to know that if a system is isolated then it is valid to apply conservation of momentum students should know that not every system is isolated and know what characteristics must be present in an isolated system they should then be able to apply that knowledge to support a particular analysis 10

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use the following information to answer the next question two identically charged objects are placed near a point p as shown below 2 which of the following free-body diagrams drawn to scale illustrates the electrostatic forces acting on a positive test charge placed at point p statistical performance group total high mid low a 0.336 b 0.194 c 0.401 0.571 0.338 0.325 d 0.069 the values represent the proportion that made that selection the high and low groups each contain approximately 25 of the group commentary this question combines the mandated expectations of 30-b1.7k and 30b1.3s in which students will determine quantitatively the magnitude and direction of the electric force on a point charge due to two or more other point charges in a plane analyze data and apply mathematical and conceptual models to develop and assess possible solutions · use free-body diagrams to describe the electrostatic forces acting on a charge in this question students needed to determine the directions of the two forces and then apply the 12 r nature of the coulomb force to estimate the relative lengths of the force vectors 11

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